The Canon and How Much Did Early Christians Refer to the Old Testament?

(October 2006 version)

 

It is agreed that early Christians accepted the Old Testament, but it is interesting to compare the documented references of the Old Testament to the New. This chart showed who referred to which Old Testament passages and when. The apocrypha and pseudepigrapha are listed in a separate chart. The red rows are persecutions of Christians during this time, and green rows are heresies and controversies. Here is the legend.

W = Books and quotes mentioned by name or by writer       G = Quoted as God says or God’s Word                     g = Mentions Kings with no allusion or reference

B = Mentioned as scripture or by prophet(s).                Q = Quote of 1 or more verses.                                   ½  = quote of ½ a verse

A = Allusion.                                                                     - = no reference                                                         blank = not researched yet

Writer

Pages

Date A.D.

OT

Law

Gn

Ex

Lv

Nm

Dt

Josh

Jdg

Ru

1Sam

2Sam

1Ki

2Ki

1Chr

2Chr

Ezr

Neh

Esth

Job

Ps

Pr

Ec

SofS

Isa

Jer

Lam

Eze

Dan

12

Hos

Joel

Am

Ob

Jon

Mic

Nah

Hab

Zeph

Hag

Zech

Mal

Writer

Nero and Domitian persecute Christians

 

50 and 95/96

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Domitian persecutes Christians

Clement of Rome

16 ¼

97/98

-

-

B

G

-

Q

Q

Q

-

-

-

-

A

-

-

-

-

-

W

B

W

G

-

-

Q

-

-

G

A

-

-

-

-

-

A

-

-

B

-

-

-

½

Clement of Rome

Ignatius disciple of John (shortest version)

13

c.100-117

-

-

-

-

-

A

A

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

G

-

-

Q

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

Ignatius disciple of John (shortest version)

Trajan persecutes Christians

 

107

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Trajan persecutes Christians

Didache (Teaching of the Twelve Apostles)

4 ¾

Before 125

-

-

-

Q

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

Didache (Teaching of the Twelve Apostles)

Apology of Aristides (Greek version)

c.17

125 or138-161

-

W

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

Apology of Aristides (Greek version)

Quadratus of Athens fragment

1/8

126

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

Quadratus of Athens fragment

Letter to Diognetus

5 ¼

c.130

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

Q

Letter to Diognetus

Hadrian persecutes Christians

 

118 & 134

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Hadrian persecutes Christians

Letter of Barnabas

12 ½

100-150

-

-

G

W

W

-

W

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

W

-

-

-

G

G

-

G

B

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

B

B

G

-

Letter of Barnabas

Polycarp to the Philippians

3 ½

100-155

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

Q

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

Polycarp to the Philippians

Papias of Hierapolis, disciple of John

2

130-150

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

Papias of Hierapolis, disciple of John

“Presbyters” (Papias?)

½

-150

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

“Presbyters” (Papias?)

Shepherd of Hermas

46 ½

160

-

-

-

-

-

A

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

A

-

-

A

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

A

-

Shepherd of Hermas

Justin Martyr

137

138-165

-

-

W

W

W

W

W

W

-

-

A

Q

W

-

-

-

-

-

-

W

W

W

-

-

W

W

-

W

W

W

W

B

W

-

W

W

-

-

-

-

W

W

Justin Martyr

Evarestus’ Martyrdom of Polycarp

5

c.169

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

Evarestus’ Martyrdom of Polycarp

Hegesippus

2 ½

170

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

W

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

Hegesippus

Dionysius of Corinth

1/3

170

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

Dionysius of Corinth

Melito/Meleto of Sardis

11

170-177/180

W

-

W

W

W

W

W

W

W

W

W

W

W

W

W

W

-

X

X

W

W

W

W

W

W

W

-

W

W

W

-

-

-

-

-

W

-

W

-

-

-

-

Melito/Meleto of Sardis

Tatian, Encratite heretic, disciple of Justin

18+86

Died 172

-

-

A

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

½

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

Tatian, Encratite heretic, disciple of Justin

Gnostic heresies become widespread

 

c.170

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Gnostic heresies become widespread

Persecution of Marcus Aurelius

 

177

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Persecution of Marcus Aurelius

Christians of Vienna and Lugdunum (Lyons)

6 ½

177

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

A

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

Christians of Vienna and Lugdunum (Lyons)

Claudius Apollinaris of Hierapolis

½

177, 160-180

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

Claudius Apollinaris of Hierapolis

Athenagoras

19 ½

177

-

-

A

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

B

-

-

W

W

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

Athenagoras

Theophilus of Antioch

32

168-181/188

-

-

W

G

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

Q

W

W

-

-

W

W

-

W

-

-

W

W

-

-

-

-

-

W

-

-

W

W

Theophilus of Antioch

Irenaeus of Lyons, disciple of Polycarp

262

182-188

W

-

W

W

½

W

W

W

A

-

Q

Q

Q

A

-

-

-

-

-

-

W

W

-

A

W

W

A

W

W

-

W

B

B

-

W

Q

-

W

-

-

W

W

Irenaeus of Lyons, disciple of Polycarp

Rhodon

½

180

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

Rhodon

Passion of the Scillitan Martyrs

¾

180-202

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

Passion of the Scillitan Martyrs

Maximus of Jerusalem

5

185-196

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

Maximus of Jerusalem

Caius and the Muratorian Canon

3

190-217

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

Caius and the Muratorian Canon

Polycrates of Ephesus (Paschal Synod)

½

196

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

Polycrates of Ephesus (Paschal Synod)

Sabellian heresies

 

200

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Sabellian heresies

Persecution of Septimus Severus

 

202

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Persecution of Septimus Severus

Serapion of Antioch

1/3

200-210

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

Serapion of Antioch

Minucius Felix

25

210

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

Minucius Felix

Apollonius of Ephesus (against Montanists)

1

c.210

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

Apollonius of Ephesus (against Montanists)

Tertullian (Montanist)

741

200-240

W

W

W

W

W

W

W

W

W

-

A

A

Q

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

W

W

W

W

W

W

Q

W

W

W

W

W

W

-

W

W

W

W

-

A

W

W

Tertullian (Montanist

Tertullian’s 5 Books Against Marcion

194

207/8

W

W

W

G

G

G

W

A

-

-

W

A

A

A

-

-

-

-

-

A

W

-

W

W

W

W

-

W

W

-

W

W

W

-

W

W

W

W

-

-

W

W

Tertullian’s 5 Books Against Marcion

Clement of Alexandria

424

193-217/220

-

-

W

Q

W

B

W

W

W

-

W

Q

W

Q

-

-

-

-

W

W

W

W

W

-

W

W

W

W

W

-

W

W

W

-

W

W

Q

W

W

B

W

W

Clement of Alexandria

Bardaisan/Bardesan of Syria

11 ½

-224/232

-

-

A

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

Bardaisan/Bardesan of Syria

Asterius Urbanus (against Montanists)

2 ¾

c.232

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

Asterius Urbanus (against Montanists)

Hippolytus, disciple of Irenaeus

225

222-235/6

W

W

W

W

-

W

W

Q

-

-

W

-

Q

A

A

W

-

-

-

W

W

W

W

W

W

W

-

W

W

-

Q

-

W

-

-

W

-

-

-

-

½

W

Hippolytus, disciple of Irenaeus

Maximim persecutes Christians

 

235

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Maximim persecutes Christians

Commodianus

16

c.240

-

W

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

A

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

Commodianus

Julius Africanus

9

232-245

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

Julius Africanus

Second Clement

5 ¾

200-250

-

-

B

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

W

B

-

W

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

Second Clement

Alexander of Cappadocia (Clem. A’.s pupil)

¾

233-251

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

Alexander of Cappadocia (Clem. A’.s pupil)

Origen (heterodox teacher)

622

225-254

W

W

W

W

W

W

W

B

W

-

B

Q

W

W

W

-

A

-

W

W

W

W

W

W

W

W

W

W

W

W

W

W

Q

-

-

B

-

W

W

W

W

W

Origen

Severe persecution by Decius - Gallus

 

250-251 - 253

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Severe persecution by Decius and Gallus

Novatian the schismatic

38 ½

250/254-256/7

W

-

W

W

-

-

W

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

½

-

-

-

-

W

-

-

-

W

-

-

A

-

-

W

W

½

-

-

-

-

W

-

-

W

-

Novatian the schismatic

Valerian continues persecuting Christians

 

253-260

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Valerian continues persecuting Christians

Anonymous Treatise Against Novatian

6 ½

c.248-258

-

-

W

W

-

W

W

-

-

-

Q

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

W

-

-

-

W

W

-

W

W

-

-

Q

-

-

-

Q

-

-

B

-

W

-

Anonymous Treatise Against Novatian

Anonymous Treatise on Rebaptism

11

c.248-258

W

-

-

-

-

W

-

-

W

-

-

-

W

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

Anonymous Treatise on Rebaptism

Cyprian of Carthage

270

c.246-258

W

-

W

W

W

W

W

W

W

-

W

W

W

W

-

W

-

Q

-

W

W

W

W

W

W

W

Q

W

W

-

W

W

W

-

-

W

W

W

W

W

W

W

Cyprian of Carthage

Caldonius to Cyprian (letter 18)

¾

c.246-256

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

Caldonius to Cyprian (letter 18)

Celerinus to Lucian (letter 20)

1 ¼

c.246-256

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

Celerinus to Lucian (letter 20)

Lucian to Celerinus (letter 21)

¾

c.246-256

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

Lucian to Celerinus (letter 21)

Moyses, et al. to Cyprian (letter 25)

2 ½

c.246-256

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

Moyses, et al. to Cyprian (letter 25)

Cornelius to Cyprian (letters 45,47)

1 ¼

c.246-256

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

Cornelius to Cyprian (letters 45,47)

Maximus, et al. to Cyprian (ltr 49)

¼

c.246-256

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

Maximus, et al. to Cyprian (ltr 49)

Firmilian of Caesarea to Cyprian (74)

7 ¼

c.246-256

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

W

Q

B

-

Q

Q

-

-

W

W

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

Firmilian of Caesarea to Cyprian (74)

Nemesianus, et al. to Cyprian (77)

¾

c.246-256

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

Nemesianus, et al. to Cyprian (77)

Lucius and the brethren to Cyprian (78)

½

c.246-256

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

Lucius and the brethren to Cyprian (78)

Felix & the rest of the martyrs to Cyprian (79)

¼

c.246-256

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

Felix & the rest of the martyrs to Cyprian (79)

Theognostus of Alexandria

½

260

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

Theognostus of Alexandria

Gregory Thaumaturgus (undisputed writings)

28 ½

240-265

-

-

B

-

-

-

W

A

-

-

B

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

A

-

-

W

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

Gregory Thaumaturgus (undisput. writings)

Dionysius of Alexandria (Origenist)

39 ½

246-256

-

-

Q

A

-

-

Q

-

-

-

-

-

A

-

-

-

-

-

-

B

W

Q

Q

-

W

-

-

A

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

Dionysius of Alexandria (Origenist)

Seventh Council of Carthage (85 bishops)

7 ¼

258

-

-

½

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

½

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

W

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

Seventh Council of Carthage (85 bishops)

Dionysius of Rome (Against the Sabellians)

1