How Much Did Early Christians Refer to the Apocrypha and Other Books?

(October 2006 version)

 

Note that Ecclesiasticus, Sirach and “wisdom of Jesus the son of Sirach” are three names for the same book.

The red rows are persecutions of Christians during this time and green rows are heresies or major controversies. Here is the legend.

W = Books and quotes mentioned by name or by writer       G = Quoted as God said or God’s Word

B = Mentioned as scripture or by prophet(s).                Q = Quote of 1 or more verses.                                   ½  = quote of ½ a verse

A = Allusion.                                                                     - = no reference                                                         blank = not researched yet

Writer

Pages

Date A.D.

Tobit

Ju-dith

Wis-dom

Ecclus

Baruch

Bel

Susan

3 Holy

Manas

3 Esdra

Es- dra

1 Mac

2 Mac

3 Mac

4 Mac

Add Esth

Ps 151

Ps 152-3

Ps 154-5

1 En och

Other books

Writer

Nero & Domitian persecute Christians

 

50 and 95/96

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Nero & Domitian persecute Christians

Clement of Rome

16 ¼

97/98

-

W

W

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

Clement of Rome

Ignatius disciple of John (shortest version)

13

c.100-117

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

Ignatius disciple of John (shortest version)

Trajan persecutes Christians

 

107

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Trajan persecutes Christians

Didache (Teaching of the Twelve Apostles)

4 ¾

Before 125

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

Didache (Teaching of the Twelve Apostles)

Apology of Aristides (Greek version)

c.17

125 or138-161

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

Apology of Aristides (Greek version)

Quadratus of Athens fragment

1/8

126

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

Quadratus of Athens fragment

Letter to Diognetus

5 ¼

c.130

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

Letter to Diognetus

Hadrian persecutes Christians

 

118 & 134

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Hadrian persecutes Christians

Letter of Barnabas

12 ½

100-150

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

Letter of Barnabas

Polycarp to the Philippians

3 ½

100-155

½

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

Polycarp to the Philippians

Papias of Hierapolis, disciple of John

2

130-150

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

Papias of Hierapolis, disciple of John

“Presbyters” (Papias?)

½

-150

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

“Presbyters” (Papias?)

Shepherd of Hermas

46 ½

160

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

Shepherd of Hermas

Justin Martyr

137

138-165

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

W

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

~ Sibyl

Justin Martyr

Evarestus’ Martyrdom of Polycarp

5

c.169

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

Evarestus’ Martyrdom of Polycarp

Hegesippus

2 ½

170

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

Hegesippus

Dionysius of Corinth

1/3

170

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

Dionysius of Corinth

Melito/Meleto of Sardis

11

170-177/180

X

X

X

X

X

X

X

X

X

X

W

X

X

X

X

-

-

-

-

X

~ Sibyl

Melito/Meleto of Sardis

Tatian, Encratite heretic, disciple of Justin

18+86

Died 172

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

Tatian, Encratite heretic, disciple of Justin

Gnostic heresies become widespread

 

c.170

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Gnostic heresies become widespread

Persecution of Marcus Aurelius

 

177

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Persecution of Marcus Aurelius

Christians of Vienna and Lugdunum (Lyons)

6 ½

177

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

Christians of Vienna and Lugdunum (Lyons)

Claudius Apollinaris of Hierapolis

½

177, 160-180

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

Claudius Apollinaris of Hierapolis

Athenagoras

19 ½

177

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

Athenagoras

Theophilus of Antioch

32

168-181/188

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

~ Sibyl

Theophilus of Antioch

Irenaeus of Lyons, disciple of Polycarp

262

182-188

-

-

-

-

-

-

W

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

Irenaeus of Lyons, disciple of Polycarp

Rhodon

½

180

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

Rhodon

Passion of the Scillitan Martyrs

¾

180-202

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

Passion of the Scillitan Martyrs

Maximus of Jerusalem

5

185-196

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

Maximus of Jerusalem

Caius and the Muratorian Canon

3

190-217

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

Caius and the Muratorian Canon

Polycrates of Ephesus (Paschal Synod)

½

196

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

Polycrates of Ephesus (Paschal Synod)

Sabellian heresies

 

200

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Sabellian heresies

Persecution of Septimus Severus

 

202

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Persecution of Septimus Severus

Serapion of Antioch

1/3

200-210

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

Serapion of Antioch

Minucius Felix

25

210

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

Minucius Felix

Apollonius of Ephesus (against Montanists)

1

c.210

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

Apollonius of Ephesus (against Montanists)

Tertullian (Montanist)

741

200-240

-

-

-

-

-

A

W

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

W

~ Sibyl

Tertullian (Montanist

Tertullian’s 5 Books Against Marcion

194

207/8

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

Tertullian’s 5 Books Against Marcion

Clement of Alexandria

424

193-217/220

W

W

Q

-

Q

-

W

-

-

-

-

½ W

½ W

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

~ Sibyl

Clement of Alexandria

Bardaisan/Bardesan of Syria

11 ½

-224/232

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

Bardaisan/Bardesan of Syria

Asterius Urbanus (against Montanists)

2 ¾

c.232

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

Asterius Urbanus (against Montanists)

Hippolytus of Portus, disciple of Irenaeus

225

222-235/6

A

-

-

-

Q

 

W

A

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

Hippolytus of Portus, disciple of Irenaeus

Maximim persecutes Christians

 

235

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Maximim persecutes Christians

Commodianus

16

c.240

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

Commodianus

Julius Africanus

9

232-245

-

-

-

-

-

-

X

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

Julius Africanus

Second Clement

5 ¾

200-250

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

Second Clement

Alexander of Cappadocia (Clem. A’.s pupil)

¾

233-251

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

Alexander of Cappadocia (Clem. A’.s pupil)

Origen (heterodox teacher)

622

225-254

W

A

W

-

-

W

W

-

-

Q

-

W

W

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

Origen

Severe persecution by Decius - Gallus

 

250-251 - 253

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Severe persecution by Decius and Gallus

Novatian the schismatic

38 ½

250/254-256/7

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

Novatian the schismatic

Valerian continues persecuting Christians

 

253-260

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Valerian continues persecuting Christians

Anonymous Treatise Against Novatian

6 ½

c.248-258

-

-

-

Q

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

Anonymous Treatise Against Novatian

Anonymous Treatise on Rebaptism

11

c.248-258

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

Anonymous Treatise on Rebaptism

Cyprian of Carthage

270

c.246-258

W

-

W

W

W

A

W

W

-

-

W

W

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

Cyprian of Carthage

Caldonius to Cyprian (letter 18)

¾

c.246-256

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

Caldonius to Cyprian (letter 18)

Celerinus to Lucian (letter 20)

1 ¼

c.246-256

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

Celerinus to Lucian (letter 20)

Lucian to Celerinus (letter 21)

¾

c.246-256

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

Lucian to Celerinus (letter 21)

Moyses, et al. to Cyprian (letter 25)

2 ½

c.246-256

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

Moyses, et al. to Cyprian (letter 25)

Cornelius to Cyprian (letters 45,47)

1 ¼

c.246-256

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

Cornelius to Cyprian (Letters 45,47)

Maximus, et al. to Cyprian (ltr 49)

¼

c.246-256

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

Maximus, et al. to Cyprian (ltr 49)

Firmilian of Caesarea to Cyprian (74)

7 ¼

c.246-256

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

Firmilian of Caesarea to Cyprian (74)

Nemesianus, et al. to Cyprian (77)

¾

c.246-256

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

Nemesianus, et al. to Cyprian (77)

Lucius and the brethren to Cyprian (78)

½

c.246-256

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

Lucius and the brethren to Cyprian (78)

Felix & the rest of the martyrs to Cyprian (79)

¼

c.246-256

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

Felix & the rest of the martyrs to Cyprian (79)

Theognostus of Alexandria

½

260

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

Theognostus of Alexandria

Gregory Thaumaturgus (undisputed writings)

28 ½

240-265

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

Gregory Thaumaturgus (undisput. writings)

Dionysius of Alexandria (Origenist)

39 ½

246-256

-

-

A

Q

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

Dionysius of Alexandria (Origenist)

Seventh Council of Carthage (85 bishops)

7 ¼

258

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

Seventh Council of Carthage (85 bishops)

Dionysius of Rome (Against the Sabellians)

1

259-269

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

Dionysius of Rome (Against the Sabellians)

Malchion

2 ½

270

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

Malchion

Aurelian Persecution

 

270

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Aurelian Persecution

Pierius of Alexandria (fragment)

½

275

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

Pierius of Alexandria (fragment)

Archelaus  (against Manichaeans)

56

262-278

-

-

Q

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

Archelaus (against Manichaeans)

Diodorus (in Archelaus’ Disput. with Manes)

2 ¾

262-278

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

Diodorus (Archelaus’ Disput. with Manes)

Anatolius of Alexandria (mathematician)

7 ½

270-280

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

W

-

Anatolius of Alexandria (mathematician)

Theonas of Alexandria

3

282-300

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

Theonas of Alexandria

Alexander of Lycopolis Of the Manichaeans

12

301

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

Alexander of Lycopolis Of the Manichaeans

Arnobius Against the Heathen

126 ½

297-303

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

Arnobius Against the Heathen

Victorinus of Petau in Austria

18 ½

martyred 304

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

A

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

Victorinus of Petau in Austria

Phileas of Thmuis, Egypt

2 ½

martyred 307

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

Phileas of Thmuis, Egypt

Pamphilus disciple of Pierius

2 ¾

309

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

Pamphilus disciple of Pierius

Diocletian persecutes Christians

 

284, 303-305

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Diocletian persecutes Christians

Peter of Alexandria

16 ½

285-310/1

-

-

-

Q

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

Peter of Alexandria

Methodius of Olympus and Patara

86 ½

260-312

-

W

G

-

A

-

W

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

Methodius of Olympus and Patara

Alexander of Alexandria

12

313-326

-

-

-

B

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

Alexander of Alexandria

Licinius persecutes Christians in the east

 

315-323

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Licinius persecutes Christians in the east

Lactantius, tutor of Constantine’s son

305 ½

315-325/330

-

-

W

W

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

~ Sibyl

Lactantius, tutor of Constantine’s son

Poem on the Passion of the Lord

1

315-325/330

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

Poem on the Passion of the Lord

Council of Ancyra (about 12 bishops)

3 1/3

314

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

Council of Ancyra (about 12 bishops)

Council of Neocaesarea (Basil and others)

1 1/3

c.315

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

Council of Neocaesarea (Basil and others)

Total references so far

 

Up to 325

5-1

4-1

8-1

6-1

4-1

3-1

7-2

3-1

0-1

1-1

3-1

3½ -1

1½ -1

0-1

0-1

0

0

0

0

2-1

 

Total references so far

Arian heresy spreads to Alexandria

 

c.318

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Arial heresy spreads to Alexandria

Constantine Legalizes Christianity

 

324

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Constantine Legalizes Christianity

Council of Nicea condemns Arianism

3

325

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

Council of Nicea condemns Arianism

Vaticanus manuscript  (B)

 

325-350

W

W

W

W

W

W

W

W

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

 

~W

-

-

-

-

Vaticanus manuscript  (B)

Athanasius of Alexandria (leader at Nicea)

 

326-373

N

O

T

 

D

O

N

E

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Athanasius of Alexandria (leader at Nicea)

Eusebius of Caesarea (leader at Nicea)

 

318-339/340

N

O

T

 

D

O

N

E

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Eusebius of Caesarea (present at Nicea)

Arian Roman Emperor Constantius

 

337-353-361

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Arian Roman Emperor Constantius

Sinaiticus manuscript

 

340-350

W

W

W

W

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

W

-

-

W

 

~W

-

-

-

-

Sinaiticus manuscript

Cyril of Jerusalem (at Council of Constant.)

154

c.349-386

N

O

T

 

D

O

N

E

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Cyril of Jerusalem (at Council of Constant.)

Basil of Cappadocia (Origenist)

326

357-378

-

W

Q

W

W

A

-

-

-

W

-

-

W

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

Basil of Cappadocia (Origenist)

Gregory of Nazianzen (leader at Constant.)

276

330-391

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Gregory of Nazianzen (leader at Constant.)

Gregory of Nyssa (Origenist)

495

c.356-397

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Gregory of Nyssa (Origenist)

Council of Gangra

1 1/3

325-381

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

Council of Gangra

Synod of Antioch in Encaeniis

3 ½

341

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

Synod of Antioch in Encaeniis

Council of Sardica

5

343/344

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

Council of Sardica

Hilary of Poitiers (taught Martin of Tours)

230

-367

-

-

B

-

W

-

W

-

-

-

-

-

B

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

Hilary of Poitiers (taught Martin of Tours)

Synod of Laodicea

4 ½

343-381

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

Synod of Laodicea

Arian Valens kills Christians in the east

 

370

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Arian Valens kills Christians in the east

First Council of Constantinople -150 bishops

3 ¾

381

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

First Council of Constantinople -150 bishops

Ambrose of Milan (against Arianism)

446 ¼

370-390

-

W

-

W

Q

W

W

-

-

-

W

W

W

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

Ambrose of Milan (against Arianism)

Sozomon, historian

89

370/380-425

N

O

T

 

D

O

N

E

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Sozomon

Rufinus, translator and historian

88

374-406

N

O

T

 

D

O

N

E

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Rufinus

Jerome (pupil of Gregory Nazianzen)

~500

373-420

X

X

X

X

X

X

X

X

X

X

X

X

X

X

X

-

-

-

-

X

-

Jerome (pupil of Gregory Nazianzen)

Freer Gospels (Washingtonensis) (W)

 

300-450

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

Freer Gospels (Washingtonensis) (W)

Macedonian and Priscillian Heresies

 

c.383, 385

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Macedonian and Priscillian Heresies

Augustine of Hippo (pupil of Ambrose)

~4500

c.385-430

W

W

W

W

W

W

W

W

W

W

 

W

W

 

 

 

-

-

-

 

 

Augustine of Hippo (pupil of Ambrose)

Sulpicius/Sulpitius Severus (pupil of Matrin)

116 ½

363-420

-

W

-

-

-

W

W

A

-

-

-

A

A

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

Sulpicius/.Sulpitius Severus (pupil of Martin)

Council of Carthage (218 bishops)

39

393-419

W

W

I

I

X

-

-

-

X?

X?

X?

W

W

X

X

-

-

-

-

X

X (nothing else)

Council of Carthage (218 bishops)

Council of Constantinople under Nectarius

1

393

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

Council of Constantinople under Nectarius

John Chrysostom

~3000

-407

N

O

T

 

D

O

N

E

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

John Chrysostom

Patrick of Ireland

 

420-461

N

O

T

 

D

O

N

E

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Patrick of Ireland

John Cassian (father of Semi-Pelagianism)

~400

c.399-430

N

O

T

 

D

O

N

E

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

John Cassian (father of Semi-Pelagianism)

Socrates’ Ecclesiastical History

178

~400-439

N

O

T

 

D

O

N

E

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Socrates’ Ecclesiastical History

Augustine refutes Pelagian heresy

 

410-429

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Augustine refutes Pelagian heresy

Leo I of Rome

 

422-461

N

O

T

 

D

O

N

E

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Leo I of Rome

Theodoret of Cyprus (bishop & historian)

320

423-458

-

-

B

Q

Q

A

W

Q

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

Theodoret of Cyprus (bishop & historian)

Prosper of Aquitaine (Augustinian)