Pre-Nicene Teaching on Apologetics Grid – Sept. 2019 version

 

 

Legend for Cells

Ap1. Answering questions of others Mk10:17-21; Lk12:14-17; 1Cor7

Ap11. Moses is older than Homer

W = Wrote explicitly on this teaching

Ap2. Answering alleged contradictions

Ap12. Psalm 2 refers to Christ

I = Implied this is true or opposite is false

Ap3. Answering false moral accusations

Ap13. Psalm 22 refers to Christ

N = Implied since accepted Nicene Creed

Ap4. Using questions Hag1:4,5,9; 2:11-13;Mal 3:7,8; Jn 10:34; 11:9

Ap14. Psalm 45 refers to Christ

J = Mentioned as by Jesus, not John

Ap5. Nature witnesses to God Ps 19; Rom 1:18-20

Ap15. Psalm 110:1-12 can only refer to Christ

Q = Quote of 1 or more verses

Ap6. Appeal to science

Ap16. Isaiah 7:14 refers to Christ

m = Mixed: some agree, others did not

Ap7. First Cause (cosmological argument)

Ap17. Isaiah 53 refers to Christ

½  = quote of ½ a verse  A = Allusion

Ap8. Only One is supreme

Ap18. Daniel’s 70 weeks messianic prophecy

P = partial

Ap9. Appeal to historians Josh 10:13; 2 Sam 1:18; Num 21:14

Ap19. Micah 5 refers to Christ

- = no reference found

Ap10. Using chronology in apologetics

Ap20. Zechariah 12:10-12 refers to Christ

X = Disagree     blank = not researched yet

Rows: blue=Bible manuscript, white=Christian writer, khaki=spurious, green=heresy, orange=schism, pink=strange writer, yellow=foreign missions, red=Christians persecuted, brown=Christians persecuting

Christian writer, heretic, or Bible manuscript

Pages

Date A.D.

Ap1

Ap2

Ap3

Ap4

Ap5

Ap6

Ap7

Ap8

Ap9

Ap10

Ap11

Ap12

Ap13

Ap14

Ap15

Ap16

Ap17

Ap18

Ap19

Ap20

Nero and Domitian persecute Christians

 

50 & 95/96

est. 500K Christians. Labeled atheists & killed for refusing to worship emperor/idols

Clement of Rome (wrote 1 Clement)

16.25

96/98

-

-

-

W

W

-

-

-

-

-

-

W

W

-

W

-

W

-

-

-

An estimated 500,000 Christians

By 100 A.D.

According to the Ante-Nicene Fathers vol.4 p.126

Papias of Hierapolis, disciple of John

2

95-110

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-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

“Presbyters” (Papias?)

0.5

-95-117

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-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

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-

Ignatius disciple of John (shortest version)

13

c.100-117

-

-

-

W

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

Trajan persecutes Christians

 

107-117

Answered Pliny the Younger’s letter. Christians not hunted, but killed if found.

Didache (=Teaching of the Twelve Apostles)

4.75

c.60-120

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

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-

Apology of Aristides (Greek version)

4

125or138-161

-

-

-

-

W

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

Quadratus of Athens fragment (apologist)

0.125

126

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

Epistle of Barnabas

12.5

c.70-130

-

-

-

W

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

W

-

W

-

W

-

-

-

Hadrian persecutes Christians and Jews

 

118 & 134

Hadrian loved Greek culture, and he persecuted both Jewish and Christian people.

Testaments of the Twelve Patriarchs

29

70-135

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-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

Bar Cochba persecutes Christians

 

135

Christians persecuted in Israel because they would not join Bar Cochba’s revolt.

p52 Jn 18:31-33,37f-38 (5 verses)

-138

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-

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2 Clement (anonymous writer)

5.75

120-140

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

W

-

-

-

W

-

-

-

p87 Phm 13-15,24-25

100-150

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

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-

-

p46 Chester Beatty II - (70%) Paul, Heb (1,680 verses)

100-150

W

W

-

W

-

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-

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-

W

-

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-

Akhmin Apocalypse of Peter (Greek)

2

135,100-150

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

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-

-

p104 Mt 21:34-37,43-45(?)

150

-

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p98 Revelation 1:13-2:1 (9 verses)

150?

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

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-

-

Polycarp to the Philippians

3.5

100-155

-

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-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

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-

-

-

-

-

-

Epistle to Diognetus (=Mathetes to Diognetus)

5.25

c.130-200

-

-

-

W

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

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-

-

-

-

Apostolic fathers totals: all symbols except P

67.5

-155

0

0

0

4

2

0

0

0

0

0

0

1

3

0

2

0

3

0

0

0

The Epistle of the Apostles. Against Cerinthus, Simon, and Gnostics. Canonical in the Ethiopic Orthodox Tawahedo Church

9.8

2nd century

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Gospel of Mary (ms. p463 is 200-250 A.D.)

1

2nd century

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

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-

Shepherd of Hermas

46.5

c.115-155

-

-

-

W

-

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-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

Justin Martyr, philosopher, apologist

116.5

c.138-165

-

-

-

W

-

W

-

-

-

W

W

W

W

W

W

W

W

-

-

P

Evarestus Martyrdom of Polycarp

5

c.169

-

-

-

W

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

Marcion of Pontus, pupil of Cerdo/Cerdon. Apelles & Prepon from Marcion.

before 170-

Gnostics believed Creator was evil or foolish, rejected Old T., mixed in paganism.

Menander then Satorninos/Saturnilus (ascetic Gnostics)

c.150-4th cen.

Cerdo & Menander from Simon in Acts. Encratite gnostics came from Saturnilus.

Dionysius of Corinth (wrote against Marcion)

0.333

170

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

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-

Tatian's Diatessaron

86

c.172

-

-

-

W

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

Tatian, Encratite Gnostic later

18

c.172

-

-

-

W

-

-

-

-

W

-

P

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

Basilides & his pupil Isidorus, changed from Menander 's teaching

2.5

132-135-4th

-

-

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-

-

-

-

-

-

-

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-

-

-

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-

-

-

Sethians/Borborites (libertine Gnostics)

20

c.150-4th cen.

W

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

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Hermetic Gnostics (no mention of Christ)

6

c.150-4th cen.

-

-

-

-

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-

-

-

-

-

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-

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-

Valentinians including Heracleon, Colorbasus, Marcus, & Ptolemy

23+12

c.150-4th cen.

-

-

-

-

W

-

-

-

W

-

-

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-

-

-

Other gnostics: Cainites, Carpocrates, Docetics, Peretae, Cerinthus, Dositheus, Monoimus, Hermogenes, Marcillinians, Melchisedecians, Nicolaus, Ophites, Secundus/Epiphanes

37

c.150-4th century

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

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-

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-

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-

p66 Bodmer II Papyri - 92% of John (817 verses)

c.125-175

W

 

 

W

-

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-

-

-

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-

-

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-

-

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-

-

-

p4 Luke 1:58-59; 1:62-2:1,6-7; 3:8-4:2,29-32,34-35; 5:3-8; 5:30-6:16 p64 Mt 26:7-8,10,14-15,22-23,31-33 p67 Mt 3:9,15; 5:20-22,25-28 (95 verses)

c.150-175

-

 

 

-

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-

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-

p90 Jn 18:36-19:7 (11 verses)

c.175

-

-

-

-

-

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-

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-

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-

Christians of Vienna and Lugdunum (Lyons)

6.5

177

-

-

W

W

-

-

-

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-

-

-

-

-

-

W

-

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-

Athenagoras (apologist)

33.5

177

-

-

W

W

W

W

W

-

W

-

P

-

-

-

W

-

-

-

-

-

Persecution of Marcus Aurelius

 

162/166-180

Stoic philosopher. Persecution, mainly in Gaul, ended when he died.

Melito/Meleto of Sardis (Quartodecimian)

11

170-177

-

-

-

W

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

W

-

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-

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-

Claudius Apollinaris of Hierapolis

0.5

160-177/180

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

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-

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-

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-

Hegesippus (chronicler)

2.5

170-180

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

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-

-

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-

-

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Rhodon (against Marcion and Apelles)

0.5

180

-

-

-

W

-

-

-

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-

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-

-

-

-

-

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-

Theophilus of Caesarea

.125

180

-

-

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-

-

-

-

-

-

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-

-

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-

-

-

-

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-

Theophilus of Antioch ( to Autolycus)

32

168-181/188

W

W

W

W

W

-

-

W

W

W

W

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

Ebionite Clementine Homilies (Law, Father, Son)

123.5

-188-

W

-

-

W

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

P

-

-

-

-

-

-

Ebionite Letter of Peter to James

2

-188-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

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-

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-

Ebionite Letter of Clement to James

4.5

-188-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

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-

-

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Early Christians warning about Ebionites

1

182-325

-

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-

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Irenaeus Proof of Apostolic Preaching

22.75

c.160-202

-

-

-

-

-

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-

-

-

-

-

W

W

-

W

W

W

-

W

-

Irenaeus of Lyons, disciple of Polycarp

262

182-188

-

-

-

W

-

-

P

-

W

-

-

W

W

W

W

W

-

W

-

W

Pantaenus of Alexandria visited India

189

Visited the Malankara church in India. They used the Gospel of Matthew in Hebrew.

Gospel of Peter (Serapion finally against it)

2

180-190

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

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-

Maximus of Jerusalem (wrote on origin of evil)

5

185-196

-

-

-

W

-

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-

-

-

-

-

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-

-

-

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Polycrates of Ephesus (Quartodecimian)

0.5

196

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

p32 (=P. Rylands 5) Titus 1:1-15; 2:3-8 (21 verses)

150-200

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

p103/p77 Mt 13:55-57; 14:3-5; 23:30-39 (10 verses)

200

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

p23 James 1:10-12, 15-18 (7 verses)

ca.200

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

An estimated 2 million Christians

by 200 A.D.

According to the Ante-Nicene Fathers vol.4 p.126

Passion of the Scillitan Martyrs -died 180 A.D.

0.75

180-202

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

Caius and the Muratorian Canon

3

190-217

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

Sabellian heresy (Praxeas, Noetus)

c.200-257-

Patripassians believed the Father, Son, & Spirit were one person.

Zephyrinus & Callistus of Rome (adoptionists)

199-222

God came upon the human man Jesus. Callistus excommunicated Sabellius.

Persecution of Septimus Severus

202

est. 2M Christians. A Christian helped him when ill, but did not repeal existing laws.

Passion of Perpetua and Felicitas

7

c.201/205

-

-

-

-

-

-

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-

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Acts of Paul and Thecla (Tertullian said faked by a presbyter)

6

before 207

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

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-

Romans kill first known martyrs in Britain

209

Alban, Julius, and Aaron were formerly thought killed in 304/5 A.D.

Epitaph of Abercius of Hieropolis in Phrygia Salutaris

0.125

190-210

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

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Serapion of Antioch (against Marcion)

1/3

191/200-210

W

-

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-

-

-

-

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-

-

-

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Minucius Felix (The Octavius)

25

210

W

W

W

W

W

W

-

W

W

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

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-

Apollonius of Ephesus (against Montanists)

1

c.210

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

Judah the Prince compiles the Jewish Mishnah

 

189-217

Oral traditions of the Pharisees were written down & became part of the Talmud

Clement of Alexandria Stromata

245.75

193-202

-

-

-

W

W

W

W

W

W

W

W

P

P

P

W

-

-

W

-

-

Clement of Alexandria Exhort. to the Heathen

34.75

c.195

-

-

-

W

-

-

-

-

-

-

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-

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Clement of Alexandria (remainder)

109

193-217/220

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-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

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-

-

-

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Tertullian (joined the Montanist Church)

692.75

198-220

-

W

W

W

-

-

-

-

W

-

P

W

W

W

W

W

-

W

W

W

Tertullian’s 5 Books Against Marcion

194

207/208

-

-

-

W

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

W

W

W

W

-

W

-

-

W

Tertullian: On Monogamy, On Modesty

41.25

208-220

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

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-

-

-

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-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

p75 Lk 3:18-22; etc. Jn 1:1-11:45,etc. (1,166 verses)

175-225

W

-

-

W

-

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-

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0189 Acts 5:3-21 (earliest N.T. parchment) (19 verses)

175-225

-

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-

-

-

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p45 Chester Beatty I, 4 gospels + Acts (833 verses)

200-225

W

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W

-

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-

-

-

-

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Green Collection #425 Rom 9:18-21 some Rom 10

early 3d cent.

-

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-

W

-

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-

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-

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-

-

-

-

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p29 Acts 26:7-8,20 (3 verses)

200-225

-

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-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

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-

-

p30 1 Th 4:12-13,16-17, 5:3,8-10,12-18,25-28; 2 Th 1:1-2; 2:1,9-11 (25 verses)

early 3rd cent.

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

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-

-

-

-

-

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-

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Ebionite Recognitions of Clement (=Sinai Epitome)

134

211-231

W

-

-

W

W

W

-

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-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

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Bardaisan/Bardesan of Syria (heretical). Against Marcion & Valentinus.

11.5

154-224/232

W

-

-

W

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

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-

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Asterius Urbanus (against Montanists)

2.75

c.232

-

-

-

W

-

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-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

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-

Elchasaite Ebionites (said Jesus God’s Son)

2.25

before 235

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

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-

-

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Theodotus of Byzantium (Jesus born only a man)

0.5

before 235

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

Justin's Book of Baruch -Moses,Heracles,Christ

2.5

188-235

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

Naaseni Gnostics & their Gospel of Thomas

3+6

188-235

-

-

-

W

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

Hippolytus, pupil of Irenaeus (undisputed)

218

222-235/236

-

-

W

W

W

-

-

-

-

W

-

W

-

P

W

-

W

W

W

-

Maximin Thrax persecutes Christians

235-238

First empire-wide persecution, but only of clergy. It stopped when he was killed.

Narrative of Zosimus

4.5

before 240

W

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

Theodotus the probable Montanist

7.75

ca.240

-

-

-

-

W

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

Instructions of Commodianus

16

c.240

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

Julius Africanus (undisputed writings)

9

232-245

-

 

-

-

-

-

-

-

W

W

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

W

-

-

Ebionite Protoevangelium of James

6

145-248

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

Heraclas of Alexandria 1st to be called a pope

 

232-249

No Roman bishop called a pope until the Council of Arles I in 314 A.D., Next was 347 A.D.. Siricius c.384-399 was the first Roman bishop to call himself a pope.

p137 Mk 1:7-9,16-18

150-250

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-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

"Revised Valentinian" Tripartite Tractate

11

200-250

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

p13 Heb 2:14-5:5;10:8-22;10:29-11:13;etc. 114 verses

225-250

-

 

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

p5 Jn 1:23-31,33-40; 16:14-20;20:11-17,19-20,22-25

early 3rd cent.

-

 

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

Martyrdom of the Holy Martyrs

1.5

before 250

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

p1, Mt 1:1-9,12,14-20 (17 verses)

250

-

 

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

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-

p22 Jn 15:25-16:2; 16:21-32 (17 verses)

c.250

-

 

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

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-

p91 Acts 2:30-37; 2:46-47; 3:1-2

250

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

p118 Rom 15:26-27,32-33; 16:1,4-7,11-12

250

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

p119 Jn 1:21-28,33-38,42-44

250

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

p121 Jn 19:17-19,25-26

250

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

p129 1 Cor 7:36-39;8:10;9:3,14-17;9:27-10:6

250

-

 

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

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-

-

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-

p131 Rom 9:18-21; 9:22-10:3

250

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

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p133 1 Tim 3:13-4:8  (12 verses)

3rd century

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Nag Hamadi Apocalypse of Peter

2.5

3rd century

-

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-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

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-

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-

pseudo-Clement Two Epistles on Virginity

5.75+5

3rd century

-

-

-

-

-

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-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

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-

Hermias Satire on Greek Philosophers

4.2

3rd century?

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Acts of Xanthippe, Polyxena, and Rebecca

12.5

mid 3rd cent?

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

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-

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-

-

-

-

-

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-

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Alexander of Cappadocia (Clem. A’.s pupil)

0.75

233-251

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

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-

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-

pseudo-Justin Martyr (anonymous works)

20.5

233-251

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Sentences of Sextus (partial)

2

before 253

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

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-

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Origen (heterodox teacher)

562

225-253/254

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W

I

-

W

W

W

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W

W

P

W

W

W

W

W

W

-

Origen’s Prayer, Exhortation to Martyrdom

180

233-235

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

W

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

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-

Severe persecution by Decius and Gallus

250-251 - 253

1st Christian schism. Could fallen Christians return or doomed forever – Novatian

First Christian monks and hermits

250-251

Peter the Hermit and others. Antony of Egypt (270-356 A.D.) was a bit later.

Novatian (his schism lasted over 200 years)

38.5

250/254-257

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-

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W

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-

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W

W

W

W

W

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Treatise Against Novatian

6.5

254-256

-

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-

-

-

-

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-

-

-

-

-

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-

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Treatise on Rebaptism

11

c.250-258

-

-

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-

Cyprian of Carthage (against Novatian)

250.5

c.246-258

W

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-

W

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-

-

-

-

-

W

-

-

W

W

W

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W

Roman church leaders (letters 2,29,30)

1+4.75

250-251

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

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-

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Lucian et al. (letters 16, 21)

.875

250-251

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

Caldonius to Cyprian (letter 18)

0.75

250-251

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

Celerinus to Lucian (letter 20)

1.25

250-251

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

Moyses, et al. to Cyprian (letter 25)

2.5

250

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

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-

Cornelius to Cyprian (letters 45,47)

1.75

c.246-256

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

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-

Maximus, et al. to Cyprian (letter 49)

0.25

c.246-256

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

Firmilian of Caesarea to Cyprian (letter74)

7.25

256

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

Nemesianus, et al. to Cyprian (letter77)

0.75

254-257

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

Lucius and the brethren to Cyprian (letter78)

0.5

254-257

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

Felix & the rest of the martyrs to Cyprian (79)

0.25

254-257

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

Seventh Council of Carthage (85 bishops)

7.25

258

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

P

-

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-

-

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-

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-

Pontius’ The Life and Passion of Cyprian

7.25

258

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

Valerian persecutes Christians

257-260

2nd most severe persecution. Tolerant at first, but then Macrianus influenced him.

Theognostus of Alexandria (Origenist)

0.5

260

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

Gregory Thaumaturgus (undisputed works)

28.5

240-265

-

-

-

W

-

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-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

Dionysius of Alexandria (Origenist)

39.5

246-265

-

-

-

W

W

W