How Much Did Early Christians Refer to the Apocrypha and Other Books? – April 2008 version

 

Note that Ecclesiasticus, Sirach and “wisdom of Jesus the son of Sirach” are three names for the same book.

Rows: red = persecution of Christians, lime green = heresy, light green = schism, Pale blue = Bible manuscripts, pink = strange teacher, brown = Christians persecuting others

W = Books and quotes mentioned by name or by writer     G = Quoted as God or Lord says or God’s Word               I = Implied blank = not researched yet       X = rejected    - no reference found

S = Referred to as scripture, gospel, or by apostle(s)        E =not scripture but good to read                              Q = quotes 1 or more verses       ½  = quote of ½ verse   A = Allusion

Writer

Pages

Date A.D.

Tobit

Ju-dith

Wis-dom

Ecclus

Baruch

Bel

Susan

3 Holy

Manas

3 Esdra

Es- dra

1 Mac

2 Mac

3 Mac

4 Mac

Add Esth

Ps 151

Ps 152-3

Ps 154-5

1 En och

Sibyl

+ mention of other books

Writer

Dead Sea Scrolls

 

before 68 A.D.

Q

-

-

Q

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

Q

-

Q

Q

-

Jubilees, Epistle of Jeremiah

Dead Sea Scrolls

Jews in Palestine. Council of Jamnia 70 C.E.

 

c.400 B.C.-

X

X

X

X

X

X

X

X

X

X

X

X

X

X

X

X

-

-

-

X

X

X

Jews in Palestine. Council of Jamnia 70 C.E.

Hellenistic Jews

 

c.400 B.C.-

W

W

W

W

W

W

W

W

W

W

W

W

W

W

W

m

m

m

m

m

-

Others

Hellenistic Jews

Nero and Domitian persecute Christians

 

50 and 95/96

Est. 500K Christians. Christians were labeled atheists and publicly tortured and killed for refusing to worship the emperor and pagan idols.

Nero and Domitian persecute Christians

Clement of Rome (wrote 1 Clement)

16 ¼

97/98

-

W

W

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

Clement of Rome (wrote 1 Clement)

Ignatius disciple of John (shortest version)

13

c.100-117

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

Ignatius disciple of John (shortest version)

Trajan persecutes Christians

 

107-117

Answered Pliny the Younger’s letter. Christians are not to be sought after, but only killed if found.

Trajan persecutes Christians

Didache (=Teaching of the Twelve Apostles)

4 ¾

before 125

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

Didache (=Teaching of the Twelve Apostles)

Apology of Aristides (Greek version)

4

125 or138-161

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

Apology of Aristides (Greek version)

Quadratus of Athens fragment (apologist)

1/8

126

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

Quadratus of Athens fragment (apologist)

Letter to Diognetus (=Mathetes to Diognetus)

5 ¼

c.130

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

Letter to Diognetus (=Mathetes to Diognetus)

Hadrian persecutes Christians

 

118 & 134

Hadrian loved Greek culture, and he persecuted both Jews and Christians. The Jewish Bar Cochba revolt happened under him.

Hadrian persecutes Christians

Letter of Barnabas

12 ½

100-150

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

Letter of Barnabas

2 Clement (anonymous writer)

5 ¾

c.150

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

2 Clement (anonymous writer)

Polycarp to the Philippians

3 ½

100-155

½

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

Polycarp to the Philippians

Papias of Hierapolis, disciple of John

2

130-150

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

Papias of Hierapolis, disciple of John

“Presbyters” (Papias?)

½

-150

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

“Presbyters” (Papias?)

Bar Cochba persecutes Christians

 

135

Christians persecuted in Israel because Christians would not join the revolt.

Bar Cochba persecutes Christians

Total Apostolic Fathers – until 150 A.D.

62

-150

1

1

1

0

0

0

0

0

0

0

0

0

0

0

0

0

0

0

0

0

0

0

Total Apostolic Fathers – until 150 A.D.

Justin Martyr of Neacaesarea, Samaritan philosopher and apologist

137

138-165

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

W

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

E

Gk philosophers Philemon, Plato’s Timeaeus, Acts of Pontius Pilate

Justin Martyr of Neocaesarea, Samaritan philosopher and apologist

Shepherd of Hermas

46 ½

c.160

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

Shepherd of Hermas

Evarestus’ Martyrdom of Polycarp

5

c.169

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

Evarestus’ Martyrdom of Polycarp

Gnostic heresies become widespread

 

c.170-

Gnostics all believed the Creator was evil or foolish. Rejecting the Old Testament, they mixed Greek paganism and Christianity.

many

Gnostic heresies become widespread

Tatian, pupil of Justin, later Encratite Gnostic

18+86

Died 172

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

Tatian, pupil of Justin, later Encratite Gnostic

Dionysius of Corinth (wrote against Marcion)

1/3

170

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

Dionysius of Corinth

Hegesippus (chronicler)

2 ½

170-180

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

Hegesippus

Melito/Meleto of Sardis (Quartodecimian)

11

170-180

X

X

X

X

X

X

X

X

X

X

W

X

X

X

X

-

-

-

-

X

E

-

Melito/Meleto of Sardis (Quartodecimian)

Persecution of Marcus Aurelius

 

162/166-180

Aurelius was a Stoic philosopher. Persecution, mainly in Gaul, ended with his death.

Persecution of Marcus Aurelius

Christians of Vienna and Lugdunum (Lyons)

6 ½

177

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

Christians of Vienna and Lugdunum (Lyons)

Athenagoras (apologist)

19 ½

177

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

Q

Some truths in Hesiod, Plato, Callimachus, Pindar, Socrates

Athenagoras (apologist)

Claudius Apollinaris of Hierapolis

½

177, 160-180

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

Claudius Apollinaris of Hierapolis

Rhodon (against Marcion and Apelles)

½

180

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

Rhodon (against Marcion and Apelles)

Theophilus of Antioch ( to Autolycus)

32

168-181/188

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

E

-

Theophilus of Antioch ( to Autolycus)

Ebionites & Clementina (OT Law, Father, Son)

265 ½

-188 -

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

Ebionites & Clementina (OT Law, Father, Son)

Irenaeus of Lyons, disciple of Polycarp

262

182-188

-

-

-

-

-

-

W

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

Irenaeus of Lyons, disciple of Polycarp

Passion of the Scillitan Martyrs

¾

180-202

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

Passion of the Scillitan Martyrs

Maximus of Jerusalem (wrote on origin of evil)

5

185-196

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

Maximus of Jerusalem (wrote on origin of evil)

Polycrates of Ephesus (Quartodecimian)

½

196

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

Polycrates of Ephesus (Quartodecimian)

Caius and the Muratorian Canon

3

190-217

-

-

W

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

Caius and the Muratorian Canon

Sabellian heresy (Praxeas, Noetus, Callistus)

 

200-257-

Sabellians believed the Father, Son, and Spirit were one person. They were also called Patripassians for “passion of the Father”.

 

Sabellian heresy (Praxeas, Noetus, Callistus)

Persecution of Septimus Severus

 

202

Est. 2M Christians. Although a Christian helped him in an illness, he did not repeal existing laws against Christians. Persecution in Syria, Egypt

Persecution of Septimus Severus

Serapion of Antioch (against Marcion)

1/3

200-210

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

Serapion of Antioch (against Marcion)

Minucius Felix (The Octavius)

25

210

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

Minucius Felix (The Octavius)

Apollonius of Ephesus (against Montanists)

1

c.210

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

Apollonius of Ephesus (against Montanists)

Clement of Alexandria

424

193-217/220

W

W

Q

-

Q

-

W

-

-

-

-

½ W

½ W

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

E

-

Clement of Alexandria

Tertullian (joined the Montanist Church)

741

200-240

-

-

-

-

-

A

W

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

W

E

-

Tertullian (joined Montanist church)

Tertullian’s 5 Books Against Marcion

194

207/8

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

Tertullian’s 5 Books Against Marcion

Theodotus the probable Montanist

7 ¾

ca.240

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

W

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

Theodotus the probable Montanist

Bardaisan/Bardesan of Syria (heretical)

11 ½

-224/232

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

Bardaisan/Bardesan of Syria (heretical)

Asterius Urbanus (against Montanists)

2 ¾

c.232

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

Asterius Urbanus (against Montanists)

Elchasaite Ebionites (said Jesus God’s Son)

2 ¼

before 236

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

Elchasaite Ebionites (said Jesus God’s Son)

Hippolytus, pupil of Irenaeus (undisputed)

218

222-235/6

A

-

-

-

Q

-

W

A

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

X

X

X

-

-

-

Hippolytus, pupil of Irenaeus (undisputed)

Maximin Thrax persecutes Christians

 

235-238

First empire-wide persecution, but only of clergy. Persecution stopped when his soldiers assassinated him.

Maximin Thrax persecutes Christians

Instructions of Commodianus

16

c.240

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

Instructions of Commodianus

Julius Africanus (undisputed writings)

9

232-245

-

-

-

-

-

-

X

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

Julius Africanus (undisputed writings)

Alexander of Cappadocia (Clem. A’.s pupil)

¾

233-251

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

Alexander of Cappadocia (Clem. A’.s pupil)

Origen (heterodox teacher)

622

225-254

W

A

m

-

-

W

W

-

-

Q

-

W

W

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

Origen (heterodox teacher)

Severe persecution by Decius and Gallus

 

250-251 - 253

First Christian schism. Were Christians who sacrificed but repented eventually allowed back, or doomed forever (Novatian)?

Severe persecution by Decius and Gallus

Novatian (his schism lasted over 200 years)

38 ½

250/254-257

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

Novatian (his schism lasted over 200 years)

Anonymous Treatise Against Novatian

6 ½

254-256

-

-

-

Q

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

Anonymous Treatise Against Novatian

Anonymous Treatise on Rebaptism

11

c.250-258

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

Anonymous Treatise on Rebaptism

Cyprian of Carthage (against Novatian)

250 ¾

c.246-258

W

-

W

W

W

A

W

W

-

-

W

W

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

Cyprian of Carthage (against Novatian)

Roman church leaders (ltr 2,29,30)

1 + 4 ¾

250-251

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

Roman church leaders (ltr 2,29,30)

Caldonius to Cyprian (letter 18)

¾

250-251

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

Caldonius to Cyprian (letter 18)

Celerinus to Lucian (letter 20)

1 ¼

250-251

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

Celerinus to Lucian (letter 20)

Lucian to Celerinus (letter 21)

¾

250-251

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

Lucian to Celerinus (letter 21)

Moyses, et al. to Cyprian (letter 25)

2 ½

250

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

Moyses, et al. to Cyprian (letter 25)

Cornelius to Cyprian (letters 45,47)

1 ¼

c.246-256

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

Cornelius to Cyprian (Letters 45,47)

Maximus, et al. to Cyprian (ltr 49)

¼

c.246-256

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

Maximus, et al. to Cyprian (ltr 49)

Firmilian of Caesarea to Cyprian (74)

7 ¼

256

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

Firmilian of Caesarea to Cyprian (74)

Nemesianus, et al. to Cyprian (77)

¾

c.254-257

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

Nemesianus, et al. to Cyprian (77)

Lucius and the brethren to Cyprian (78)

½

c.254-257

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

Lucius and the brethren to Cyprian (78)

Felix & the rest of the martyrs to Cyprian (79)

¼

c.254-257

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

Felix & the rest of the martyrs to Cyprian (79)

Seventh Council of Carthage (85 bishops)

7 ¼

258

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

Seventh Council of Carthage (85 bishops)

Pontius’ The Life and Passion of Cyprian

7 ½

After 258

W

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

Pontius’ The Life and Passion of Cyprian

Valerian persecutes Christians

 

257-260

2nd most severe Roman persecution. Tolerant at first, but then general Macrianus influenced him. Stopped when Persian Shapur I captured him.

Valerian persecutes Christians

Theognostus of Alexandria (Origenist)

½

260

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

Theognostus of Alexandria (Origenist)

Gregory Thaumaturgus (undisputed works)

28 ½

240-265

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

Gregory Thaumaturgus (undisput. works)

Dionysius of Alexandria (Origenist)

39 ½

246-265

-

-

A

Q

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

Dionysius of Alexandria (Origenist)

Dionysius of Rome (Against the Sabellians)

1

259-269

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

Dionysius of Rome (Against the Sabellians)

Malchion (Against Paul of Samosata)

2 ½

270

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

Malchion (Against Paul of Samosata)

Aurelian Persecution

 

270

At first tolerant, Aurelian died soon after he decided to persecute Christians.

Aurelian Persecution

Pierius of Alexandria (fragment)

½

275

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

Pierius of Alexandria (fragment)

Archelaus  (against Manichaeans)

58 ¾

262-278

-

-

Q

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

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Archelaus (against Manichaeans)

Anatolius of Alexandria (mathematician)

7 ½

270-280

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

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W

-

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Anatolius of Alexandria (mathematician)

Theonas of Alexandria ( Letter to Lucianus)

3

282-300

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

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-

Theonas of Alexandria (bishop for 18 years)

Adamantius Dialog on the True Faith in God

c.63

c.300

W

-

 

 

-

-

-

-

 

-

 

 

 

-

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-

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-

Adamantius Dialog on the True Faith in God

Alexander of Lycopolis Of the Manichaeans

12

301

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

Alexander of Lycopolis (ex-Manichaean)

Arnobius Against the Heathen (undisputed)

126 ½

297-303

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

Plato’s Timaeus

Arnobius Against the Heathen (undisputed)

Victorinus of Petau, Austria (OT commentator)

18 ½

martyred 304

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

A

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

Victorinus of Petau in Austria

Most severe persecution was by Diocletian

 

284, 303-305

Est 5M Christians. Most severe Roman persecution of all. Leveled churches, destroyed scriptures. Killed many Christians for not sacrificing.

Most severe persecution was by Diocletian

Council of Elvira (21 undisputed canons)

c.1

306/307

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

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-

Council of Elvira (21 undisputed canons)

Phileas of Thmuis/Tmai, Egyptian Delta

2 ½

beheaded 307

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

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Phileas of Thmuis/Tmai, Egyptian Delta

Pamphilus disciple of Pierius (Origenist)

2 ¾

martyred 309

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

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Pamphilus disciple of Pierius (Origenist)

Peter of Alexandria (undisputed)

8 ½

306,285-311

-

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-

Q

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-

-

-

-

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Peter of Alexandria (against Origen & Meletius)

Methodius (corrected Origen’s followers)

86 ½

260-312

-

W

G

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A

-

W

-

-

-

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-

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Methodius (corrected Origen’s followers)

Council of Ancyra (about 12 bishops)

3 1/3

314

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

Council of Ancyra (about 12 bishops)

Council of Neocaesarea (Basil and others)

1 1/3

c.315

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

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-

Council of Neocaesarea (Basil and others)

Martyrdom of Habib the Deacon by Theophilus

5 ½

events c.315

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

Martyrdom of Habib the Deacon by Theophilus

Athanasius Against The Heathen & Incarnation

56

318

-

-

W

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

Athanasius Against The Heathen & Incarnation

Licinius persecutes Christians in the east

 

315-323

At least one of Licinius’ motive was hatred of Constantine. Licinius fought and was defeated by him a few times from 314 to 324 A.D.

Licinius persecutes Christians in the east

Alexander of Alexandria (Origenist, undisputed)

12

313-326

-

-

-

S

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

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-

Alexander of Alexandria (Origenist, undisputed)

Lactantius, tutor of Constantine’s son

305 ½

315-325/330

-

-

W

W

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

E

parts of Greek philosophy

Lactantius, tutor of Constantine’s son

Poem on the Passion of the Lord

1

315-325/330

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

Poem on the Passion of the Lord

Christian writer totals: all symbols except P’s

4164½

before 325

6-1

4-1

9-1

6-1

4-1

3-1

7-2

4-1

0-1

1-1

3-1

3½ -1

1½ -1

0-1

0-1

0

0-1

0-1

0-1

2-1

6 e

 

Christian writer totals: all symbols except P’s

Arian heresy spreads, starting in Alexandria

 

c.318-523

Arians believed that Jesus was God, but not the same substance as the Father, and there was a time when Jesus was not.

 

Arial heresy spreads, starting in Alexandria

Constantine legalizes Christianity

 

324

Non-violently closed pagan temples so that his subjects would attend churches instead

 

Constantine legalizes Christianity

Council of Nicea condemns Arianism

3

325

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

Council of Nicea condemns Arianism

Vaticanus manuscript  [B]

 

325-350

W

W

W

W

W

W

W

W

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

 

~W

-

-

-

-

-

Vaticanus manuscript  (B)

In Persia, Shapur II  persecutes Christians

 

325-381

Persecution started once Christianity became the official Roman religion. Smaller countries became Christian and allied themselves with Rome.

In Persia, Shapur II  persecutes Christians

Eusebius of Caesarea (leader at Nicea)

c.404

318-339/340

Q

-

-

A

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

Eusebius of Caesarea (present at Nicea)

Athanasius of Alexandria (leader at Nicea)

455 ½

367,325-373

E

E

E

E

W

-

W

-

X

X

X

X

X

X

X

-

-

-

-

-

-

X No others

Athanasius of Alexandria (leader at Nicea)

Arian Roman Emperor Constantius

 

337-353-361

Orthodox bishops were banished, and Athanasius had to go into hiding.

 

Arian Roman Emperor Constantius

Sinaiticus manuscript [Aleph]

 

340-350

W

W

W

W

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

W

-

-

W

 

~W

-

-

-

-

-

Sinaiticus manuscript

Council of Gangra (vs. Eustastius of Sabaste)

1 1/3

325-381

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

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Council of Gangra (vs. Eustastius of Sabaste)

Synod of Antioch in Encaeniis (97 bishops)

3 ½

341

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

Synod of Antioch in Encaeniis

Mild Arian Creed of Antioch

1

c.341-344

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

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Mild Arian Creed of Antioch

Council of Sardica (Greek) (church discipline)

5

343/344

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

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Council of Sardica (Greek) (church discipline)

Aphrahat the Syrian, Select Demonstrations

67 ¼

337-345

-

-

-

½

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

A

-

-

-

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-

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-

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-

Aphrahat the Syrian, Select Demonstrations

The Macrostitch Creed

2

c.345

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

The Macrostitch Creed

Council of Sirmium (Greek creed)

1 ½

351

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

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Council of Sirmium (Greek creed)

Synod of Seleucia in Isauria

1/5

357/358

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

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-

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Synod of Seleucia in Isauria

Arian Candidus’ Two Letters to Marius

c.4

359-362

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

Arian Candidus’ Two Letters to Marius

Marius’s Reply to Candidus (partial)

c.8

359-362

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

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Marius’s Reply to Candidus (partial)

Ephraim/Ephrem, Syrian hymn-writer (partial)

162

345-378

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

A

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

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-

Ephraim, Syrian hymn-writer, commentator

Basil of Cappadocia (unafraid Arian Emperor)

326

357-378

-

W

Q

W

W

A

-

-

-

W

-

-

W

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

Basil of Cappadocia (Origenist)

Cyril of Jerusalem (cross over Jerusalem)

154

c.349-386

-

-

W

 

 

W

W

W

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

 

 

Cyril of Jerusalem (fed poor from church funds)

Gregory of Nazianzen (leader at Constant.)

275

330-391

-

S

 

 

 

 

A

-

-

-

-

-

W

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

Gregory of Nazianzen (leader at Constant.)

Gregory of Nyssa (Origenist)

495

c.356-397

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Gregory of Nyssa (Origenist)

Arian Creed of Nica in Thrace

½

356-361

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

Arian Creed of Nica (in Theodoret’s History)

Christians killed in Alexandria and Gaza

 

361-363

Emperor Julian the Apostate reigns for 18 months and shows some toleration, yet permits pagans to persecute Christians.

Christians killed in Alexandria and Gaza

Hilary of Poitiers (taught Martin of Tours)

230

-367

-

-

S

-

W

-

W

-

-

-

-

-

S

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

Hilary of Poitiers (taught Martin of Tours)

Synod of Laodicea (in Phrygia)

4 ½

343-381

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

Synod of Laodicea (in Phrygia)

Arian Roman Valens kills Christians in east

 

370

Valens is finally killed in battle by the Goths, who had converted to Arianism, but never gained his favor

Arian Roman Valens kills Christians in east

Athanaric persecutes Orthodox Visigoths

 

369-376

Athanaric first persecuted all Orthodox Christians and Arians, but after converting to Arianism persecuted only Orthodox Christians.

Athanaric persecutes Orthodox Visigoths

First Council of Constantinople -150 bishops

3 ¾

381-382

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

First Council of Constantinople -150 bishops

Ambrose of Milan (against Arianism)

446 ¼

370-390

-

W

-

W

Q

W

W

-

-

-

W

W

W

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

Ambrose of Milan (against Arianism)

Pacian of Barcelona

c.23

342-379/392

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

Pacian of Barcelona

Luciferian schism (Lucifer of Cagliari, Sardinia)

 

361-c.399

Orthodox beliefs, except would never accept back repentant Arian/Semi-Arian clergy

 

Luciferian schism (Lucifer of Cagliari, Sardinia)

Rufinus, translator in trouble

469

374-406

-

-

-

-

-

-

W

W

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-