The Canon and How Much Did Early Christians Refer to the New Testament?

(October 2006 version)

 

   People have made lots of money selling books claiming early Christianity believed in a different Bible from today. It is not only the movie the Da Vinci Code, but other authors have made outrageous claims, based on the assumption that nobody really knows what early Christians believed anyway. Who could you tell what books early Christians recognized as scripture, without actually asking them? You could tell by observing what scriptural books they referred to when they wrote their religious letters, commentaries, and treatises. This is not a very good way, because they might consider some books scripture that they never happened to mention. (For example, if somebody tape-recorded most of your religious conversations, how often have you mentioned the book of Philemon?) Nevertheless, this method shows at a minimum some of what they accepted as scripture. Looking at the table below there are not many surprises. Note that books with few pages (in English) generally refer to only a few New Testament books, as one would expect. Early Christians referred to by name and quoted from every books of the New Testament, and they never referred to any other books as possibly being in the New Testament canon, with only a few exceptions, one of which, Tatian’s Diatessaron, was a harmony of the four gospels together that Syrians used. There were many other books out there, of Greek philosophy, paganism, and Gnostic works, but these were considered “poisons” or at the least “foreign food” to avoid. The red rows are persecutions of Christians during this time, and green rows are heresies or major controversies. Here is the legend.

W = Books and quotes mentioned by name or by writer       J = Quotes mentioned as the words of Jesus/Savior     I = Implied. ex: ‘14 letters of Paul” or “4 Gospels”

B = Mentioned as scripture, gospel, or by the apostle(s).     Q = Quote of 1 or more verses.                                   ½  = quote of ½ a verse

A = Allusion.                                                                    4G = Mention of 4 gospels,                                         - = no reference blank = not researched yet

Writer

Pages

Date A.D.

NT

Gospels

Mt

Mk

Lk

Jn

Ac

Rm

1C

2C

Ga

Ep

Pp

Cl

1Th

2Th

1Tm

2Tm

Tt

Pm

He

Jm

1P

2P

1J

2J

3J

Jude

Re

Positive reference to other book after Christ that could be scripture

Writer

Nero & Domitian persecute Christians

 

50 and 95/96

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Nero & Domitian persecute Christians

Clement of Rome

16 ¼

97/98

-

-

J

J

½

-

¼

Q

W

-

-

-

-

A

A

-

A

-

Q

-

Q

Q

Q

A

-

-

-

-

Q

-

Clement of Rome

Ignatius disciple of John (shortest version)

13

c.100-117

-

-

Q

-

-

A

-

-

¼

A

-

W

-

-

Q

-

¼

-

A

-

-

-

-

-

½

-

-

-

-

-

Ignatius disciple of John (shortest version)

Trajan persecutes Christians

 

107

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Trajan persecutes Christians

Didache (Teaching of the Twelve Apostles)

4 ¾

Before 125

-

-

Q

-

Q

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

½

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

Didache (Teaching of the Twelve Apostles)

p46 70% of Paul+Heb in 1 ms. 1,680 verses

 

100-150

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

W

W

W

W

W

W

W

W

-

-

-

-

-

W

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

p46 70% of Paul+Heb in 1 manuscript

Apology of Aristides (Greek version)

c.17

125 or138-161

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

Apology of Aristides (Greek version)

Quadratus of Athens fragment

1/8

126

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

Quadratus of Athens fragment

Letter to Diognetus

5 ¼

c.130

-

W

A

-

-

A

-

-

-

-

A

-

A

-

-

-

A

-

-

-

-

-

A

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

Letter to Diognetus

Hadrian persecutes Christians

 

118 & 134

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Hadrian persecutes Christians

Letter of Barnabas

12 ½

100-150

-

-

Q

½

Q

A

A

-

-

A

-

-

-

A

-

-

A

-

-

-

Q

A

-

A

-

-

-

-

-

-

Letter of Barnabas

Polycarp to the Philippians

3 ½

100-155

-

-

Q

½

Q

-

½

Q

Q

A

¼

Q

W

-

Q

½

Q

Q

-

-

-

-

Q

-

½

-

-

-

-

-

Polycarp to the Philippians

Papias of Hierapolis, disciple of John

2

130-150

-

-

W

W

-

½

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

A

-

A

-

-

-

?

-

Papias of Hierapolis, disciple of John

“Presbyters” (Papias?)

½

-150

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

B

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

“Presbyters” (Papias?)

Shepherd of Hermas

46 ½

160

-

-

Q

-

Q

-

½

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

½

Q

½

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

Shepherd of Hermas

Justin Martyr

137

138-165

W

W

J

J

J

J

A

-

W

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

W

-

Justin Martyr

Evarestus’ Martyrdom of Polycarp

5

c.169

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

Evarestus’ Martyrdom of Polycarp

Hegesippus

2 ½

170

-

-

A

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

Hegesippus

Dionysius of Corinth

1/3

170

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

Dionysius of Corinth

Melito/Meleto of Sardis

11

170-177/180

-

-

A

B

B

-

-

-

B

-

-

-

-

-

B

-

-

-

-

-

¼

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

Melito/Meleto of Sardis

Tatian, Encratite heretic, disciple of Justin

18+86

died 172

-

-

Q

Q

Q

Q

-

A

A

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

½

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

Tatian, Encratite heretic, disciple of Justin

Tatian’s Diatessaron (The Four)

 

170 A.D.

-

-

W

W

W

W

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

Tatian’s Diatessaron (The Four)

Gnostic heresies become widespread

 

c.170

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Gnostic heresies become widespread

Persecution of Marcus Aurelius

 

177

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Persecution of Marcus Aurelius

Christians of Vienna and Lugdunum (Lyons)

6 ½

177

-

-

-

-

Q

J

¼

¾

-

A

-

-

Q

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

Q

-

Christians of Vienna and Lugdunum (Lyons)

Claudius Apollinaris of Hierapolis

½

177, 160-180

-

W

W

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

Claudius Apollinaris of Hierapolis

Athenagoras

19 ½

177

-

-

Q

-

Q

-

-

-

B

-

-

-

-

Q

-

-

Q

-

½

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

Athenagoras

p75 (Bodmer 14/15) 808 ½ verses

 

175-225

-

-

-

-

W

W

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

p75 (Bodmer 14/15)

Theophilus of Antioch

32

168-181/188

-

W

Q

-

Q

W

Q

Q

Q

Q

-

Q

-

-

-

-

Q

-

-

-

Q

-

-

-

Q

-

-

-

Q

Shepherd of Hermas

Theophilus of Antioch

Irenaeus of Lyons, disciple of Polycarp

262

182-188

W

4G

W

W

W

W

W

W

W

W

W

W

W

W

W

W

W

W

W

-

W

Q

W

¼

W

W

-

A

W

Preaching of Peter, Hermas

Irenaeus of Lyons, disciple of Polycarp

Rhodon

½

180

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

Rhodon

Passion of the Scillitan Martyrs

¾

180-202

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

Passion of the Scillitan Martyrs

Maximus of Jerusalem

5

185-196

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

Maximus of Jerusalem

Caius and the Muratorian Canon

3

190-217

-

4G

I

I

W

W

W

W

W

W

W

W

W

W

W

W

W

W

W

W

-

-

-

-

W

W

-

W

W

Some accept Apocalypse of Peter

Caius and the Muratorian Canon

Polycrates of Ephesus (Paschal Synod)

½

196

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

Polycrates of Ephesus (Paschal Synod)

Sabellian heresies

 

200

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Sabellian heresies

Persecution of Septimus Severus

 

202

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Persecution of Septimus Severus

Serapion of Antioch

1/3

200-210

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

X Gospel of Peter

Serapion of Antioch

Minucius Felix

25

210

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

A

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

Minucius Felix

Apollonius of Ephesus (against Montanists)

1

c.210

-

-

J

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

Apollonius of Ephesus (Against Montanists)

p45 Gospels+Acts in 1 ms. 833 verses

 

200-225

 

 

W

W

W

W

W

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

p45 Gospels+Acts in 1 manuscript

Tertullian (Montanist)

741

200-240

W

W

W

W

W

W

W

W

W

W

W

W

W

W

W

W

W

W

W

-

Q

Q

W

Q

W

A

-

W

W

-

Tertullian (Montanist)

Tertullian’s 5 Books Against Marcion

194

207/8

W

W

W

W

W

W

-

-

-

-

W

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

W

patched together Gal 3:15 & 4:3

Tertullian’s 5 Books Against Marcion

Clement of Alexandria

424

193-217/220

W

W

W

W

W

W

W

W

W

W

W

B

W

W

W

B

W

W

W

-

W

Q

W

½

W

W

-

W

W

Preaching of Peter, Hermas, Gospel of the Egyptians

Clement of Alexandria

Bardaisan/Bardesan of Syria

11 ½

-224/232

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

Bardaisan/Bardesan of Syria

Asterius Urbanus (against Montanists)

2 ¾

c.232

W

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

Asterius Urbanus (against Montanists)

Hippolytus, disciple of Irenaeus

225

222-235/6

W

W

J

W

J

W

Q

W

B

W

W

B

W

W

W

W

W

Q

½

-

A

-

Q

W

W

-

-

W

W

-

Hippolytus, disciple of Irenaeus

Maximim persecutes Christians

 

235

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Maximim persecutes Christians

Commodianus

16

c.240

-

-

-

A

A

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

A

-

Commodianus

Julius Africanus

9

232-245

-

-

W

-

W

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

Julius Africanus

Second Clement

5 ¾

200-250

-

-

Q

-

Q

-

-

-

Q

-

Q

-

-

-

-

-

Q

-

-

-

-

A

Q

A

-

-

-

-

-

Gospel of the Egyptians

Second Clement

Alexander of Cappadocia (Clem. A’.s pupil)

¾

233-251

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

Alexander of Cappadocia (Clem. A’.s pupil)

Origen (heterodox teacher)

622

225-254

W

4G

W

W

W

W

W

W

W

W

W

W

W

W

W

W

W

W

W

-

W

Q

W

?

W

-

-

W

W

~ Hermas (disputed)

Origen

Severe persecution by Decius - Gallus

 

250-251 - 253

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Severe persecution by Decius and Gallus

Novatian the schismatic

38 ½

250/254-256/7

W

-

J

-

W

W

¾

W

W

W

W

W

B

B

-

-

W

-

Q

-

-

-

-

-

W

-

-

-

-

-

Novatian the schismatic

Valerian continues persecuting Christians

 

253-260

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Valerian continues persecuting Christians

Anonymous Treatise Against Novatian

6 ½

c.248-258

-

-

J

-

J

W

-

Q

Q

-

-

B

B

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

Q

½

-

-

Q

-

-

-

W

-

Anonymous Treatise Against Novatian

Anonymous Treatise on Rebaptism

11

c.248-258

W

-

-

W

W

-

W

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

W

-

-

-

-

-

Anonymous Treatise on Rebaptism

Cyprian of Carthage

270

c.246-258

-

W

W

W

W

W

W

W

W

W

W

W

W

W

W

W

W

W

W

-

A

-

W

W

W

W

-

-

W

-

Cyprian of Carthage

Caldonius to Cyprian (letter 18)

¾

c.246-256

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

Caldonius to Cyprian (letter 18)

Celerinus to Lucian (letter 20)

1 ¼

c.246-256

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

Celerinus to Lucian (letter 20)

Lucian to Celerinus (letter 21)

¾

c.246-256

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

Lucian to Celerinus (letter 21)

Moyses, et al. to Cyprian (letter 25)

2 ½

c.246-256

-

-

J

-

-

-

-

B

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

A

-

-

-

-

½

-

Moyses, et al. to Cyprian (letter 25)

Cornelius to Cyprian (letters 45,47)

1 ¼

c.246-256

-

-

½

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

Cornelius to Cyprian (letters 45,47)

Maximus, et al. to Cyprian (ltr 49)

¼

c.246-256

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

Maximus, et al. to Cyprian (ltr 49)

Firmilian of Caesarea to Cyprian (74)

7 ¼

c.246-256

-

-

J

½

J

J

-

Q

B

B

W

B

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

W

-

W

-

-

-

-

-

Firmilian of Caesarea to Cyprian (74)

Nemesianus, et al. to Cyprian (77)

¾

c.246-256

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

Nemesianus, et al. to Cyprian (77)

Lucius and the brethren to Cyprian (78)

½

c.246-256

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

Lucius and the brethren to Cyprian (78)

Felix & the rest of the martyrs to Cyprian (79)

¼

c.246-256

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

Felix & the rest of the martyrs to Cyprian (79)

Theognostus of Alexandria

½

260

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

Theognostus of Alexandria

Gregory Thaumaturgus (undisputed writings)

28 ½

240-265

-

-

J

Q

Q

-

-

-

B

-

-

Q

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

½

-

Gregory Thaumaturgus (undisput. writings)

Dionysius of Alexandria (Origenist)

39 ½

246-256

-

W

W

W

W

W

W

B

W

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

W

-

-

Q

-

-

W

W

W

-

*

-

Dionysius of Alexandria (Origenist)

Seventh Council of Carthage (85 bishops)

7 ¼

258

-

-

Q

-

-

-

B

-

-

½

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

W

-

-

-

-

Seventh Council of Carthage (85 bishops)

Dionysius of Rome

1

259-269

W

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

Dionysius of Rome

Malchion

2 ½

270

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

A

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

Malchion

Aurelian Persecution

 

270

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Aurelian Persecution

Pierius of Alexandria (fragment)

½

275

-

-

-

-

W

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

Pierius of Alexandria (fragment)

Archelaus (against Manichaeans)

56

262-278

W

-

J

-

J

Q

-

Q

W

W

W

W

W

W

W

-

Q

A

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

Archelaus (against Manichaeans)

Diodorus (in Archelaus’ Disput. with Manes)

2 ¾

262-278

W

W

J

½

Q

-

-

W

-

W

W

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

Diodorus (Archelaus’ Disput. with Manes)

Anatolius of Alexandria (mathematician)

7 ½

270-280

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

Anatolius of Alexandria (mathematician)

Theonas of Alexandria

3

282-300

-

-

-

A

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

½

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

Theonas of Alexandria

Alexander of Lycopolis Of the Manichaeans

12

301

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

Alexander of Lycopolis Of the Manichaeans

Arnobius Against the Heathen

126 ½

297-303

-

-

-

-

-

A

-

-

A

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

Arnobius Against the Heathen

Victorinus of Petau in Austria

18 ½

martyred 304

W

4G

W

B

W

W

A

W

B

-

W

W

W

W

-

W

W

-

-

-

-

-

W

-

-

-

-

-

W

-

Victorinus of Petau in Austria

Phileas of Thmuis, Egypt

2 ½

martyred 307

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

½

-

-

-

-

-

Phileas of Thmuis, Egypt

Pamphilus disciple of Pierius

2 ¾

309

-

-

-

-

W

-

W

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

Pamphilus disciple of Pierius

Diocletian persecutes Christians

 

284, 303-305

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Diocletian persecutes Christians

Peter of Alexandria

16 ½

285-310/1

-

-

J

-

-

J

½

½

-

A

-

Q

W

-

-

-

W

-

-

-

-

A

-

-

Q

-

-

-

-

-

Peter of Alexandria

Methodius of Olympus and Patara

86 ½

260-312

-

W

J

½

Q

Q

Q

B

W

B

W

W

½

A

W

-

Q

-

A

-

A

-

½

-

-

-

-

-

W

-

Methodius of Olympus and Patara

Alexander of Alexandria (Origenist)

12

313-326

-

-

J

-

J

W

-

W

W

Q

W

-

-

W

-

-

W

½

-

-

Q

-

-

-

-

Q

-

-

-

-

Alexander of Alexandria (Origenist)

Licinius persecutes Christians in the east

 

315-323

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Licinius persecutes Christians in the east

Lactantius, tutor of Constantine ’s son

305 ½

315-325/330

W

-

Q

A

Q

W

A

A

-

-

-

½

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

A

-

-

A

½

-

-

-

W

-

Lactantius, tutor of Constantine’s son

Poem on the Passion of the Lord

1

315-325/330

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

Poem on the Passion of the Lord

Council of Ancyra (about 12 bishops)

3 1/3

314

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

Council of Ancyra (about 12 bishops)

Council of Neocaesarea (Basil and others)

1 1/3

c.315

-

-

-

-

-

-

W

-

-

-