What Nicea to Ephesus Christians Taught

July 13, 2018 version - unfinished

 

Here is a consensus of what four or more writers said, and none contradicted, from Nicea (325 A.D.) to the Council of Ephesus (431 A.D.) and beyond. You can read the quotes and context of them at http://www.ccel.org.

Bible Importance *

B1. Study or obey God’s Word as an authority *

B2. Old Testament has God’s words; study it *

B3. The Old Testament prophesied about Jesus *

B4. Jesus superseded some Old Testament laws *

B5. New Testament has God’s words; study it *

B6. Some parts of the Bible are allegorical *

B7. Old Testament has types of Christ *

B8. Melchizedek was a type of Christ *

B9. Joshua was a type of Christ *

B10. The prophets were until John *

B11. Veil on many when read Moses/OT *

B12. We can understand Scripture *

B13. Acknowledge Bible copyist errors *

B14. We are to believe Scripture *

B15. O.T. said the Messiah had to suffer/die *

B16. Dual meaning of some prophecies *

B17. Don’t twist/corrupt meaning of Scripture *

B18. The Law was excellent or good *

B19. Scripture is called the Word of God *

B20. Scripture is Holy/Sacred *

B21. Divine Scripture *

B22. Some corrupted [copies of] Scripture *

B23. Law was a shadow of the gospel/things to come *

B24. Scripture was/is fulfilled *

B25. Unbelievers don’t understand OT/scripture *

B26. Meditate on God’s Word/commands *

B27. Scripture is inspired *

B28. Lion both good and bad in scripture *

B29. Search the scriptures *

OLD TESTAMENT canon *

OTc1. The Law and the prophets *

OTc2. Genesis is scripture *

OTc3. Exodus is scripture or God said *

OTc4. Leviticus is Scripture or God says *

OTc5. Numbers is Scripture or God says *

OTc6. Deuteronomy is scripture or God says *

OTc7. Joshua is Scripture or the Lord says *

OTc8. 1 or 2 Samuel is scripture or God says *

OTc9. Reference to 1 or 2 Kings as Kings *

OTc10. Reference to 1 or 2 Chronicles as Chronicles *

OTc11. Job is scripture or the Lord says *

OTc12. Psalms are scripture or God/Spirit spoke *

OTc13. Proverbs are scripture or the Lord says *

OTc14. Isaiah is scripture or the Lord/Spirit says *

OTc15. Jeremiah is scripture or the Lord says *

OTc16. Ezekiel is scripture or the Lord says *

OTc17. Daniel is scripture or God showed *

OTc18. Hosea is scripture or God/the Word says *

OTc19. Joel is scripture or God says *

OTc20. Amos is scripture or God said *

OTc21. Micah is scripture *

OTc22. Habakkuk is scripture or God says *

OTc23. Zechariah is scripture or God says *

OTc24. Malachi is scripture or God/Spirit says *

OTc25. The Twelve [Minor Prophets] *

OTc26. Use of the term "Old Testament" *

OTc27. The Old Testament is scripture *

OTc28. The Ten Commandments / Decalogue *

NEW TESTAMENT canon *

NTc1. Matthew is scripture *

NTc2. Mark is scripture or God said *

NTc3. Luke is scripture or God said *

NTc4. John is scripture *

NTc5. Acts is scripture *

NTc6. Paul’s letters are authoritative *

NTc7. Romans is scripture *

NTc8. 1 Corinthians is scripture *

NTc9. 2 Corinthians is Scripture *

NTc10. Galatians is scripture *

NTc11. Ephesians is scripture *

NTc12. Philippians is scripture *

NTc13. Colossians is scripture *

NTc14. 1 Thessalonians is Scripture *

NTc15. 1 Timothy is Scripture *

NTc16. 2 Timothy is Scripture *

NTc17. Titus is scripture *

NTc18. Revelation is scripture or the Lord says *

NTc19. Using the term "New Testament" *

NTc20. The "New Testament" is Scripture *

OLD TESTAMENT AUTHORS *

OTa1. OT has writing in Hebrew *

OTa2. Moses wrote the Law [Pentateuch] *

OTa3. Moses wrote Genesis *

OTa4. Moses wrote Exodus *

OTa5. Moses wrote Leviticus *

OTa6. Moses wrote Numbers *

OTa7. Moses wrote Deuteronomy *

OTa8. David a writer of Psalms *

OTa9. Solomon a writer of Proverbs *

Ota10. Solomon, writer of Ecclesiastes *

OTa11. Isaiah wrote or said Isaiah *

OTa12. Jeremiah wrote or said Jeremiah *

OTa13. Ezekiel is by Ezekiel *

OTa14. Daniel spoke or wrote Daniel *

OTa15. Hosea wrote or spoke Hosea *

OTa16. Joel wrote Joel *

OTa17. Amos wrote Amos *

OTa18. Micah wrote or said Micah *

OTa19. Habakkuk wrote Habakkuk *

OTa20. Zephaniah is by Zephaniah/Sophonias *

OTa21. Zechariah wrote Zechariah *

OTa22. Malachi wrote Malachi *

NEW TESTAMENT AUTHORS *

NTa1. At least 1 NT word originally in Greek *

NTa2. Matthew wrote the Gospel of Matthew *

NTa3. Mark wrote the Gospel of Mark *

NTa4. Luke wrote the Gospel of Luke *

NTa5. John wrote the Gospel of John *

NTa6. Luke wrote Acts *

NTa7. Paul wrote Romans *

NTa8. Paul wrote 1 Corinthians *

NTa9. Paul wrote 2 Corinthians *

NTa10. Paul wrote Galatians *

NTa11. Paul wrote Ephesians *

NTa12. Paul wrote Philippians *

NTa13. Paul wrote Colossians *

NTa14. Paul wrote 1 Thessalonians *

NTa15. Paul wrote 2 Thessalonians *

NTa16. Paul wrote 1 Timothy *

NTa17. Paul wrote a 2nd letter to Timothy *

NTa18. Paul wrote Titus *

NTa19. Peter wrote 1 Peter *

NTa20. John wrote 1 John *

NTa21. Jude wrote Jude *

NTa22. The evangelists [gospel writers] *

God’s TranscendEnce *

G1. There is only One True God *

G2. Living God *

G3. God / Jesus before birth was incorporeal *

G4. God is holy, good, or pure *

G5. God does not speak lies / is Truth *

G6. God is a Father *

G7. The Trinity: one God in three ‘Persons’ *

G8. God is the Father of all [things] *

G9. God/The Father is perfect *

G10. Sun / beam / ray analogy of the Trinity *

G11. Majesty or glory of God *

G12. God is a jealous God *

G13. Genesis 1:26 refers to the Father & Son *

G14. God is Light *

G15. The God of Jesus / Christ *

G16. God’s Holy Name *

G17. The Godhead *

G18. God is a consuming fire *

G19. God is blessed *

G20. God is Spirit *

G21. Fragrance of Heaven/God/Christ/Holy Spirit *

G22. God is not in everything (pantheism is wrong) *

G23. God fills heaven and earth *

God’s Eternal Power *

Ge1. God is everywhere *

Ge2. God is almighty (omnipotent) *

Ge3. God is sovereign / God’s sovereignty *

Ge4. The Most High God *

Ge5. God is above all *

Ge6. God or His power is incomparable *

Ge7. God does not change / is unchangeable *

Ge8. God is uncreated *

Ge9. God is eternal *

Ge10. God had no beginning / was unoriginated *

Ge11. God is incorruptible *

Ge12. God is the Ancient of Days *

Ge13. God / Jesus is immortal *

Ge14. God is inscrutable/unsearchable *

Ge15. God knows all / even the secret things *

Ge16. God is all-seeing *

Ge17. God is invisible *

Ge18. God is Lord of heaven and earth *

Ge19. Calling God "I Am" *

God’s IMMINENCE *

Gi1. God is worthy *

Gi2. God needs nothing from us *

Gi3. God is just / not unjust *

Gi4. God will judge/reward people’s secrets / secret things *

Gi5. God punishes *

Gi6. God is not mocked *

Gi7. God sends evildoers delusion(s) *

Gi8. God can be offended *

Gi9. God is merciful *

Gi10. God wants repentance not sinner’s death *

Gi11. God / Christ is heals /is healer *

Gi12. God is our protector *

Gi13. God is our refuge *

Gi14. God is our deliverer *

Gi15. God/Christ rejoices over us *

Gi16. Calling God Abba, Father *

Gi17. God of Abraham *

Gi18. God of Isaac *

Gi19. The God of Jacob *

Gi20. God of Israel *

Gi21. God is patient or long-suffering *

Gi22. God is compassionate *

Gi23. God loves us or is kind *

Gi24. God avenges *

Gi25. Christians and Jews/Israel/Moses worship the same God *

Gi26. Abraham’s [Three] Visitors *

Gi27. The Lord/God is faithful / trustworthy *

Gi28. The Creator is our / the True God *

Gi29. God is the Lawgiver *

Gi30. God has numbered the hairs on your head *

Gi31. The Holy One of Israel *

Gi32. God of the living *

Gi33. God resists the proud *

Gi34. God is generous *

Timeless Truths of Jesus Christ *

T1. Jesus is the Son of God *

T2. Jesus is the Only Begotten Son of God *

T3. The Deity of Jesus our Lord *

T4. Jesus is the Word of God *

T5. The Son existed from ages past *

T6. All things were created through Christ / the Son of God *

T7. Jesus obedient or subject to the Father *

T8. Worship, praise, or glorify Jesus *

T9. Inseparable/Father in Son or Son in Father *

T10. Christ at right hand of God/the Father *

T11. No one knows the Father except the Son and those revealed *

T12. Father and Son are distinct *

T13. The Word was distinct from the Father at Creation *

T14. Son in the bosom of the Father *

T15. An Equality of the Father and Son *

T16. God the Son *

T17. Specifically "Jesus" is the Only-Begotten / Son / Word / son of man *

T18. Specifically "Jesus Christ" is the Only-Begotten / Son *

T19. Specifically "Christ" is the Only-Begotten / Son / Son of man *

T20. Specifically the Son is God *

T21. The head of Christ is God *

T22. Christ had the Spirit of wisdom and understanding *

T23. Jesus and the Father are One *

T24. Jesus [Ad]ministered His Father’s will *

T25. Jesus anointed with the oil of gladness/joy *

Jesus Before ministry *

Jb1. Virgin birth of Christ *

Jb2. Incarnation of the Word/Jesus *

Jb3. Christ emptied Himself *

Jb4. Jesus took the form of a servant *

Jb5. Word was made/became flesh *

Jb6. Jesus humbled Himself *

Jb7. Jesus Christ was a real, sinless man *

Jb8. Jesus of the tribe of Judah *

Jb9. Jesus was born in Bethlehem *

Jb10. Jesus brought up by Joseph *

Jb11. Jesus’ earthly father was a carpenter *

Jb12. Jesus [and His family] went to Egypt *

Jb13. Jesus from Galilee *

Jb14. Jesus on earth was plain-looking *

Jb15. Christ, the Logos, the Son was obedient or learned obedience *

Jb16. Jesus was baptized *

Jb17. Jesus fasted for 40 days *

Jb18. Jesus hungered *

Jesus’ ministry *

Jm1. Jesus went to Capernaum *

Jm2. Jesus found/called Nathanael *

Jm3. Jesus ministered in Galilee *

Jm4. Jesus called/chose the Twelve *

Jm5. Jesus went through Samaria/Samaritan woman *

Jm6. Jesus said destroy the temple in 3 days… *

Jm7. Jesus’ answer to John *

Jm6. The Transfiguration *

Jm9. Jesus rode into Jerusalem on a donkey *

Jm10. Christ drove out the money-changers *

Jm11. Jesus was questioned *

Jm12. The Last Supper *

Jm13. Christ prayed that this cup would pass *

Jm14. Jesus arrested / seized *

Jm15. Jesus washed His disciples’ feet *

Jesus’ Passion and Beyond *

Jp1. Some despised Christ *

Jp2. Jesus was mocked *

Jp3. Jesus was crucified or died on the cross *

Jp4. Cross’s shape or outstretched arms *

Jp5. Jesus was hung on a tree [the cross] *

Jp6. The wood of the cross *

Jp7. Sign of the cross *

Jp8. Calling the crucifixion the Passion *

Jp9. Christ’s crown of thorns *

Jp10. Jesus was beaten/scourged/whipped *

Jp11. They cast lots for Jesus’ clothes *

Jp12. Jesus given vinegar and gall to drink *

Jp13. Thief/robber on the cross in Paradise *

Jp14. Jesus asked God why God had forsaken Him *

Jp15. Darkness or earthquake at Jesus’ death *

Jp16. Temple veil torn when Jesus died *

Jp17. Jesus’ bones were not broken *

Jp18. Jesus rose from the dead *

Jp19. Jesus rose on/after three days *

Jp20. Jesus ascended to heaven *

TIMELESS TitleS of Jesus *

t1. Jesus is the/our Lord *

t2. King of Kings and/or Lord of Lords *

t3. Jesus is the Alpha and Omega *

t4. Jesus is the Door or Gate *

t5. Christ is the Image of God *

t6. Jesus is the/our Rock/Stone/Cornerstone *

t7. Jesus is the Light or Light of Light *

t8. Jesus is our Shepherd *

t9. Jesus Christ is the Lamb of God *

t10. Jesus is a Lion / as a lion’s whelp *

t11. Son/Jesus was/was begotten before the morning star *

t12. Jesus/the cross the wisdom and power of God *

t13. Christ is the Holy One of God *

t14. Jesus / the Son is the Logos *

t15. [Christ] the King/Lord of glory *

INCARNATE TitleS of Jesus *

i1. Jesus is the first-born (not just of Mary) *

i2. Christ is the Second/Last Adam *

i3. Jesus called Emmanuel (God with us) *

i4. Jesus is our High Priest *

i5. Jesus is our Physician/Doctor *

i6. Jesus is the Way *

i7. Jesus is the Truth *

i8. Jesus is our/the Life *

i9. Jesus is the Bread or Bread of Life *

i10. Jesus is the Vine *

i11. Jesus is the Messiah *

i12. Jesus a star rising out of Jacob *

i13. Christ is of the root of Jesse *

i14. Jesus is the descendent/seed of David *

i15. Jesus of Nazareth *

i16. Jesus is the first fruits *

i17. Jesus is the son of Abraham *

i18. The sign of Jonah refers to Jesus *

i19. Christ is the/our bridegroom *

Purpose Of the Life of Jesus *

p1. Jesus sent by the Father *

p2. Jesus/Christ came to save us/is our Savior *

p3. Jesus was tempted *

p4. Jesus sent to suffer [for us] *

p5. Christ is the end/fulfillment of the law *

p6. Jesus is Lord of the Sabbath *

p7. Jesus is our Redeemer / redeemed us *

p8. Christ finished His work *

p9. Jesus forgives us / remits sins *

p10. Jesus: the/One Mediator (between God & man) *

p11. Jesus bore our sins *

p12. Jesus bore the curse for us *

p13. Christ suffered shame/disgrace *

p14. Jesus was a ransom *

p15. Christ reconciled us *

p16. Christ overcame/triumphed *

p17. Grace and truth by Jesus Christ *

p18. Jesus revealed the Father to us *

p19. Jesus the Paschal Lamb *

p20. Jesus baptized with the Holy Spirit & fire *

p21. Jesus provided purification *

p22. Jesus gives us living water *

p23. Jesus came to save the lost *

p24. Jesus/Christ rescued us *

p25. Do the will of the One who sent Him *

p26. In 1 Jn 2:1 Jesus is our sins’ propitiation *

p27. The Son / Jesus gives life *

p28. Jesus called sinners to repentance *

p29. Jesus came to save His people from their sins *

The Holy Spirit *

H1. Mention of the Holy Spirit *

H2. The Holy Spirit is God *

H3. Person of the Holy Spirit *

H4. Glorify/worship the Holy Spirit *

H5. The Holy Spirit is distinct *

H6. Holy Spirit called Spirit of truth *

H7. Holy Spirit addressed as "He" *

H8. Sevenfold spirit or seven spirits *

H9. The Holy Spirit/Comforter was promised *

H10. Jesus sent the Holy Spirit *

H11. Paraclete or Holy Spirit already present *

H12. Blasphemy against the Holy Spirit *

H13. Holy Spirit dwells/lives in us *

H14. Live in the Spirit *

H15. We can grieve the Holy Spirit *

H16. The Divine Spirit *

THE HOLY SPIRIT’s WORK *

Hw1. The Power of the Holy Spirit *

Hw2. God’s Spirit moved over abyss/waters *

Hw3. The Holy Spirit spoke Scripture *

Hw4. Sword of the Spirit is the word of God *

Hw5. Christ born of Mary by the Holy Spirit *

Hw6. Holy Spirit appeared as a dove *

Hw7. Holy Spirit came down at Pentecost *

Hw8. Holy Spirit gives gifts *

Hw9. The Holy Spirit is a gift *

Hw10. Fruit of the Spirit *

Hw11. Baptized/washed with the Holy Spirit *

Hw12. The Holy Spirit seals believers *

Hw13. Filled with the Holy Spirit *

Hw14. The Holy Spirit directs *

Hw15. Holy Spirit taught us *

Hw16. The Holy Spirit gives knowledge *

Hw17. Spirit gives us guidance/understanding *

Hw18. The Comforter/Holy Spirit comforts us *

Hw19. Disciples received the Holy Spirit *

Hw20. The Holy Spirit witnesses *

The Work of God IN GENESIS *

Wgn1. God made all things in heaven and earth *

Wgn2. Heaven and earth were created good *

Wgn3. God created things from nothing *

Wgn4. Six days of Creation *

Wgn5. God blessed the Seventh Day *

Wgn6. God imparted the breath of life *

Wgn7. Garden of Eden *

Wgn8. Four rivers leaving the Garden of Eden *

Wgn9. Tree of knowledge *

Wgn10. Eve from Adam’s rib *

Wgn11. Enoch was translated without dying *

Wgn12. Noah’s ark *

Wgn13. Judgment of Noah’s flood / deluge *

Wgn14. God confused/altered the languages *

Wgn15. Scattering after the Tower of Babel *

Wgn16. Abraham’s seed like the stars of heaven *

Wgn17. Judgment against Sodom or Gomorrah *

Wgn18. Lot’s wife a pillar of salt *

Wgn19. Jacob’s ladder *

Wgn20. Jacob wrestled with God/an angel *

The Work of God IN THE OLD TESTAMENT *

Wot1. God’s appearances in the Old Testament *

Wot2. The earth is God’s footstool *

Wot3. God sends the rain on everyone *

Wot4. The burning bush of Moses *

Wot5. Plagues of Egypt *

Wot6. The firstborn of Egypt perished *

Wot7. Cloud and/or pillar of fire *

Wot8. Crossing the Red Sea *

Wot9. Water from the rock *

Wot10. [Moses] and the Amalekites *

Wot11. Manna *

Wot12. The Ark [of the Covenant] *

Wot13. Bronze/brazen serpent in the wilderness *

Wot14. Hezekiah and the Assyrian army *

Wot15. Elisha did miracle(s) *

Wot16. Christ with the 3 youths in Daniel *

Wot17. Daniel in the lion’s den *

The Work of God IN THE NEW TESTAMENT *

Wnt1. Zechariah was made mute [temporarily] *

Wnt2. The star [of Bethlehem] *

Wnt3. Jesus performed miracles *

Wnt4. Jesus at Cana or turning water to wine *

Wnt5. Jesus calmed the storm *

Wnt6. Jesus fed the 5,000 *

Wnt7. Jesus walked on water/waves/deep *

Wnt8. Jesus healed a leper *

Wnt9. Jesus healed the paralytic *

Wnt10. Healing the flow of blood *

Wnt11. Raising the widow’s son *

Wnt12. Raising Lazarus from the dead *

Wnt13. The apostle(s) worked miracles *

Wnt14. Ananias or Sapphira killed *

Wnt15. Jesus healing the blind *

People *

Pe1. People are made in the image of God *

Pe2. Our bodies die but our souls are immortal *

Pe3. People were made of dust *

Pe4. Our bodies will return to dust *

Pe5. People are like clay *

Pe6. Soul shares body’s pain and feelings *

Pe7. People have the will to choose *

Pe8. We should tremble at God’s Word *

Pe9. Do not trust in man *

Pe10. The spirit is willing but the flesh is weak *

Pe11. No profit to gain the whole world and lose your soul *

Pe12. Positive mention of non-Biblical Jews *

Pe13. Even the elect an be deceived *

Pe14. We are God’s workmanship *

SIN *

Si1. Man fell when Adam and Eve ate the fruit *

Si2. Adam & Eve covered themselves for shame *

Si3. We have or inherited a sinful nature *

Si4. All have sinned *

Si5. Those who sin are sin’s servants/slaves *

Si6. People have guilt *

Si7. Reason/understanding was darkened *

Si8. People are corrupted/corruptible *

Si9. People are hardened *

Si10. Idolators/sinners are shameful *

Si11. The sinful provoke God *

Si12. We are dead in sin *

Si13. The conscience of some is seared *

Si14. Hardness of people’s hearts *

Si15. Works of the flesh / sinful nature *

Si16. Ezekiel 18 referring to an individual *

Si17. World’s wisdom is foolishness to God *

Si18. Cross/resurrection is foolish to the world *

Si19. People deceive others *

Si20. Some people deceive themselves *

Si21. People themselves have broken cisterns *

Si22. People are enslaved by sin / lust / the devil *

Si23. Kept from the wise/prudent and given to babes *

Si24. Don’t be double-minded / double-hearted *

Si25. [Many] Jews rejected Jesus as the Messiah *

Salvation *

S1. O.T. pointed to salvation in Christ in New *

S2. Salvation is a gift of God’s grace *

S3. Jesus’ death paid for our sins *

S4. Saved by Jesus’ blood or dying for us *

S5. Even Jews who reject Jesus will perish *

S6. Believers God’s Elect *

S7. The reprobate (non-elect) will be lost *

S8. Some elect died before knowing Savior *

S9. Some follow Christ for a time, yet perish *

S10. Not saved if living in sin *

S11. Adoption as sons of God *

S12. We need to have faith *

S13. Live by faith *

S14. We are God’s chickens *

S15. Shipwrecked faith/salvation *

S16. Confidence or assurance of salvation *

S17. Hope in God or Christ *

S18. Our faith is precious *

S19. God’s great, glorious, precious promises *

S20. Mystery of the Lord/faith *

S21. Be born again *

S22. The precious blood of Christ *

S23. Heirs of salvation / Christ / the Lord *

S24. God has called us *

S25. Predestined or predestination *

S26. God can raise Abraham’s kids from stones children *

S27. Jesus bestowed remission of sins *

S28. Many are called but few are chosen *

S29. Narrow is the gate to life *

S30. No way of salvation apart from Christ *

S31. Salvation/church for all kinds of people *

End Times *

E1. The AntiChrist will come -after 125 A.D. *

E2. Heresies and persecution come before Antichrist or Christ’s return *

E3. Before this will be many lesser antichrists *

E4. Jesus will return in glory -after 125 A.D. *

E5. Rapture of believers *

E6. Resurrection of believers / all *

E7. Christ will judge all / quick and dead *

E8. Believers will judge the world or angels *

E9. Believers are sons of God *

E10. Believers will reign with Christ *

E11. Jesus returns in [literal] clouds *

E12. The Tree of Life *

E13. Fulfillment of the Cosmos has come to us *

E14. The Endtimes tribulation *

E15. Every Knee will bow to Jesus *

E16. Moon will turn to blood *

E17. Abomination that causes desolation *

E18. God’s future temple on earth/in Jerusalem *

E19. Christ’s coming like the days of Noah *

E20. Meeting the Lord in the clouds *

Revelation Specific *

R1. Seven churches in Revelation *

R2. Two witnesses come before Christ returns *

R3. The Book of Book of Life / the Living *

R4. The Beast or his mark *

R5. The Millennium or the 1,000 years *

R6. Devil and followers cast in Lake of Fire *

R7. Heavenly (24) elders in Revelation *

R8. Woman Babylon in Revelation *

R9. Two-edged sword out of Christ’s mouth *

Ultimate Things - Heaven and Hell *

U1. The Kingdom of God *

U2. Inheriting the Kingdom of God *

U3. Description of God’s throne *

U4. Paul went up to the third heaven *

U6. All who die rejecting Jesus go to Hell *

U5. Reincarnation (transmigration) is wrong *

U7. Unquenchable/eternal fire *

U8. The worm of the lost does not die *

U9. Some lost have more severe judgment *

U10. Those who die are with Christ *

U11. Believers who die have eternal life *

U12. Believers have rewards in Heaven *

U13. Believers have crowns *

U14. Flesh & blood not inherit God’s kingdom *

U15. We will put on incorruption *

U16. Church/Believers are Christ’s bride *

U17. The wedding banquet *

U18. The earth shall pass away *

U19. New Heaven and New earth *

U20. New/heavenly Jerusalem *

U21. Abraham’s Bosom *

U22. Outer darkness *

U23. Gates of Hell/Death/Hades *

U24. Souls under the altar [in Revelation] *

U25. Entering the Kingdom of God *

ANGELS *

Ua1. Angels are servants of God *

Ua2. Holy angel[s] *

Ua3. The heavenly host *

Ua4. The archangel Michael *

Ua5. The angel Gabriel *

Ua6. Four Living Creatures / Seraphim *

Ua7. Cherubim *

Ua8. Guardian angels *

Ua9. Angelic / Heavenly powers *

Ua10. Angels worship/praise God/Jesus *

Ua11. Angels rejoice *

Ua12. Angelic hymns / choir(s) *

Ua13. Angels visit shepherds at Christ’s birth *

Ua14. Angels announce/preach the gospel *

Ua15. An angel spoke with Cornelius before he was a believer *

DEMONS *

Ud1. Satan / Lucifer / the Devil *

Ud2. Satan/demons fell from heaven *

Ud3. Satan deceives *

Ud4. Serpent beguiled Eve *

Ud5. Satan is a serpent *

Ud6. The Serpent was cursed at the fall *

Ud7. Enmity between serpent and Eve’s seed *

Ud8. Satan is a dragon *

Ud9. The prince of this world/air is evil/Satan *

Ud10. Satan, a murderer from the beginning *

Ud11. Satan looke like an angel of light *

Ud12. Wiles/craftiness of the devil *

Ud13. Demons *

Ud14. Power/principalities of darkness *

Ud15. Demons are worshipped by pagans *

Ud16. Demons deceive / delude people *

Ud17. Devil/demons tempt people *

Ud18. Demons vex/cause harm to people *

Ud19. Demons tremble at/fear Christ *

Ud20. Demons subject to Christ *

Ud21. Satan can have lying wonders *

Ud23. Beelzebub/Baalzebub *

Ud24. Satan sought to sift Peter as wheat *

Ud25. Satan entered into Judas *

Ud26. The devil / Satan is a personal being *

Ud27. There are doctrines of demons / devils *

Ud28. [Demons are] unclean spirits *

Ud29. The devil had envy / jealousy *

PAtriarch Individiuals *

Pat1. Adam and/or Eve *

Pat2. Cain murdered his brother/Abel *

Pat3. Seth [son of Adam and Eve] *

Pat4. Enoch *

Pat5. Noah got drunk *

Pat6. Ham [son of Noah] *

Pat7. Shem [son of Noah] *

Pat8. Japheth [son of Noah] *

Pat9. Canaan [son of Ham] *

Pat10. Job and his sufferings/patience *

Pat11. Abraham [friend of God] *

Pat12. Sarai / Sarah *

Pat13. Lot or his wife *

Pat14. Hagar *

Pat15. Ishmael *

Pat16. Isaac *

Pat17. Abraham offered Isaac as a sacrifice *

Pat18. Rebecca [wife of Isaac] *

Pat19. Laban [Jacob’s father-in-law] *

Pat20. Jacob *

Pat21. Rachel [wife of Jacob] *

Pat22. Leah [wife of Jacob] *

Pat23. Esau *

Pat24. Joseph or his brothers *

Pat25. Benjamin (patriarch or tribe) *

Pat26. Dan (patriarch or tribe) *

Pat27. Ephraim (patriarch or tribe) *

Pat28. Judah (patriarch or tribe) *

Pat29. Levi (patriarch or tribe) *

Pat30. Manasseh (patriarch or tribe) *

Pat31. Naphtali (patriarch or tribe) *

Pat32. Zebulun/Zebulon (patriarch, tribe, or land) *

Pat33. The patriarchs *

Pat34. The twelve tribes [of Israel] *

Exodus to Solomon Individuals *

ES1. Moses led the Israelites out of Egypt *

ES2. Miriam [sister of Moses] *

ES3. Aaron brother of Moses] *

ES4. Pharaoh during the Exodus *

ES5. Korah *

ES6. Balaam or his donkey *

ES7. Joshua conquered Canaan *

ES8. Rahab [of Jericho] *

ES9. Jephthah [the judge] *

ES10. Gideon *

ES11. Samson *

ES12. Eli [mentor of Samuel] *

ES13. Samuel *

ES14. Saul [son of Kish] *

ES15. David *

ES16. [King] Saul persecuted David *

ES17. Nathan [the prophet, not the son of David] *

ES18. Uriah [the Hittite] *

ES19. Tamar / Thamar *

ES20. King Solomon *

ES21. Hannah, mother of Samuel *

ES22. Jesse [father of David] *

DIVIDED KINGDOM ON OT Individuals *

DK1. Jeroboam *

DK2. Ahab *

DK3. Elijah was a godly prophet *

DK4. Hezekiah [godly king] *

DK5. Elisha *

DK6. Naaman [the Syrian leper] *

DK7. Jonah in the fish or warned Ninevites *

DK8. Sennacherib *

DK9. Josiah [the godly king] *

DK10. Jeconiah/Jechoniah *

DK11. Nebuchadnezzar [King of Babylon] *

DK12. Zedekiah *

DK13. Ezekiel *

DK14. Daniel *

DK15. The Three Youths in Daniel *

DK16. Cyrus [King of Persia] *

DK17. Darius [King of Persia] *

DK18. Artaxerxes [King of Persia] *

DK19. Ezra the scribe/prophet *

DK20. Zerubbabel *

DK21. Joshua the high priest (in Zechariah) *

DK22. Antiochus [Epiphanes] of Syria *

DK23. The prophets are holy *

GOSPEL Individuals *

Go1. Mary mother of Jesus was blessed *

Go2. Elizabeth [mother of John the Baptist] *

Go3. Zechariah, husband of Elizabeth *

Go4. John the Baptist lept in Elizabeth’s womb *

Go5. Shepherds at Jesus’ birth *

Go6. The Magi / wise men came to Christ *

Go7. Simeon [at Jesus’ dedication] *

Go8. Anna [at Jesus’ decidation] *

Go9. Herod’s slaughter in Bethlehem *

Go10. John the Baptist *

Go11. Andrew the disciple/apostle *

Go12. Peter the disciple/apostle *

Go13. Philip the disciple/apostle *

Go14. Thomas the disciple/apostle *

Go15. James son of Zebedee the disciple/apostle *

Go16. [Samaritan] Woman at the well *

Go17. Mary Magdalene *

Go18. Jesus’ 70/72 disciples *

Go19. Martha *

Go20. Zacchaeus *

Go21. Judas betrayed Jesus *

Go22. High Priest Caiaphas/Herod tried Jesus *

Go23. Herod tried Jesus *

Go24. Pontius Pilate sentenced Jesus *

Go25. Barabbas *

Go26. John the Baptist was beheaded *

New Testament Individuals *

N1. Matthias *

N2. James the Lord’s brother *

N3. The Ethiopian eunuch *

N4. Stephen the martyr *

N5. Cornelius the centurion *

N6. Saul of Tarsus persecuted the church *

N7. Paul was a godly apostle *

N8. Barnabas, companion of Paul *

N9. Silas, companion of Paul *

N10. Apollos *

N11. Paul was in prison/bonds *

N12. Paul was persecuted besides prison *

N13. Timothy the individual (not just the book) *

N14. James [the disciple] was beheaded / slain *

Experiencing God *

X1. Our bodies are God’s temple/temples *

X2. God/Christ lives inside of Christians *

X3. Christians escape corruption *

X4. Believers are set free *

X5. God renews us *

X6. We are children of light *

X7. God strengthens us *

X8. We are friends of Christ *

X9. Pure in heart will see God *

X11. The Lord disciplines or corrects us *

X13. Please the Lord *

X14. Glory in the Lord *

X15. Seek wisdom from God or His word *

X16. Be peaceful, kind, or good *

X17. Be strong/strengthened *

X18. God’s people mourn *

X19. Fear of the Lord/God *

X20. We adore/glory in the cross *

X21. God’s holy people *

X22. Speaking of shame *

X23. Put unrighteousness/adversary to shame *

X24. Do not be ashamed of the cross/Christ *

X29. None shall separate us from God’s love *

X25. Flesh and spirit war against each other *

X26. The peace of God *

X27. Blessed are the poor in spirit *

X28. There is sin unto death *

X32. Put the adversary/unrighteousness to shame *

NOT OF THIS WORLD *

n1. We need to repent and come to God *

n2. Love God / the Lord *

n3. Obey God *

n4. Follow Jesus or His example *

n5. Bear/Take up the cross, and follow Christ *

n6. Struggle to live a victorious life *

n7. Put on the armor of God/righteousness *

n8. Faithful Christians still get sick *

n9. Suffer persecution or martyrdom *

n10. No sorcery, witchcraft, or magic *

n11. Exorcism or casting out devils *

n12. Live a worthy life *

n13. Mortify earthly nature/deeds of the body *

n14. Be clothed with/in Christ *

n15. You cannot serve two masters *

n16. Martyrs are blessed *

n17. Losing your life and finding it *

n18. Believers are servants of God *

n19. We must persevere *

n20. We are the light of the world *

n21. We wrestle against the devil or sin *

n23. Keep away from works of darkness *

n23. We are aliens awaiting our eternal home *

n24. Don’t be bitter *

n25. Believers are transformed [now] *

n26. The Kingdom of God is within you *

n27. Walk in newness of life *

n28. Some are worthy of martyrdom *

PRAYER AND FASTING *

Pr1. Prayer to God is important *

Pr2. Pray to the Father *

Pr3. Pray to Jesus *

Pr4. Pray at all times or in any place *

Pr5. Pray daily *

Pr6. Praise God *

Pr7. Thankfulness/gratitude to God *

Pr8. Confess to God *

Pr9. Forgive us as we forgive others *

Pr10. Not into temptation *

Pr11. Deliver us from evil *

Pr12. The Lord’s Prayer *

Pr13. Lift up hands to God *

Pr14. Bless or pray for those who persecute you *

Pr15. Pray for rulers and those in authority *

Pr16. Incense of the prayers of the saints *

Pr17. Pray for God’s kingdom to come *

Pr18. Pray for others / intercessory prayer *

Pr19. Pray for God’s mercy for us *

Pr20. Fasting to God is good *

Pr21. Pray in secret *

Pr22. Pray together (two or three) *

Pr23. Persist/persevere in prayer *

Individual Practice *

I1. Do not worship other gods *

I2. Stars have no influence on people *

I3. Have patience *

I4. Don’t let the sun go down on your anger *

I5. Do not make/invent idols *

I7. Do not get drunk *

I8. Eating meat is fine *

I9. Do not be a glutton or slave of your belly *

I10. Vanity, or avoid vain things *

I11. Virtue of prudence *

I12. Do not provoke God *

I13. Work hard, don’t be lazy *

I14. Be godly *

I15. Be gentle or meek *

I16. Eating meats forbidden to Jews OK *

I17. Depart from evil *

I18. Worship God in spirit and truth *

I19. Keep the commandments of Christ/God *

I20. It’s bad to be a hypocrite *

I21. Do not worship any images or idols *

I22. Rule of faith / truth *

I23. Submit to God *

I24. Have self-control *

Loving Others *

L1. Love all / your neighbor as yourself *

L2. Forgive others/enemies *

L3. Do not get revenge *

L5. Do to others as you would them do to you *

L6. Do not murder *

L7. Abortion is evil/murder *

L8. Care for the sick *

L9. Practice hospitality *

L10. Love covers a multitude of sins *

L11. Show mercy to others *

L13. We should be peacemakers or bring/seek peace *

L14. Cruelty is bad *

L15. Visit those in prison *

L16. Do not hold a grudge *

L17. Love your enemies *

L18. Clothe the naked *

L19. Turn the other cheek *

L20. Must not poison others *

Speech *

Sp1. Have pure speech *

Sp2. Forsake lies *

Sp3. Do not be a gossip or chatterer *

Sp4. Don’t use flattery (on others) *

Sp5. Slandering people is bad *

Sp6. Confess your sins to others *

Sp7. If we deny Christ He will deny us *

Sp8. Don’t swear false oaths / swear falsely *

MONEY AND CONTENTMENT *

M1. Do not love money *

M2. No stealing or financial dishonesty *

M3. Help the poor *

M4. Help widows *

M5. Heavenly treasure; don’t fear earthly loss *

M6. Do not envy or be jealous *

M7. Do not covet *

M8. Be humble or not proud *

M9. Be content with what you have *

M10. We rejoice when afflicted *

M11. We rejoice – besides being afflicted *

M12. No selfish ambition *

M13. No bribes *

M14. No usury / lending to needy with interest *

M15. Don’t be wise in your own eyes/conceit *

M16. Cannot serve both God and Mammon *

M17. Love of money root of all evils *

M18. Strive for godliness, not gain *

M19. Lazarus and the rich man *

M20. Offering money/possessions to God *

M21. God’s house not a den of robbers / thieves *

M22. Blessed are the poor *

M23. Give in secret *

M24. No rivalry *

M25. No strife / striving in the flesh *

M26. Don’t worry about tomorrow / lilies of the field *

M27. Help orphans *

Assembling Together *

Ca1. Christians met together on Sunday *

Ca2. Sing hymns to God, the Father, or Jesus *

Ca3. Practice water baptism *

Ca4. Observe the Lord’s Supper *

Ca5. No more animal or blood sacrifices *

Ca6. No need to celebrate the Sabbath (except can fast) *

Ca7. Learn from prior church writers/councils *

Ca8. Cheer up/encourage other believers *

Ca9. Correct other believers *

Ca10. Calling ourselves Christians *

Ca11. Mention of Easter/Pascha[l] *

Ca12. Calling the Lord’s Supper the Eucharist *

Ca13. Shun alleged believers persisting in sin *

Ca14. The Church is the body of Christ *

Ca15. Footwashing *

Ca16. Baptize in the name of the Father, Son, Holy Spirit *

Ca17. We are the flock of Christ *

Ca18. Musical choir *

Ca19. Church(es) of God *

Ca20. Church(es) of Christ *

Ca21. Holy church(es) *

Church Leadership *

C1. Obey authority of godly church leaders *

C2. The Church/Christians should have unity *

C3. Excommunicate or separate from heretics *

C4. Bishop(s) *

C5. Church leaders should accept each other *

C6. Reject unchristian church leader authority *

C7. Remove leaders fallen in gross sin/heresy *

C8. Concept of one universal church *

C9. Churches should greet other churches *

C10. Tradition of the apostles or the church *

C11. Ordination [of bishops] *

C12. Priesthood of all believers *

C13. Christ the head of the Church *

C14. Church leaders are shepherds *

C15. The episcopate [office of bishop] *

C16. Elders/presbyters *

C17. Deacons *

C18. Sub-deacons *

C19. Catechumens *

C20. Must be worthy of being a bishop/priest *

C21. Priests [in the church] *

Family and Marriage *

F1. Honor marriage, no extra-marital relations *

F2. No divorce, except for unfaithfullness *

F3. We should be pure *

F4. Do not watch violent or lewd shows *

F5. No homosexuality *

F6. We should honor our parents *

F7. Cherish and nurture our family *

F8. Having kids is fine within marriage *

F9. Celibacy is better than marriage *

F10. Remarriage OK after death of spouse *

F11. No incestual relations *

F12. Do not love family more than Jesus *

F13. Do not kill/expose infants *

F14. Two become one flesh *

F15. No gladiators *

F16. We should be modest *

F17. Train your kids in the Lord *

F18. Eve was Adam’s bone and flesh *

F19. Do not lust (sexually) *

King, Government, and LAws *

K1. Honor the king or government *

K2. Obey government [when not against God] *

K3. Do not aid in persecuting Christians *

K4. Pay taxes *

K5. Citizens of Heaven *

K6. Christians should not be in lawsuits *

K7. Officials ought to be just *

K8. Disobey or change unjust laws *

K9. Providence, or God governing the world *

K10. Christ is king, or kingdom of Christ *

K11. The Kingdom of Heaven *

K12. Christians should not be in lawsuits *

KERYGMATIC AND IRENIC EVANGELISM *

k1. Preach the gospel to others *

k2. Bold proclamation of truth *

k3. Quoting God’s word to unbelievers *

k4. Sharing personal testimonies *

k5. Creative allegories or metaphors *

k6. Quoting poetry to share truth *

k7. Promises of heaven or God’s love *

k8. Threats of Hell or God’s wrath *

k9. Mortal life is fleeting/short *

k10. Martyrs blood is a testimony *

k11. Use of Catena of 3 or more verses *

k13. Cross / Christ a stumbling block to Jews *

k14. Christ speaking in parables *

k15. Parable of the sheep and the goats *

k16. Parable of the prodigal son *

k17. Parable of the wheat and tares *

k18. Faith/kingdom of Heaven as a mustard seed *

k19. Parable of the persistent/importune widow *

k20. Parable of the barren fig tree *

k21. Parable of the Good Samaritan *

k22. Parable of the lost sheep *

k23. Parable of the lost coin *

k24. We want non-believers to get saved *

APOLOGETIC EVANGELISM *

A1. Answering questions of others *

A2. Answering alleged contradictions *

A3. Answering false moral accusations *

A4. Using questions *

A5. Nature witnesses to God *

A6. Appeal to science *

A7. First Cause (cosmological argument) *

A8. Only One is supreme *

A9. Appeal to historians *

A10. Using chronology in apologetics *

A11. Moses is older than Homer *

A12. Psalm 2 refers to Christ *

A13. Psalm 22 refers to Christ *

A14. Psalm 45 refers to Christ *

A15. Psalm 110:1-2 can only refer to Christ *

A16. Isaiah 7:14 refers to Christ *

A17. Isaiah 53 refers to Christ *

A18. Daniels’ 70 weeks messianic prophecy *

A19. Micah 5 refers to Christ *

A20. Zechariah 12:10-12 refers to Christ *

A21. Deuteronomy 18:15 refers to Christ *

POLEMIC EVANGELISTIC METHODS *

Po1. Be on guard against error *

Po2. Debate and argument in witnessing *

Po3. Showing misconceptions/contradictions *

Po4. Morality vs. evil in other religions *

Po5. Do not judge/condemn others *

Po6. Do not throw pearls before swine *

Po7. Don’t give what is holy to the dogs *

Po8. Beware of wolves/ false prophets *

Po9. Calling other beliefs delusion(s) *

Po10. Humor or wit in witnessing *

Po11. Harsh rebuke in witnessing *

Po12. Calling people names *

Po13. Ridicule or sarcasm *

Po14. Calling other beliefs fables *

Po15. Calling other beliefs superstition *

Po16. Calling false teaching / heresy poison *

Refute GNOSTIC-TYPE TEACHING *

Gn1. The Creator is good *

Gn2. Do not call matter evil *

Gn3. Avoid Docetic belief – not suffer in flesh *

Gn4. The heretic Cerinthus *

Gn5. Nicolaitans *

Gn6. Simon Magus and his heresy/error *

Gn7. Against Carpocrates (from Simon) *

Gn8. Against Menander, Simon Magus’ disciple *

Gn9. Against Marcion *

Gn10. Dispute against Valentinian Gnostics *

Gn11. Against the Valentinian Heracleon *

Gn12. Against Sethian/Ophite Gnostics *

Gn13. Against the Gnostic heretic Apelles *

Gn14. Heretic Basilides *

Gn15. Against Encratite Gnostics *

Gn16. Against Saturninus/Saturnilus [the Encratite] *

Gn17. Dispute against other Gnostics *

Gn18. The [Gnostic] Demiurge is false *

Gn19. The [Gnostic] Ogdoad is false *

Gn20. The [Gnostic] Pleroma is false *

AGAINST PAGAN RELIGIONS *

Pg1. Speaking against human sacrifice *

Pg2. Dispute against the Magi / Zoroastrians *

Pg3. Against Mithras / a sun-god *

Pg4. Dispute Druid or other European myths *

Pg5. Dispute against Indian Bra[c]hmans *

Pg6. Dispute Chaldean/Babylonian religion *

Pg7. Against Egyptian religion *

Pg8. Against the religion of Scythians *

Pg9. Against Syrian religion *

Pg10. Against Arabian religion *

Pg11. Against [Phrygian] Great Mother *

Pg12. Against Greco-Roman paganism *

Pg13. Pointing out adulteries of Greek gods *

Pg14. Incest of Zeus/Jupiter *

Pg15. Apologetic use of the tomb of Jupiter/Zeus *

Pg16. Thyestean [cannibalistic banquet] *

Pg17. Mention of Oedipus *

Pg18. Cannibalism of Kronos/Saturn *

Pg19. Against bloodthirsty Mars, or pest/bane of mortals *

Pg20. Against Bacchus [the Greek/Roman/Arabian/Ethiopian idol] *

On Other RELIGIONS *

Or1. Religion can be bad *

Or2. No mixing Christ and other religions *

Or3. Dispute against Judaism *

Or4. Against the Pharisees *

Or5. Errors of the Sadducees *

Or6. Sadducees were wrong to deny resurrection *

Or7. Dispute against Sabellians/Oneness *

Or8. Dispute with Ebionites (Judaizers) *

Or9. No Spiritism or the Occult *

On PHILOSOPHY THAT DENIES ONE GOd *

Ph1. Dispute philosophy that denies one God *

Ph2. Apologetic use of Plato’s Timaeus *

Ph3. Against Pythagoras *

Ph4. Errors of Aristotle *

Ph5. Against Stoics *

Ph6. Dispute against Epicureans *

Ph7. Against Cynic philosophy *

Ph8. Against Pyrrho the philosopher *

Ph9. Socrates even said he had a demon *

Ph10. We are not ruled by fate *

Ph11. Chrysippus [the Stoic] was wrong on some points *

MANY Christians would Agree *

m1. God is timeless or before/ beyond time *

m2. Jesus appeared on earth prior to His birth *

m3. Mention of the laity or clergy *

m4. The church can be called the city of God *

m5. People have free will / choice *

m6. Babylon refers to Rome *

m7. There are greater/mortal and lesser sins *

m8. Christians can lose their salvation *

m9. God knows all things in the future *

m10. Jesus preached to the dead *

m11. Religion is/can be good *

m12. Drinking wine is OK *

m13. No food sacrificed to idols *

m14. Christ died for all people *

Disputed PArts *

d1. Prophets proclaimed 2 advents of Christ *

d2. Seventy Septuagint translators *

d3. God is not composite *

d4. God is impassable (without passion) *

d5. Some fallen angels sinned with women *

d6. Against jewelry or false/dyed hair *

d7. Christians must fast on certain days *

d8. No drinking or eating blood *

d9. No worshipping true God with images *

d10. Miracle healings in post-Acts church *

d11. Prophesy in church after Acts *

d12. Godly authority besides the Bible *

d14. Tread on serpents and scorpions *

d15. God is ineffable or indescribable *

d16. Number of nations according to angels *

d17. People can have a worthiness related to salvation *

d18. Multiple Archangels *

d19. The angel Raphael *

d20. Susannah *

d21. Tobias *

ERRORS *

e1. Incorrect references to Bible verses *

e2. Misquoted or unknown Bible verses *

e3. Over-allegorical Bible interpretation *

e4. Four elements make up the world *

e5. Atoms do not really exist *

e6. Errors on hyena, phoenix, or other animals *

e7. Errors on geography or tribes *

e8. Collective guilt of the Jews *

e9. Errors on people *

 

Bible Importance

 

B1. Study or obey God’s Word as an authority

 

Luke 4:18-19,21; John 7:38; 12:38-40; 2 Timothy 3:16, (partial) Hebrews 4:12

2 Peter 3:1-2 Peter puts his words and the other apostles’ words as the same authority as the Old Testament

 

Scripture is not just "suggestions for life", but we must take its authority in our lives as seriously as our Lord and Biblical writers meant. John 10:35; Matthew 4:1-11; John 14:23-24; 2 Peter 1:19-21;3:16; Romans 3:1-4; 2 Timothy 3:15-16; Proverbs 30:5-6; Amos 8:11-2; Isaiah 66:5

;Ps119:74,81,89, 92,105

The entire Bible is authoritative, trustworthy, primary, and complete. Proverbs 30:5-6; 2 Timothy 3:16; 2 Samuel 22:31; Psalm 33:4;119:72,97,105,120,151; Proverbs 30:5-6

 

Vaticanus (B) Most of the Old Testament and all of New Testament up to Hebrews 9:15 (325-350 A.D.) Luke 4:18-19,21; John 7:38; 12:38-40

Sinaiticus (340-350 A.D.) Luke 4:18-19,21; John 7:38; 12:38-40

Alexandrinus (c.450 A.D.) All of the Old Testament except Genesis 14:14-17; 15:1-5, 16-19; 16:6-9; 1 Samuel 12:17-14:9; Psalm 19:20-79:11. All of the New Testament except Matthew 1:1-25:6, John 6:50-8:52; Romans 16:24; and 2 Corinthians 4:13-12:6.

 

From the Council of Nicea I to the Council of Ephesus (325-431 A.D.)

Council of Nicea (325 A.D.) "Forasmuch as may enrolled among the Clergy, following covetousness and lust of gain, have forgotten the divine Scripture, which says, ‘He hath not given his money upon usury," and in lending money ask the hundredth of the sum [as monthly interest],… he shall be deposed from the clergy and his name stricken from the list." Canon 17 p.36

Eusebius of Caesarea (323-339/340 A.D.) shows the authority of Scripture. Eusebius’ Ecclesiastical History book 1 ch.2 p.83

Aphrahat the Syrian (337-345 A.D.) Select Demonstrations

Macrostich Creed (344/345 A.D.) Socrates Ecclesiastical History book 2 ch.19 in Nicene and Post-Nicene Fathers 2nd Series vol.2 p.44-45

Hegemonius of Sirmium (4th century A.D.) appealed to Scriptures as an authority. Acts of Archelaus (=Archelaus Disputation with Manes) ch.18 p.191. See also ibid ch.25 p.201.

Life of Antony (probably by Athanasius of Alexandria) (355 A.D.) ch.7 p.197 "But Antony having learned from the Scriptures that the devices of the devil are many,"

Hilary of Poitiers (355-367/368 A.D.)

Athanasius of Alexandria (356 A.D.) "But since the holy scripture is of all things sufficient for us, therefore recommending to those who desire to know more of these matters, to read the Divine word, I now hasten to set before you that which most claims attention, and for the sake of which principally I have written these things." To the Bishops of Egypt ch.1.4 p.225

Athanasius of Alexandria (356-360 A.D.) quotes Matthew 22:29 "Ye do err, not knowing the Scriptures nor the power of God" Four Discourses Against the Arians discourse 1 ch.12.52 p.337.

Athanasius of Alexandria (356-360 A.D.) mentions "proofs from scripture" Four Discourses Against the Arians discourse 1 ch.3.10 p.311

Athanasius of Alexandria (333 A.D.) says we should meditate on scripture day and night and the quotes Psalm 1:1-2. Easter Letter 5 ch.1 p.517. See also Easter Letter 11 (339 A.D.) ch.6 p.535

Ephraim the Syrian (350-378 A.D.) proves his point using what the scripture taught on Jacob and Aaron. Nisibine Hymns hymn 18 no.3 p.187

Basil of Cappadocia (357-379 A.D.) "Never neglect reading, especially of the New Testament, because very frequently mischief comes of reading the Old; not because what is written is harmful, but because the minds of the injured are weak. All bread is nutritious, but it may be injurious to the sick. Just so all Scripture is God inspired and profitable, and there is nothing in it unclean: only to him who thinks it is unclean, to him it is unclean." Basil to Julian Letter 41.3 p.144-145

Council of Laodicea (345-381 A.D.) "No Psalms composed by private individual nor any uncanonical books may be read in the church, but only the Canonical Books of the Old and New Testaments." Canon 59 p.158

Cyril of Jerusalem (c.349-386 A.D.) speaks of the importance of scripture in Catechetical Lecture 5 ch.12 p.32

Pacian of Barcelona (342-379/392 A.D.) appeals to scripture as his authority on baptism. On Baptism ch.1.1 p.87

Book of Steps (Liber Graduum) (350-400 A.D.) (implied) "In order that you may be assured that this is so, the following was written in Malachi, ‘I will reject your offerings, because I have been a witness among you and the women of your youth, that you have been unfaithful to, those who are the women of your covenant. But I will be true with you." Memra 22 ch.19 p.268

Epiphanius of Salamis (360-403 A.D.) "We can tell the solution of any question not through our own reasonings but from what follows from the Scriptures." Panarion (=Against Heresies) 65 as quoted in Examination of the Council of Trent I, p.153

John Chrysostom (died 407 A.D.) &&& On the Priesthood book 4 ch.3 p.65

Rufinus (374-406 A.D.) freely translating Origen (225-253/254 A.D.) "Then, finally, that the Scriptures were written by the Spirit of God." Origen’s de Principiis Preface 8 p.241

Rufinus (374-406 A.D.) freely translating Origen (225-253/254 A.D.) says the Savior tells us to "thoroughly examine the scriptures" Homilies on Joshua. homily 19 ch.2 p.171

Sozomen’s Ecclesiastical History book 2 ch.10 p.266 (370/380-425 A.D.) bishop Symeon showed other Christians about to be martyred from the sacred scriptures that their death would be true life, but to live in fear and deny God would be true death.

Orosius/Hosius of Braga (414-418 A.D.) proves a point "as Scripture attests" Defense Against the Pelagians ch.15 p.133

Orosius/Hosius of Braga (414-418 A.D.) mentions the "testimony of the Scriptures" Defense Against the Pelagians ch.23 p.147

Jerome (373-420 A.D.) "All [nuns] had every day to learn a certain portion of the holy scriptures." Letter 108.20 p.206

Augustine of Hippo (388-430 A.D.) (implied) "as they are exemplified in the writings of men who, by reading the Scriptures, have attained to the knowledge of divine and saving truth, and have ministered to the Church. Then he quotes Cyprian of Carthage On Christian Doctrine book 4 ch.21.45 NPNF first series vol.2 p.590

Augustine of Hippo (388-430 A.D.) says there are differing opinions on marriage, but we must see which of them are agreeable to the truth of divine Scriptures. On the Good of Marriage ch.2 p.399. See also On the Gospel of John Tractate 124 ch.21.5 vol.7 p.449.

John Cassian (410-430 A.D.) write of Paphnutius speaking of the authority of holy scripture. Conference of the Bishop Paphnutius ch.6 p.321

 

LCMS (1932) (Lutheran Church Missouri Synod) " Since the Holy Scriptrues are the Word of God, it goes without saying that they are in all their parts and words the infallible truth, also in those parts which treat of historical, geographical, and other secular matters, John 10:35" Brief Statement of the doctrinal position of the Missouri synod (1932) Crisis in Christendom p.197-202 published by Christian News, 2004. (Christian News Nov. 2, 2015 p.1)

LCMS (1973) "We believe, teach and confess that all Scripture is given by the inspiration of God the Holy Spirit and that God is therefore the true Author of every Word of Scripture" Crisis in Christendom p.149-154 (Christian News Nov. 2, 2015 p.1)

LCMS "The Synod, and every member of the Synod, accepts without reservation: 1. The Scriptures of the Old and New Testament as the written Word of God and the only rule and norm of faith and practice." Constitution of the Lutheran Church-Missouri Synod (Christian News Nov. 2, 2015 p.1)

 

Among heretics

The Arian Candidus’ Letter to Marius Victorinus (359-362 A.D.) speaks of Holy Scripture in Acts of the Apostles. Candidus’ First Letter p.56

The Arian Candidus’ Letter to Marius Victorinus (359-362 A.D.) says we have learned from the Holy Spirit in his Candidus’ Second Letter p.57

Pelagian heretic Theodore of Mopsuestia (392-423/429 A.D.) Appeals to the authority of Scripture. Commentary on Nahum ch.1 p.250

Theodore of Mopsuestia (392-423/429 A.D.) appeals to divine scripture Commentary on Zechariah ch.11 p.377-378

Ebionite Gospel of pseudo-Matthew (600-625 A.D.) ch.14 p.375 (implied) "Then was fulfilled that which was said by Isaiah the prophet, saying: The ox knoweth his owner, and the ass his master’s crib." [Isaiah 1:3]

 

B2. Old Testament has God’s words; study it

 

Luke 4:18-19,21; Luke 6:10; 24:44

 

Vaticanus (B) Most of the Old Testament and all of New Testament up to Hebrews 9:15 (325-350 A.D.) Luke 4:18-19,21; 6:10; 24:44

Sinaiticus (340-350 A.D.) Luke 4:18-19,21; 6:10; 24:44

Alexandrinus (c.450 A.D.) All of the Old Testament except Genesis 14:14-17; 15:1-5, 16-19; 16:6-9; 1 Samuel 12:17-14:9; Psalm 19:20-79:11. All of the New Testament except Matthew 1:1-25:6, John 6:50-8:52; Romans 16:24; and 2 Corinthians 4:13-12:6.

 

From the Council of Nicea I to the Council of Ephesus (325-431 A.D.)

Eusebius of Caesarea (323-339/340 A.D.) (implied) proves points using the Old Testament. Eusebius’ Ecclesiastical History book 1 ch.3.4-5 p.85

Athanasius of Alexandria (333 A.D.) says we should meditate on scripture day and night and the quotes Psalm 1:1-2. Easter Letter 5 ch.1 p.517

Hegemonius of Sirmium (4th century A.D.) mentions the Old Testament and New Testament in Acts of Archelaus (=Archelaus Disputation with Manes) ch.41 p.214,215. See also ibid ch.40 p.214

Ephraim the Syrian (350-378 A.D.) (implied) mentions the importance of the two testaments. Nisibine Hymns hymn 3 no.11 p.171

Basil of Cappadocia (357-379 A.D.) "Never neglect reading, especially of the New Testament, because very frequently mischief comes of reading the Old; not because what is written is harmful, but because the minds of the injured are weak. All bread is nutritious, but it may be injurious to the sick. Just so all Scripture is God inspired and profitable, and there is nothing in it unclean: only to him who thinks it is unclean, to him it is unclean." Basil to Julian Letter 41.3 p.144-145

Synod of Laodicea (in Phrygia) (343-381 A.D.) canon 49 p.158 "No psalms composed by private individuals nor any uncanonical books may be read in the church, but only the Canonical Books of the Old and New Testaments"

Synod of Laodicea (in Phrygia) (343-381 A.D.) canon 17 p.133 "The Psalms are not to be joined together in the congregations, but a lesson shall intervene after every psalm."

Cyril of Jerusalem (c.349-386 A.D.) speaks of proof the Old Testament. Catechetical Lecture Lecture 10 ch.6 p.59.

Augustine of Hippo (404 A.D.) says the church does not want to place her hope in man, let she fall under the curse pronounced in scripture, and quotes Jeremiah 17:5. Letter 89.5 p.375

 

From the Council of Ephesus to the start of Muslim conquests (431-634 A.D.)

Vincent of Lerins (c.434 A.D.) references the Old Testament. Twelve Books book1.1 p.201

Council of Constantinople II (May 553 A.D.) quotes as an authority Hosea and Habacuc [Habakkuk] The Sentence of the Synod p.307

Nestorius (451/452 A.D.) God gave the Law. The Bazaar of Heracleides book 1 ch.1.56 p.53

 

Among heretics

Pelagian heretic Theodore of Mopsuestia (392-423/429 A.D.) Micah has a thankfulness towards God. Commentary on Micah ch.7 p.244

Ebionite Gospel of pseudo-Matthew (600-625 A.D.) ch.14 p.375 (implied) "Then was fulfilled that which was said by Isaiah the prophet, saying: The ox knoweth his owner, and the ass his master’s crib." [Isaiah 1:3]

 

B3. The Old Testament prophesied about Jesus

 

Luke 24:15; John 12:37-40; 19:37; Hebrews 1:5-13; 2:6-8,12,13; 1 Peter 1:10-12

 

Vaticanus (B) (325-350 A.D.) contains all of Deuteronomy. It has most of the Old Testament and all of New Testament up to Hebrews 9:15 (325-350 A.D.) Luke 24:15; John 12:37-40; 19:37

Sinaiticus (340-350 A.D.) Luke 24:15; John 12:37-40; 19:37

Alexandrinus (c.450 A.D.) All of the Old Testament except Genesis 14:14-17; 15:1-5, 16-19; 16:6-9; 1 Samuel 12:17-14:9; Psalm 19:20-79:11. All of the New Testament except Matthew 1:1-25:6, John 6:50-8:52; Romans 16:24; and 2 Corinthians 4:13-12:6.

 

Eusebius’ Ecclesiastical History (323-339/340 A.D.) book 1 ch.6 p.90 says that Daniel prophesied the number of weeks before the coming of Christ.

Hegemonius of Sirmium (4th century A.D.) Jesus Christ was prophesied in Acts of Archelaus (=Archelaus Disputation with Manes ch.43 p.219

Hegemonius of Sirmium (4th century A.D.) Moses prophesied of Jesus in Deuteronomy 18:18. Acts of Archelaus (=Archelaus Disputation with Manes ch.41 p.216

Philo of Carpasia (4th century) "Because of this he was named king, for he alone did priestly ministry within her. That is Jerusalem, a prophecy of the one who was to come, Jesus, Savior of the world."

Athanasius of Alexandria (356-360 A.D.) says the Jews could find the right reason for when the Messiah would come by reading Daniel. Four Discourses Against the Arians discourse 2 ch.15.16 p.356. Also, Jesus said that Moses wrote of Jesus in To the Bishops of Egypt ch.4 p.224

Athanasius of Alexandria (346-356 A.D.) "In truth, dead men were raised, lame walked, blind saw afresh, lepers were cleansed, and the water became wine, and five loaves satisfied five thousand, and all wondered and worshipped the Lord, confessing that in Him were fulfilled the prophecies, and that He was God the Son of God;" Defense of the Nicene Definition ch.1 p.150

Athanasius of Alexandria (356 A.D.) "And again, what is the Old Testament to the Jews, unless they acknowledge the Lord whose coming was expected according to it? For had they believed the writings of Moses, they would have believed the words of the Lord; for He said, ‘He wrote of Me.’" To the Bishops of Egypt ch.1.4 p.224

Ambrose of Milan (378-381 A.D.) quotes Psalm 110:1 as referring to Christ. On the Christian Faith book 2 ch.12.103 p.237

Ambrose of Milan (378-381 A.D.) says many passages are prophecies of the Incarnation. On the Christian Faith book 1 ch.15.99 p.217

Ephraim the Syrian (350-378 A.D.) refers to Isaiah 7:14 and other passages. Nisibine Hymns hymn 37 no.4 p.198

Cyril of Jerusalem (c.349-386 A.D.) says that the prophets spoke of Chirst. Catechetical Lecture Lecture 10 ch.12 p.60.

Gregory Nazianzen (330-391 A.D.) "for it is very evident the Twenty-first Psalm refers to Christ." [They number many of the Psalms one differently than we do today. On the Son – Fourt`h Theological Oration ch.5 p.311

Jerome (394 A.D.) interpreted Haggai 2:6,7, Zechariah 3:3,9; 6:1-3; 9:9,10; Malachi 1:10-11 as messianic in Letter 53 ch.8 p.101.

John Chrysostom (martyred 407 A.D.) quotes Isaiah and says it refers to Christ in vol.10 Commentary on Matthew homily 36 p.240.

Augustine of Hippo (388-430 A.D.) says that Psalm 110:1 openly refers to Christ. The City of God book 17 ch.17 p.355

 

Among heretics

Pelagian heretic Theodore of Mopsuestia (392-423/429 A.D.) Micah 2:6 prophesies of Christ. Commentary on Micah ch.5 p.225-226

Theodore of Mopsuestia (392-423/429 A.D.) "I am aware … that the Law contained an outline of everything to do with Christ the Lord." Commentary on Zechariah ch.9 p.367

Theodore of Mopsuestia (392-423/429 A.D.) (implied) promises [of the Messiah] made to Abraham and David. Commentary on Jonah preface p.185

Ebionite Gospel of pseudo-Matthew (600-625 A.D.) ch.14 p.375 "Then was fulfilled that which was said by Isaiah the prophet, saying: The ox knoweth his owner, and the ass his master’s crib." [Isaiah 1:3]

Ebionite Gospel of pseudo-Matthew (600-625 A.D.) ch.16 p.375-376 quotes Micah 5:2 as referring to Jesus.

Ebionite Gospel of pseudo-Matthew (600-625 A.D.) ch.39 p.382 quotes Psalm 65:9 as referring to Jesus.

Ebionite Gospel of pseudo-Matthew (600-625 A.D.) ch.16 p.375-376 says that Micah 5:2 refers to Christ.

 

B4. Jesus superseded some Old Testament laws

 

Mark 7:19; (implied) Colossians 2:16; (implied) Hebrews 10:18

Romans 10:4; Galatians 3:25; Romans 8:1-4

 

The NT says some OT commands have been fulfilled and are not to be done. (eating pork, sacrifices, etc.) Acts 10:9-16;15:1,5-29; Mark 7:19; Galatians 5:2-4; Hebrews 9:9-10;10:18

 

Vaticanus (B) Most of the Old Testament and all of New Testament up to Hebrews 9:15 (325-350 A.D.) Mark 7:19

Sinaiticus (340-350 A.D.) Mark 7:19

Alexandrinus (c.450 A.D.) All of the Old Testament except Genesis 14:14-17; 15:1-5, 16-19; 16:6-9; 1 Samuel 12:17-14:9; Psalm 19:20-79:11. All of the New Testament except Matthew 1:1-25:6, John 6:50-8:52; Romans 16:24; and 2 Corinthians 4:13-12:6.

 

From the Council of Nicea I to the Council of Ephesus (325-431 A.D.)

Eusebius’ Ecclesiastical History (323-339/340 A.D.) book 1 ch.4 p.87 says that we do not need to celebrate the Sabbath as the Hebrews do.

Hegemonius of Sirmium (4th century A.D.) discusses how Christ superseded the Sabbath as Lord of the Sabbath. Acts of Archelaus (=Archelaus Disputation with Manes ch.42 p.216

Athanasius of Alexandria (335-342 A.D.) (implied) "in which Flesh, as the Apostle says, He reconciled the enmity which was against us and destroyed the law of the commandments in ordinances, that He might make the two into one new man, making peace, and reconcile both in one body to the Father. On Luke 10:22 (Matthew 11:27) ch.3 p.88

Cyril of Jerusalem (c.349-386 A.D.)

Gregory Nazianzen (330-391 A.D.) "This is the wish of our schoolmaster the law, of the prophets who intervened between Christ and the law, of Christ who is the fulfiller and end of the spiritual law; of the emptied Godhead, of the assumed flesh, of the novel union between God and man," In Defense of His Flight to Pontus ch.23 p.209

Pacian of Barcelona (342-379/392 A.D.) (implied) We do not need to observe circumcision and the Sabbath anymore. Letter 3 ch.20.1 p.61

Book of Steps (Liber Graduum) (350-400 A.D.) (implied) "When he said, ‘He made both of them one Testament’, and he annulled law of the commandments by his commandments, so that he might make everything new with one testament. ‘From now on not a single letter ‘iota’ will pass away from the Law and the prophets.’ As for the rest, ‘The whole Law and Prophets up to John were established in order to serve and then pass away.’ ‘For the thing that has become old is worn out and close to destruction, and from then on we ought not to speak about these. From then on, that one letter iota will remain – which is the ten commandments, which are called ‘iota’ for there are ten commandments in the number of the signs." Memra 22 ch.21 p.269-270

John Chrysostom (before 407 A.D.) discusses how Jesus "enhanced" the law of the Sabbath in vol.10 Commentary on Matthew homily 39.3 p.257.

Augustine of Hippo (388-430 A.D.) discusses how Christians no longer have to keep the Jewish ceremonial law. Letter 75 ch.3.5 p.335

 

Among heretics

Pelagian heretic Theodore of Mopsuestia (392-423/429 A.D.) Christ "will bring the Law to an end" Commentary on Malachi ch.4 p.422

 

B5. New Testament has God’s words; study it

 

From the Council of Nicea I to the Council of Ephesus (325-431 A.D.)

Hegemonius of Sirmium (4th century A.D.) mentions the Old Testament and New Testament in Archelaus Disputation with Manes ch.41 p.214. See also Archelaus Disputation with Manes ch.40 p.213

Hilary of Poitiers (355-367/368 A.D.) (partial) says the word of God is profitable. On the Trinity book 1 ch.6 p.141

Athanasius of Alexandria (356-360 A.D.) quotes John 14:9-13 as scripture to prove his argument. Four Discourses Against the Arians discourse 4 ch.20 p.440

Basil of Cappadocia (357-379 A.D.) "Never neglect reading, especially of the New Testament, because very frequently mischief comes of reading the Old; not because what is written is harmful, but because the minds of the injured are weak. All bread is nutritious, but it may be injurious to the sick. Just so all Scripture is God inspired and profitable, and there is nothing in it unclean: only to him who think it is unclean, to him it is unclean." Basil to Julian Letter 41.3 p.144-145

The Synod of Laodicea (343-381 A.D.) (partial) canon 59 p.158 mentions the Old and New Testaments.

Cyril of Jerusalem (c.349-386 A.D.) emphasizes the important of holy scripture in Catechetical Lecture 5 ch.12 p.32

Ambrose of Milan (370-390 A.D.) quotes Romans 1:24-25 as by "Paul, who, filled with the Spirit of God." On the Christian Faith book 1 ch.16.101 p.218.

Ambrose of Milan (370-390 A.D.) mentions the Old and New Testaments in Of the Christian Faith book 1 ch.8.57 p.210

 

From the Council of Ephesus to the start of Muslim conquests (431-634 A.D.)

Pope Vigilius’ Letter to the Council of Constantinople II p.322 (553 A.D.) refers to the books of Acts of the Apostles.

 

Among heretics

Mani/Manes (4th century) said we are not to follow the Law and the Prophets, just the New Testament. Archelaus Disputation with Manes ch.13 p.188

Pelagian heretic Theodore of Mopsuestia (392-423/429 A.D.) eating meat is fine ("kill and eat"). Discusses Acts 10:9-13 and Peter seeing the cloth from heaven. Commentary on Nahum ch.1 p.251

 

B6. Some parts of the Bible are allegorical

 

Mark 2:22; Revelation 12

 

From the Council of Nicea I to the Council of Ephesus (325-431 A.D.)

Eusebius of Caesarea (323-339/340 A.D.) says that some of the things Moses built were allegories with the true meaning fulfilled in Christ. Eusebius’ Ecclesiastical History book 1 ch.3 p.85

Athanasius of Alexandria (326-372/373 A.D.) discusses Old Testament "dives proclamations, listen, as in figure" Festal Letter 1.4 p.507

Gregory of Nyssa (382-383 A.D.) discusses metaphors in scripture. Against Eunomius book 1 ch.23 p.63

 

Among heretics

 

B7. Old Testament has types of Christ

 

John 1:51; 3:13; 1 Corinthians 10:1-4

 

From the Council of Nicea I to the Council of Ephesus (325-431 A.D.)

Eusebius of Caesarea (323-339/340 A.D.) discusses how Moses and other ancient prophets honored the name of Christ.. "When he delivered types and symbols of heavenly things,…". Eusebius’ Ecclesiastical History book 1 ch.3.2 p.85

Eusebius of Caesarea (323-339/340 A.D.) discusses how Joshua was a type of Christ. Eusebius’ Ecclesiastical History book 1 ch.3.3-5 p.85

Athanasius of Alexandria (356-360 A.D.) mentions the Old Testament pointing to Christ. Four Discourses Against the Arians discourse 1 ch.59 p.341

Philo of Carpasia (4th century) "And he manifested himself to Abraham to whom the word or prophecy was given, and told him: ‘It is not now, but cross the Jordan and I will manifest to you’. And he told him he encountered Melkisedek and he blessed him. And Malka Sedeq blessed our father Abraham and gave him the typoi of the flesh and blood of Christ. Thus Abraham say in prophecy through the hands of Malka Sedeq, and Abraham rejoiced and gave the tenth from all he received, and gave a tithe to Malka Sedeq, his first interpretation means ‘king of Peace’, who did not have a father and who did not have a mother and whose birth is unknown, and whose life has no end and has no beginning."

Cyril of Jerusalem (c.349-386 A.D.)

John Chrysostom (died 407 A.D.) "This Melchizedek was at the same time both priest and king; he was to be a type of Christ, and Scripture makes clear mention of this. For Abraham attacked the Persians, rescued his nephew Lot from their hands, seized all the spoils, and was returning from his mighty victory over his foes. After describing those events the Scripture had this to say about Melchizedek." Against the Jews book 7 p.&&&

Jerome (373-420 A.D.) said "Jesus [Joshua] Son of Nave was a type of the Lord in name as well as in deed – who crossed over Jordan,…"

 

B8. Melchizedek was a type of Christ

 

Genesis 14:18; Psalm 110:4: Hebrews 5:6-10; 6:20 7:1-17

 

From the Council of Nicea I to the Council of Ephesus (325-431 A.D.)

Eusebius of Caesarea (323-339/340 A.D.) discusses Melchizedek being Christ in Hebrews. "Wherefore after his [Melchizedek’s] order, but not after the order of others, who received symbols and types, was our Saviour proclaimed with an appeal to an oath, Christ and priest." Eusebius’ Ecclesiastical History book 1 ch.3.13-18 p.86-87

Philo of Carpasia (4th century) "And he manifested himself to Abraham to whom the word or prophecy was given, and told him: ‘It is not now, but cross the Jordan and I will manifest to you’. And he told him he encountered Melkisedek and he blessed him. And Malka Sedeq blessed our father Abraham and gave him the typoi of the flesh and blood of Christ. Thus Abraham say in prophecy through the hands of Malka Sedeq, and Abraham rejoiced and gave the tenth from all he received, and gave a tithe to Malka Sedeq, his first interpretation means ‘king of Peace’, who did not have a father and who did not have a mother and whose birth is unknown, and whose life has no end and has no beginning."

Cyril of Jerusalem (c.349-386 A.D.) (implied)

John Chrysostom (died 407 A.D.) "This Melchizedek was at the same time both priest and king; he was to be a type of Christ, and Scripture makes clear mention of this. For Abraham attacked the Persians, rescued his nephew Lot from their hands, seized all the spoils, and was returning from his mighty victory over his foes. After describing those events the Scripture had this to say about Melchizedek." Against the Jews book 7 p.&&&

Augustine of Hippo (388-430 A.D.) quotes Psalm 110:4 as Melchizedek being a type of Christ" On Christian Doctrine book 4 ch.21.45 NPNF first series vol.2 p.590

 

From the Council of Ephesus to the start of Muslim conquests (431-634 A.D.)

Nestorius (451/452 A.D.) "Paul also has said things agreeing therewith: "He was made perfect and became unto all them that obey him the cause of eternal life and was named of God chief priest after the order of Melchizedek," and, after other things, he was proclaimed chief priest." Bazaar of Heracleides book 2 ch.1 p.&&&

 

 

B9. Joshua was a type of Christ

 

From the Council of Nicea I to the Council of Ephesus (325-431 A.D.)

Eusebius of Caesarea (323-339/340 A.D.) says that Jeshua was originally called Auses [Hoshea], but his name was changed to Jesus [Joshua] because he "bore a resemblance to our Saviour in the fast that he alone, after Moses and after the completion of the symbolical worship which had been transmitted by him, succeeded to the government of the trure religion. Eusebius’ Ecclesiastical History book 1 ch.3.4 p.85

Cyril of Jerusalem (c.349-386 A.D.)

 

B10. The prophets were until John

 

Matthew 11:13; Luke 16:16

 

From the Council of Nicea I to the Council of Ephesus (325-431 A.D.)

Hegemonius of Sirmium (4th century) (implied) Diodorus the Christian says that Manes is using this scripture (for the prophets were until John) to say to discard all of the Old Testament." Archelaus Disputation with Manes ch.40 p.215

 

B11. Veil on many when read Moses/OT

 

2 Corinthians 3:14

 

From the Council of Nicea I to the Council of Ephesus (325-431 A.D.)

Eusebius of Caesarea (323-339/340 A.D.) says that for us the veil on Mosaic Law as been removed. Eusebius’ Ecclesiastical History book 7 ch.32.19 p.319

Hegemonius of Sirmium (4th century) "I shall speak now with the utmost brevity of the veil of Moses and the ministration of death. For I do not think that these things at least can introduce very much to the disparagement of the law. The text in question, then, proceeds thus: ‘But if the ministration of death, engraven in letters on the stones, was made in glory, so that the children of Israel could not stedfastly behold the face of Moses for the glory of his countenance; which glory was to be done away;’ and so on. Well, this passage at any rate acknowledges the existence of a glory on the countenance of Moses, and that surely is a fact favourable to our position. And even although it is to be done away, and although there is a veil in the reading of the same, that does not annoy me or disturb me, provided there be glory in it still." Archelaus Disputation with Manes ch.43 p.219

Cyril of Jerusalem (c.349-386 A.D.)

 

B12. We can understand Scripture

 

From the Council of Nicea I to the Council of Ephesus (325-431 A.D.)

Athanasius of Alexandria (359 A.D.) (implied) speaks of understanding the "Sense of scripture" On the Councils ch.45 p.474

Palladius (c.430 A.D.) says of Evagrius "who helped me understand Holy Scripture" Four Desert Fathers p.30. See also part 2 p.72.

 

B13. Acknowledge Bible copyist errors

 

(Issues of canonicity are not included here)

 

Eusebius of Caesarea (323-339/340 A.D.) "But if there should seem to any one to be a disagreement in respect to the name of the king, the time at least and the events show that the same person is meant, whether the change of name has been caused by the error of a copyist, or is due to the fact that he, like so many, bore two names." Eusebius’ Ecclesiastical History book 2 ch.10.8 p.112.

 

B14. We are to believe Scripture

 

From the Council of Nicea I to the Council of Ephesus (325-431 A.D.)

Cyril of Jerusalem (c.349-386 A.D.) (implied)

John Chrysostom (died 407 A.D.) On the Statues homily 12 ch.12 p.423; On the Statues homily 6 ch.3 p.381

 

B15. O.T. said the Messiah had to suffer/die

 

Luke 24:44-46

 

From the Council of Nicea I to the Council of Ephesus (325-431 A.D.)

Augustine of Hippo (388-430 A.D.) quotes Luke 24:46 and then references verses about Christ’s suffering. On the Psalms Psalm 5 ch.4 p.179

Augustine of Hippo (388-430 A.D.) quotes Luke 24:44. On the Psalms Psalm 72 ch.17 p.332

 

No Eusebius, Athanasius of Alexandria, Ambrose, Socrates, Sozomon, Theodoret, Jerome, Chrysostom

 

From the Council of Ephesus to the start of Muslim conquests (431-634 A.D.)

Council of Constantinople II (May 553 A.D.) &&&

 

Among spurious works

Acts of the Holy Apostle Thomas (date unknown) p.548-549 "And he [Jesus] showed them a second time, beginning from the prophets, and explaining the things concerning Christ, and that it was necessary for Him to come, and for all things to be fulfilled that had been said to us beforehand concerning Him."

 

B16. Dual meaning of some prophecies

 

From the Council of Nicea I to the Council of Ephesus (325-431 A.D.)

John Chrysostom (martyred 407 A.D.) mentions dual fulfillment of prophecy. Commentary on Matthew homily 8 p.53

 

B17. Don’t twist/corrupt meaning of Scripture

 

From the Council of Nicea I to the Council of Ephesus (325-431 A.D.)

Eusebius of Caesarea (323-339/340 A.D.) says some heretics have "laid their hands boldly upon the Divine Scriptures, alleging that hey have corrected them." Eusebius’ Ecclesiastical History book 5 ch.8.16 p.248

Athanasius of Alexandria (354 A.D.) discusses those who wrest scripture. Letter 48 p.557.

Cyril of Jerusalem (c.349-386 A.D.) (implied)

John Chrysostom (died 407 A.D.) Concerning Lowliness of Mind ch.2 p.148

others too

 

B18. The Law was excellent or good

 

Psalm 119:39

Romans 7:12-13,16 The Law was holy and good.

1 Timothy 1:8

1 Timothy 4:4 (partial, everything God created is good)

 

From the Council of Nicea I to the Council of Ephesus (325-431 A.D.)

Hegemonius of Sirmium (4th century A.D.) "This also he added in the law, that nothing senseless should be done but that we should be careful and direct our life in accordance with what is just and righteous. Now this law was suspended over men, discharging most sharply its curse against those who might transgress it." Archelaus Disputation with Manes ch.31 p.203

Hegemonius of Sirmium (4th century A.D.) "I understand, then, that his [Manes’] chief effort was directed to prove that the law of Moses is not consonant with the law of Christ; and this position he attempted to found on the authority of our Scriptures. Well, on the other hand, not only did we establish the law of Moses, and all things which are written in it, by the same Scripture; but we also proved that the whole Old Testament agrees with the New Testament, and is in perfect harmony with the same, and that they form really one texture, just as a person may see one and the same robe made up of weft and warp together." Archelaus Disputation with Manes ch.41 p.215

Athanasius of Alexandria (329 A.D.) says the law was admirable and the shadow was excellent. Festal Letter 1 ch.3 p.507

Rufinus (373-406 A.D.) freely translating Origen (225-253/254 A.D.) "The Apostle Paul makes use of no circumlocution, when he says, ‘The law is good; and the commandment is holy, and just, and good.’ From which it is clear that Paul had not learned the language of those who separate justice from goodness, but had been instructed by that God, and illuminated by His Spirit, who is at the same time both holy, and good, and just; and speaking by whose Spirit he declared that the commandment of the law was holy, and just, and good." de Principiis book 2 ch.5.4. p.280

John Chrysostom (-407 A.D.) says the law was holy, just, and good. Commentary on Romans homily 12 p.422

others too.

 

B19. Scripture is called the Word of God

 

Mention of the Word of God referring to Jesus is not included here.

 

1 Samuel 3:1,7,21

 

2 Samuel 22:31

1 Kings 2:27

1 Kings 12:24

1 Kings 13:1

2 Kings 23:16; 24:2

1 Chronicles 10:13; 11:3; 12:23; 15:15; 16:15; 35:6; 36:21,22;

 

Psalm 18:30; 33:4,6

Psalm 105:28

Psalm 119:9,11,16,17,25,28,38,-172

Psalm 138:2

 

Proverbs 30:5 "Do not add to his [God’s] Words, lest he rebuke you and you be found a liar."

 

Word of God means just Scripture here

Mark 7:13 in speaking about Corban says, "Thus you nullify the word of God by your tradition that you have handed down. And you do many things like that."

John 10:34-35 "Is it not written in your Law, ‘I have said you are gods’? If he called them ‘gods,’ to whom the word of God came – and the Scripture cannot be broken"

Acts 17:11,13 "Now the Bereans were of more noble character than the Thessalonians, for they received the message with great eagerness and examined the Scriptures every day to see if what Paul said was true. (13) When the Jews in Thessalonica learned that Paul was preaching the word of God at Berea, they went there too,…"

Romans 9:6 "It is not as though God’s word had failed. For not all who are descended from Israel are Israel. Nor because they are his descendants are they all Abraham’s children. On the contrary, ‘It is through Isaac that your offspring will be reckoned."

Galatians 6:6 "Anyone who receives instruction in the word must share all good things with his instructor"

 

Word of God means Scripture and/or truth

Isaiah 1:10 "Hear the word of the LORD, you rulers of Sodom; listen to the law of our God, your people of Gomorrah!"

Luke 11:28 "He [Jesus] replied, ‘Blessed rather are those who hear the word of God and obey it.’"

2 Corinthians 2:17 "Unlike so many, we do not peddle the word of God for profit. On the contrary, in Christ we speak before God with sincerity, like men sent from God."

2 Corinthians 4:2 "Rather, we have renounced secret and shameful ways; we do not use deception, nor do we distort the word of God. On the contrary, by setting forth the truth plainly we commend ourselves in every man’s conscience in the sight of God."

Colossians 1:25 "to present to you the word of God in its fullness"

Titus 2:5 ... so that no one will malign the word of God"

1 Peter 4:11 "If anyone speaks, he should do it as one speaking the very words of God."

1 Thessalonians 2:13 "And we also thank God continually because, when you received the word of God, which you heard from us, you accepted it not as the word of men, but as it actually is, the word of God, which is at work in you who believe."

Hebrews 4:12 "For the word of God is sharper than any two-edged sword…" (scripture, truth)

1 Peter 1:23,25 "for you have been born again not of seed which is perishable but imperishable that is, through the living and abiding word of God. (25) But the Word of the Lord abides forever. And this is the word which was preached to you." (NASB) (scripture, truth)

 

Word of God means Jesus Christ, scripture, and/or truth

1 John 2:14 (Christ, scripture, truth)

 

Word of God means just Jesus Christ

Revelation 19:13 His [Jesus’] name is the Word of God.

 

p46 Chester Beatty II – 1,680 verses 70% Paul + Hebrews (100-150 A.D.) (partial – For the word of God)

 

From the Council of Nicea I to the Council of Ephesus (325-431 A.D.)

Hilary of Poitiers (355-367/368 A.D.) (implied) says the word of God is profitable, referring to 1 Timothy 3:16. On the Trinity book 1 ch.6 p.141

Pacian of Barcelona (342-379/392 A.D.) "be humble and tremble at God’s words" On Penitents ch.6.1 p.76

Rufinus (374-406 A.D.) (partial) freely translating Origen (225-253/254 A.D.) "Then, finally, that the Scriptures were written by the Spirit of God." Origen’s de Principiis Preface 8 p.241

John Chrysostom (-407 A.D.) (implied) says God’s Word is holy. Commentary on Matthew homily 11 p.73

M Basil of Cappadocia (357-379 A.D.) "Of the beliefs and practices whether universally accepted or publicly enjoined which are preserved in the Church some we possess derived from written teaching; others we have received delivered to us ‘in a mystery’ by the tradition of the apostles; and both of these in relation to true religion have the same force. ... For were we to attempt to reject such customs as have no written authority, on the ground that the important they possess is small, we should unintentionally injure the Gospel in its very vitals;"

John Chrysostom (-407 A.D.) "God said that the devil is a murderer; they say that he can cure diseases, in contradiction to God’s word." Against the Jews book 8.

 

How important are we to consider God’s word in scripture? To explain this, it is hard to improve on what an ancient Christian saint and deep Biblical scholar said:

 

"Let us then also learn hence to consider all things secondary πάρεργα to the hearing the word of God, and to deem no season unseasonable, and, though a man may even have to go into another person’s house, and being a person unknown to make himself known to great men, though it be late in the day, or at any time whatever, never to neglect this traffic. Let food and baths and dinners and the other things of this life have their appointed time; but let the teaching of heavenly philosophy have no separate time, let every season belong to it. For Paul saith, "In season, out of season, reprove, rebuke, exhort" and the Prophet too saith, ‘and David also glances at this, saying, ‘In His law will he meditate day and night’ and Moses commanded the Jews to do this always.’" John Chrysostom (-407 A.D.) Homilies on John homily 18 ch.4 p.65. John Chrysostom preached a lot of good words himself, but even he would consider his own words secondary to God’s word.

 

B20. Scripture is Holy/Sacred

Romans 1:2; 2 Timothy 3:15

 

(The terms "Divine Scripture" and "Holy Covenant" are not included here.)

 

p10 (= P. Oxyrhynchus 209) Romans 1:1-7 (4th century) has Romans 1:2.

 

From the Council of Nicea I to the Council of Ephesus (325-431 A.D.)

Hegemonius of Sirmium (4th century A.D.) "For we have been instructed beforehand with regard to you: we have been both warned and armed against you by the Holy Scriptures. You are a vessel of Antichrist; and no vessel of honour, in sooth, but a mean and base one, used by him as any barbarian or tyrant may do, who, in attempting to make an inroad on a people living under the righteousness of the laws," Archelaus Disputation with Manes ch.36 p.210

Athanasius of Alexandria (356-360 A.D.) "For it is written, ‘So much better than angels;’ let us then first examine this. Now it is right and necessary, as in all divine Scripture, so here, faithfully to expound the time of which the Apostle wrote," Four Discourses Against the Arians discourse 1 ch.54 p.338.

Athanasius of Alexandria (339 A.D.) mentions "Holy Scripture". Circular Letter ch.3 p.94

Synod of Antioch in Encaenis (summer 341 A.D.) &&&

Council of Gangra (345-381 A.D.) &&&

Cyril of Jerusalem (c.349-386 A.D.) emphasizes the important of holy scripture in Catechetical Lecture 5 ch.12 p.32; lecture 3 ch.4 p.15; lecture 4 ch.17 p.23.

Chrysostom (died 407 A.D.) "But how shall any one who is unskillful as these men pretend, be able to convict the gainsayers and stop their mouths? Or what need is there to give attention to reading and to the Holy Scriptures, if such a state of unskillfulness is to be welcome among us?". On the Priesthood ch.4.8 p.68

Chrysostom (died 407 A.D.) "For of the fact that we have an immortal soul, and that we shall hereafter render an account of what we have done here, and stand before a fearful Tribunal, their minds are at once thoroughly persuaded, and they have also regulated their whole course of life by such hopes as these; and have become superior to all worldly show, instructed as they have been by the sacred Scriptures, that ‘all is vanity, yea, vanity of vanities,’ [Ecclesiastes 1.2] and they do not greedily long for any of those things which seem to be so splendid." On the Statues ch.19.3 p.465

Jerome (373-420 A.D.) "All [nuns] had every day to learn a certain portion of the holy scriptures." Letter 108.20 p.206

John Cassian (410-430 A.D.) write of Paphnutius speaking of the authority of holy scripture. Conference of the Bishop Paphnutius ch.6 p.321

Palladius (c.430 A.D.) says of Evagrius "who helped me understand Holy Scripture" Four Desert Fathers p.30.

 

From the Council of Ephesus to the start of Muslim conquests (431-634 A.D.)

Fulgentius of Ruspe (507-532/533 A.D.) says that Scripture is holy. To Peter on the Faith ch.5 p.63

 

After the Start of Muslim conquests (634 A.D.-)

Anastasius Bibliothecarius (858-878 A.D.) freely translating Peter of Alexandria (306,285-311 A.D.) "Inferior to none who bad gone before him in his knowledge of Holy Scripture, he nobly applied himself to the advantage and instruction of the Church;" Genuine Acts of Peter p.261

 

Among heretics

The Arian Candidus’ Letter to Marius Victorinus (359-362 A.D.) speaks of Holy Scripture in Acts of the Apostles. Candidus’ First Letter p.56

 

B21. Divine Scripture

 

From the Council of Ephesus to the start of Muslim conquests (431-634 A.D.)

Eusebius of Caesarea (323-339/340 A.D.) says some heretics have "laid their hands boldly upon the Divine Scriptures, alleging that hey have corrected them." Eusebius’ Ecclesiastical History book 5 ch.8.16 p.248

Athanasius of Alexandria (346-356 A.D.) mentions "divine scripture" Defense of the Nicene Definition ch.6 p.154

Cyril of Jerusalem (c.349-386 A.D.)

John Chrysostom (died 407 A.D.) "They who receive the wild doctrines of Valentinus and Marcion, and of all whose minds are similarly diseased, exclude the Law given by God to Moses from the catalogue of the Divine Scriptures." On the Priesthoods book 4 ch.4 p.65

 

From the Council of Ephesus to the start of Muslim conquests (431-634 A.D.)

Nestorius (451/452 A.D.) speaks of divine Scripture. Bazaar of Heracleides book 1 part 1 ch.23 and "Divine Scriptures" book 1 part 1 ch.56.

 

B22. Some corrupted [copies of] Scripture

 

This includes both changed the Christian scriptures and those who made their own books taking pieces of Christian scriptures.

 

From the Council of Ephesus to the start of Muslim conquests (431-634 A.D.)

Cyril of Jerusalem (c.349-386 A.D.) said Marcion corrupted scripture. Catechetical Lecture 6 ch.16 p.38

 

B23. Law was a shadow of the gospel/things to come

 

From the Council of Nicea I to the Council of Ephesus (325-431 A.D.)

Athanasius of Alexandria (329 A.D.) "For the law was admirable, and the shadow was excellent, otherwise, it would not have wrought fear, and induced reverence in those who heard; especially in those who at that time not only heard but saw these things. Now these things were typical, and done as in a shadow." Easter Letter 329 A.D. p.&&&

 

B24. Scripture was/is fulfilled

 

Luke 24:44; John 19:24

 

Vaticanus (B) Most of the Old Testament, including all of Deuteronomy, and all of New Testament up to Hebrews 9:15 (325-350 A.D.) Luke 24:44-45

Sinaiticus (340-350 A.D.) Luke 24:44-45

Vercelli (Latin a) (4th century) Mt 1:1-25:1; 25:13-end; Mk 1:1-21;1:35-15:14; Lk 1:1-11:11; 11:27-12:36; 13:1-end Luke 24:44-45

Alexandrinus (c.450 A.D.) All of the Old Testament except Genesis 14:14-17; 15:1-5, 16-19; 16:6-9; 1 Samuel 12:17-14:9; Psalm 19:20-79:11. All of the New Testament except Matthew 1:1-25:6, John 6:50-8:52; Romans 16:24; and 2 Corinthians 4:13-12:6. Luke 24:44-45

 

From the Council of Nicea I to the Council of Ephesus (325-431 A.D.)

Eusebius of Caesarea (323-339/340 A.D.) (partial) says that some of the things Moses built were allegories with the true meaning fulfilled in Christ. Eusebius’ Ecclesiastical History book 1 ch.3 p.85

Rufinus (374-406 A.D.) freely translating Origen (225-253/254 A.D.) "Saviour, it is written that the prediction of the prophet Joel was fulfilled," de Principiis book 2 ch.7.2 p.285

Rufinus (364-406 A.D.) freely translating Origen (225-253/254 A.D.) "His coming now He fulfilled that law which has a shadow of good things to come" de Principiis book 4 ch.25 p.375

 

From the Council of Ephesus to the start of Muslim conquests (431-634 A.D.)

The Didascalia (after 431 A.D.) "For when there are found many that sin, evil waxes strong; and whereas they that sin are not corrected and reproved that they should repent, this becomes to all an inducement to sin: and that which is said is fulfilled: ‘My house is called a house of prayer, but ye have made it a den of thieves.’" [Matthew 21.13; Luke 19.46]

 

Among heretics

Ebionite Gospel of pseudo-Matthew (600-625 A.D.) ch.14 p.375 "Then was fulfilled that which was said by Isaiah the prophet, saying: The ox knoweth his owner, and the ass his master’s crib." [Isaiah 1:3]

 

B25. Unbelievers don’t understand OT/scripture

 

From the Council of Nicea I to the Council of Ephesus (325-431 A.D.)

John Chrysostom (died 407 A.D.) (implied) ".... Come here, Daniel,’ he said, ‘because the words are to be kept secret and sealed’ (indicating the obscurity of the words) ‘until the time of the end. Then the angel mentioned the reason why God consented to these evils: ‘As long as many are chosen, made white, and purged, as long as the lawless act lawlessly, as long as all the unholy ones shall not understand and the holy ones do understand.’" Against the Jews book 5 ch.8

 

B26. Meditate on God’s Word/commands

 

Psalm 63:6; 77:3,6,12; 119:15,27,47-48,78,148

 

Meditate on God and His word, laws, promises, ways, wonders. Ps 104:34; 1:2; 119: 15,23,27,48,78,97,99,103,140,148; 39:3; 2 Cor 7:1; 2 Pet 1:4, and works. Ps 77:12; 143:5

-morning/night. Ps 5:3; 16:7; 63:6; 119:55,148; 92:2; 42:8; 77:6; Is26:9;Job 35:10; Gen 24:63

meditating on God pleases Him.Ps19:14;5:1;104:34 and enriches us. Js1:8; Ps1:2-3

 

From the Council of Nicea I to the Council of Ephesus (325-431 A.D.)

John Chrysostom (died 407 A.D.) ""In His law will he meditate day and night" (Psalm 1:3); and Moses commanded the Jews to do this always." Homilies on John homily 18 ch.4 p.&&&

No Ambrose.

 

B27. Scripture is inspired

 

From the Council of Nicea I to the Council of Ephesus (325-431 A.D.)

John Chrysostom (died 407 A.D.) "And where can we see that all these things came true? In Pilate's unlawful court of law. Although they testified to so many things against him, as Matthew said, Jesus made no answer to them. Pilate, the presiding official, said to him: 'Do you hear what witness these men bear against you? And he made no answer but stood there silent. This is what the heaven-inspired prophet meant when he said: 'Like a lamb led to the slaughter or a sheep before the shearer, he was silent.'" Against the Jews book 6 ch.2

Rufinus (374-406 A.D.) translating Origen (225-253/254 A.D.) "those Scriptures alone which were inspired by the Holy Spirit, i.e., the Gospels and Epistles, and the law and the prophets, according to the declaration of Christ Himself." de Principiis book 1 ch.3 p.&&&

 

B28. Lion both good and bad in scripture

 

Good: Revelation 5:5

Bad: 1 Peter 5:8

 

From the Council of Nicea I to the Council of Ephesus (325-431 A.D.)

Athanasius of Alexandria (356-360 A.D.) (bad) compares Satan to a lion. History of the Arians ch.20 p.276

Ambrose of Milan (370-390 A.D.) (bad) quotes 1 Peter 5:8. Duties of the Clergy book 1 ch.49.250 p.40. He also quotes 1 Peter 5:8 in Sermon Against Auxentius ch.4 p.430.

Cyril of Jerusalem (c.349-386 A.D.)

John Chrysostom (died 407 A.D.) (good) "And what is meant by the words ‘thou didst lie down and slumber as a lion?’ For as the lion is terrible not only when he is awake but even when he is sleeping, so Christ also not only before the cross but also on the cross itself and in the very moment of death was terrible, and wrought at that time great miracles, turning back the light of the sun, cleaving the rocks, shaking the earth, rending the veil, alarming the wife of Pilate, convicting Judas of sin, for then he said ‘I have sinned in that I have betrayed the innocent blood;’ and the wife of Pilate declared ‘Have nothing to do with that just man, for I have suffered many things in a dream because of Him.’" Homily on Matthew 26:19 ch.1 p.&&&

John Chrysostom (died 407 A.D.) (bad) "Do you stray outside the flock and have you no fear of the lion that prowls about outside the fold? ‘For your enemy, like a lion, goes about seeking whom he may seize.’" Against the Jews Homily 34 ch.7

 

B29. Search the scriptures

 

Acts 17:11 (implied)

 

 

OLD TESTAMENT canon

 

OTc1. The Law and the prophets

 

Haggai 2:10 (partial, the law)

 

From the Council of Nicea I to the Council of Ephesus (325-431 A.D.)

Hegemonius of Sirmium (4th century A.D.) This is not therefore an idle question, but there are the mightiest issues involved in this word. For just as all the law and the prophets are summed up in two words, so also all our hope is made to depend on the birth by the blessed Mary." Archelaus Disputation with Manes ch.49 p.225-226

Athanasius of Alexandria (356 A.D.) mentions the Law and the prophets. Letter to the Bishops of Egypt ch.1.4 p.224

Athanasius of Alexandria (356-360 A.D.) (partial) mentions the Law. Four Discourses Against the Arians discourse 1 ch.59 p.341

Cyril of Jerusalem (c.349-386 A.D.)

Gregory Nazianzen (330-391 A.D.) "This is the wish of our schoolmaster the law, of the prophets who intervened between Christ and the law, of Christ who is the fulfiller and end of the spiritual law; of the emptied Godhead, of the assumed flesh, of the novel union between God and man," In Defense of His Flight to Pontus ch.23 p.209

Book of Steps (Liber Graduum) (350-400 A.D.) (implied) "‘From now on not a single letter ‘iota’ will pass away from the Law and the prophets.’" Memra 22 ch.21 p.269-270

Amphilochius of Iconium (c.345-398/404) &&&

John Chrysostom (died 407 A.D.) "Law given by God to Moses from the catalogue of the Divine Scriptures." On the Priesthoods book 4 ch.4 p.65

Rufinus (410 A.D.) freely translated Origen (240 A.D.) refers to the Law and the prophets. He also says the Law was our teacher to Christ. Commentary on the Song of Songs ch.1 p.70

Rufinus (374-406 A.D.) freely translating Origen (225-253/254 A.D.) (Greek) "with respect to the five books of Moses, who have once given in their adhesion to the apostle, as divinely inspired;" de Principiis book 4 ch.1.13 p.362 (The Latin translation is very similar). See also Homilies on Jeremiah homily 5 ch.13 p.35

Jerome (373-420 A.D.) "They have Moses and the prophets. … And in both passages no one doubts that Moses signifies the law." Against Jovianus book 1 ch.22 p.362

 

Among heretics

Arian heretic Eunomius (c.360-c.394 A.D.) mentions the law and prophets. Apologetic Letter ch.21 p.61

Pelagian heretic Theodore of Mopsuestia (392-423/429 A.D.) The law and the prophets. Commentary on Zechariah ch.5 p.351

 

OTc2. Genesis is scripture

 

From the Council of Nicea I to the Council of Ephesus (325-431 A.D.)

Hegemonius of Sirmium (4th century A.D.) (implied) "Even that great serpent himself was not evil previous to man, but only after man, in whom he displayed the fruit of his wickedness, because he willed it himself. If, then, the father of wickedness makes his appearance to us after man has come into being, according to the Scriptures, how can he be unbegotten who has thus been constituted evil subsequently to man, who is himself a production?" (Archelaus is speaking) Archelaus Disputation with Manes ch.18 p.191

Athanasius of Alexandria (356 A.D.) (implied) "Whereas scripture showed this, when relating his [Satan’s] artifices against Eve in Paradise" Letter to the Bishops of Egypt ch.1.3 p.224

Synod of Laodicea (in Phrygia) (343-381 A.D.) canon 60 p.159 lists the books of the Old Testament and the New Testament. Canon 59 p.158 says only the canonical books of the Old and New Testaments may be read in church.

Cyril of Jerusalem (c.349-386 A.D.)

Epiphanius of Salamis (360-403 A.D.) (implied) gives the 22 (!) books of the Old Testament in the following order: Pentateuch (5), Joshua, Job, Judges, Ruth, Psalms, Chronicles (2) Kings (4), Proverbs, Ecclesiastes, Canticles [Song of Solomon] Twelve prophets, Isaiah, Jeremiah, Ezekiel, Daniel, Ezra (2), Esther. The Book of Lamentations did not fit his contrived system, so he put Lamentations at the end. These are the 39 books we have today.

Amphilochius of Iconium (c.345-398/404) &&&

John Chrysostom (died 407 A.D.) quotes Genesis 4:9 then immediately says "But it may be objected, that the Gentile allows nothing of this sort. Come then, let us discuss this point, and as we have done with respect to the creation, having carried on the warfare against these objectors not only by the help of the Scriptures, but of reason, so also let us now do with respect to conscience." On the Statues homily 12 ch.11-12 p.423

John Chrysostom (-407 A.D.) (implied for Genesis) "For Scripture says: "For Cain and his offerings he had no regard". Noah offered to God sacrifices of sheep and calves and birds. The Scripture say: "And the Lord smelled a sweet odor", that is, he accepted the offerings." Against the Jews ch.5

Augustine of Hippo (388-430 A.D.) calls Genesis scripture. On Christian Doctrine book 4 ch.21.45 NPNF first series vol.2 p.590

 

After the Start of Muslim conquests (634 A.D.-)

John of Damascus (706-749 A.D.) mentions as the Old Testament all of the books of the Protestant/Jewish Old Testament (combining the minor prophets as "The Twelve") plus Wisdom of Solomon and Wisdom of Jesus [Sirach]. Exposition of the Orthodox Faith book 4 ch.17 p.89-90

 

Among corrupt or spurious works

Constitutions of the Holy Apostles (c.380 A.D.) book 5 section 1 p.441 "the divine Scripture testifies that God said to Christ, His only-begotten, ‘Let us make man after our image, and after our likeness. And God made man: after the image of God made He him; male and female made He them.’"

 

Among heretics

Pelagian heretic Theodore of Mopsuestia (392-423/429 A.D.) God says in divine scripture. And quotes Genesis 2:2; 4:15; Ecclesiastes 11:2. Commentary on Micah ch.5 p.231

 

OTc3. Exodus is scripture or God said

 

From the Council of Nicea I to the Council of Ephesus (325-431 A.D.)

Eusebius of Caesarea (323-339/340 A.D.) quotes Exodus 22:20 and 20:3 as "Sacred Scripture". Eusebius’ Ecclesiastical History book 9 ch.10 p.331

Athanasius of Alexandria (346-356 A.D.) "and there are others also, heavenly ones, for Scripture says, ‘The Lord of powers is with us, the God of Jacob is our refuge.’" [Exodus 12:41] Defence of the Nicene Definition ch.20 p.163

Synod of Laodicea (in Phrygia) (343-381 A.D.) canon 60 p.159 lists the books of the Old Testament and the New Testament. Canon 59 p.158 says only the canonical books of the Old and New Testaments may be read in church.

Cyril of Jerusalem (c.349-386 A.D.)

Epiphanius of Salamis (360-403 A.D.) quotes Exodus 1:7 as "scripture". The Panarion section 1 ch.8,4,5 p.25

Epiphanius of Salamis (360-403 A.D.) (implied) gives the 22 (!) books of the Old Testament in the following order: Pentateuch (5), Joshua, Job, Judges, Ruth, Psalms, Chronicles (2) Kings (4), Proverbs, Ecclesiastes, Canticles [Song of Solomon] Twelve prophets, Isaiah, Jeremiah, Ezekiel, Daniel, Ezra (2), Esther. The Book of Lamentations did not fit his contrived system, so he put Lamentations at the end. These are the 39 books we have today.

Amphilochius of Iconium (c.345-398/404) &&&

 

After the Start of Muslim conquests (634 A.D.-)

John of Damascus (706-749 A.D.) mentions as the Old Testament all of the books of the Protestant/Jewish Old Testament (combining the minor prophets as "The Twelve") plus Wisdom of Solomon and Wisdom of Jesus [Sirach]. Exposition of the Orthodox Faith book 4 ch.17 p.89-90

 

OTc4. Leviticus is Scripture or God says

 

From the Council of Nicea I to the Council of Ephesus (325-431 A.D.)

Athanasius of Alexandria (329 A.D.) quotes Leviticus 23:26-27 as scripture and God speaking to Moses. Easter Letter 1 ch.4 p.508

Synod of Laodicea (in Phrygia) (343-381 A.D.) canon 60 p.159 lists the books of the Old Testament and the New Testament. Canon 59 p.158 says only the canonical books of the Old and New Testaments may be read in church.

Cyril of Jerusalem (c.349-386 A.D.)

Amphilochius of Iconium (c.345-398/404) &&&

 

After the Start of Muslim conquests (634 A.D.-)

John of Damascus (706-749 A.D.) mentions as the Old Testament all of the books of the Protestant/Jewish Old Testament (combining the minor prophets as "The Twelve") plus Wisdom of Solomon and Wisdom of Jesus [Sirach]. Exposition of the Orthodox Faith book 4 ch.17 p.89-90

 

OTc5. Numbers is Scripture or God says

 

Athanasius of Alexandria (329 A.D.) quotes Numbers 10:1-2 as "divine scripture" and "God revealing to Moses" Easter Letter 1 ch.2 p.507

Synod of Laodicea (in Phrygia) (343-381 A.D.) canon 60 p.159 lists the books of the Old Testament and the New Testament. Canon 59 p.158 says only the canonical books of the Old and New Testaments may be read in church.

Cyril of Jerusalem (c.349-386 A.D.)

Amphilochius of Iconium (c.345-398/404) &&&

 

After the Start of Muslim conquests (634 A.D.-)

John of Damascus (706-749 A.D.) mentions as the Old Testament all of the books of the Protestant/Jewish Old Testament (combining the minor prophets as "The Twelve") plus Wisdom of Solomon and Wisdom of Jesus [Sirach]. Exposition of the Orthodox Faith book 4 ch.17 p.89-90

 

OTc6. Deuteronomy is scripture or God says

 

Vaticanus (B) (325-350 A.D.) contains all of Deuteronomy. It has most of the Old Testament and all of New Testament up to Hebrews 9:15 (325-350 A.D.)

 

From the Council of Nicea I to the Council of Ephesus (325-431 A.D.)

Athanasius of Alexandria (356-360 A.D.) quotes Deuteronomy 32:8 as scripture. Four Discourses Against the Arians discourse 1 ch.13 p.313

Synod of Laodicea (in Phrygia) (343-381 A.D.) canon 60 p.159 lists the books of the Old Testament and the New Testament. Canon 59 p.158 says only the canonical books of the Old and New Testaments may be read in church.

Cyril of Jerusalem (c.349-386 A.D.)

Epiphanius of Salamis (360-403 A.D.) (implied) gives the 22 (!) books of the Old Testament in the following order: Pentateuch (5), Joshua, Job, Judges, Ruth, Psalms, Chronicles (2) Kings (4), Proverbs, Ecclesiastes, Canticles [Song of Solomon] Twelve prophets, Isaiah, Jeremiah, Ezekiel, Daniel, Ezra (2), Esther. The Book of Lamentations did not fit his contrived system, so he put Lamentations at the end. These are the 39 books we have today.

Amphilochius of Iconium (c.345-398/404) &&&

 

After the Start of Muslim conquests (634 A.D.-)

John of Damascus (706-749 A.D.) mentions as the Old Testament all of the books of the Protestant/Jewish Old Testament (combining the minor prophets as "The Twelve") plus Wisdom of Solomon and Wisdom of Jesus [Sirach]. Exposition of the Orthodox Faith book 4 ch.17 p.89-90

 

OTc7. Joshua is Scripture or the Lord says

 

From the Council of Nicea I to the Council of Ephesus (325-431 A.D.)

Athanasius of Alexandria (331 A.D.) lists the books of the Old Testament, including Joshua son of Nun in Letter 39 ch.4 p.552.

Cyril of Jerusalem (c.349-386 A.D.)

Amphilochius of Iconium (c.345-398/404) &&&

 

After the Start of Muslim conquests (634 A.D.-)

John of Damascus (706-749 A.D.) mentions as the Old Testament all of the books of the Protestant/Jewish Old Testament (combining the minor prophets as "The Twelve") plus Wisdom of Solomon and Wisdom of Jesus [Sirach]. Exposition of the Orthodox Faith book 4 ch.17 p.89-90

 

OTc8. 1 or 2 Samuel is scripture or God says

 

From the Council of Nicea I to the Council of Ephesus (325-431 A.D.)

Basil of Cappadocia (357-378/379 A.D.) quotes from 1 Samuel 7:4 as Scripture. Letter 8 ch.3 p.117

Athanasius of Alexandria (331 A.D.) lists the books of the Old Testament, including the four books of kings [1, 2 Samuel, 1, 2 Kings] in Letter 39 ch.4 p.552.

Synod of Laodicea (in Phrygia) (343-381 A.D.) canon 60 p.159 lists the books of the Old Testament and the New Testament. Canon 59 p.158 says only the canonical books of the Old and New Testaments may be read in church.

Cyril of Jerusalem (c.349-386 A.D.)

Amphilochius of Iconium (c.345-398/404) &&&

Augustine of Hippo (338-430 A.D.) refers to 2 Samuel as scripture in Commentary on Psalms p.412

 

From the Council of Ephesus to the start of Muslim conquests (431-634 A.D.)

The Didascalia (after 431 A.D.) "for thus is it written in the first Book of Kingdoms: [1 Samuel] Samuel spake all the words of the Lord unto the people, which had asked of him a king, and said to them: This is the law of the king that shall reign over you: your sons he will take, and will set them upon his chariots; and he will make of them runners before him,"

 

After the Start of Muslim conquests (634 A.D.-)

John of Damascus (706-749 A.D.) mentions as the Old Testament all of the books of the Protestant/Jewish Old Testament (combining the minor prophets as "The Twelve") plus Wisdom of Solomon and Wisdom of Jesus [Sirach]. Exposition of the Orthodox Faith book 4 ch.17 p.89-90

 

OTc9. Reference to 1 or 2 Kings as Kings

 

From the Council of Nicea I to the Council of Ephesus (325-431 A.D.)

Aphrahat the Syrian (337-345 A.D.) (allusion)

Athanasius of Alexandria (331 A.D.) lists the books of the Old Testament, including the four books of kings [1, 2 Samuel, 1, 2 Kings] in Letter 39 ch.4 p.552.

Ephraim the Syrian (350-378 A.D.)

Basil of Cappadocia (357-378/379 A.D.) (allusion)

Synod of Laodicea (in Phrygia) (343-381 A.D.) canon 60 p.159 lists the books of the Old Testament and the New Testament. Canon 59 p.158 says only the canonical books of the Old and New Testaments may be read in church.

Cyril of Jerusalem (c.349-386 A.D.) quotes 1 Kings 1:4 as "Holy Scripture in the Book of Kings" Catechetical Lectures Lecture 12.21 p.78

Ambrose of Milan (370-390 A.D.)

Gregory of Nazianzen (330-391 A.D.) (allusion)

Gregory of Nyssa (c.356-397 A.D.) (allusion)

Epiphanius of Salamis (360-403 A.D.) gives the 22 (!) books of the Old Testament in the following order: Pentateuch (5), Joshua, Job, Judges, Ruth, Psalms, Chronicles (2) Kings (4), Proverbs, Ecclesiastes, Canticles [Song of Solomon] Twelve prophets, Isaiah, Jeremiah, Ezekiel, Daniel, Ezra (2), Esther. The Book of Lamentations did not fit his contrived system, so he put Lamentations at the end. These are the 39 books we have today. The Panarion

Amphilochius of Iconium (c.345-398/404) &&&

Rufinus (374-406 A.D.) freely translating Origen

John Chrysostom (died 407 A.D.) quotes 1 Kings 19:14 as "Scripture" in Homilies on Romans homily 18 p.482

Orosius/Hosius of Braga (414-418 A.D.) alludes to 1 Kings 21:1-16. Defense Against the Pelagians ch.8 p.125

Council of Carthage (393-419 A.D.)

Fragment of Nicephorus of Constantinople referring to Clement of Alexandria (193-217/220 A.D.) 1 Kings 8:27 "Solomon the son of David, in the books styled ‘The Reigns of the Kings,’ comprehending not only that the structure of the true temple was celestial and spiritual, but had also a reference to the flesh, which He who was both the son and Lord of David was to build up, … Will God in very deed dwell with men on the earth?" Fragment by Nicephorus of Constantinople quoting Clement of Alexandria against the Judaizers. p.584

Sulpicius/Sulpitius Severus (Historian) (363-420 A.D.) mentions 1 Kings as the Third Book of Kings in History book 1 ch.40 p.90

Jerome (373-420 A.D.)

Augustine of Hippo (338-430 A.D.) (allusion)

John Cassian (419-430 A.D.)

 

From the Council of Ephesus to the start of Muslim conquests (431-634 A.D.)

Socrates the church historian (400-439 A.D.) quotes half a verse from 2 Kings

Theodoret of Cyrus (423-458 A.D.) quotes half of a verse of 1 Kings.

Leo I of Rome (440-461 A.D.)

 

After the Start of Muslim conquests (634 A.D.-)

John of Damascus (706-749 A.D.) mentions as the Old Testament all of the books of the Protestant/Jewish Old Testament (combining the minor prophets as "The Twelve") plus Wisdom of Solomon and Wisdom of Jesus [Sirach]. Exposition of the Orthodox Faith book 4 ch.17 p.89-90

 

Among heretics

Pelagian heretic Theodore of Mopsuestia (392-423/429 A.D.)

 

OTc10. Reference to 1 or 2 Chronicles as Chronicles

 

From the Council of Nicea I to the Council of Ephesus (325-431 A.D.)

Athanasius of Alexandria (367 A.D.) mentions first and second Chronicles in the books of the Old Testament. Easter Letter 39 ch.4 p.552

Cyril of Jerusalem (c.349-386 A.D.)

Amphilochius of Iconium (c.345-398/404) &&&

 

After the Start of Muslim conquests (634 A.D.-)

John of Damascus (706-749 A.D.) mentions as the Old Testament all of the books of the Protestant/Jewish Old Testament (combining the minor prophets as "The Twelve") plus Wisdom of Solomon and Wisdom of Jesus [Sirach]. Exposition of the Orthodox Faith book 4 ch.17 p.89-90

 

OTc11. Job is scripture or the Lord says

 

From the Council of Nicea I to the Council of Ephesus (325-431 A.D.)

Athanasius of Alexandria (331 A.D.) lists the books of the Old Testament, including Job in Letter 39 ch.4 p.552.

Synod of Laodicea (in Phrygia) (343-381 A.D.) canon 60 p.159 lists the books of the Old Testament and the New Testament. Canon 59 p.158 says only the canonical books of the Old and New Testaments may be read in church.

Cyril of Jerusalem (c.349-386 A.D.)

Epiphanius of Salamis (360-403 A.D.) gives the 22 (!) books of the Old Testament in the following order: Pentateuch (5), Joshua, Job, Judges, Ruth, Psalms, Chronicles (2) Kings (4), Proverbs, Ecclesiastes, Canticles [Song of Solomon] Twelve prophets, Isaiah, Jeremiah, Ezekiel, Daniel, Ezra (2), Esther. The Book of Lamentations did not fit his contrived system, so he put Lamentations at the end. These are the 39 books we have today.

Amphilochius of Iconium (c.345-398/404) &&&

Rufinus (374-406 A.D.) freely translating Origen (225-253/254 A.D.) "even the Lord in the book of Job says, "Thou wilt take with a hook the apostate dragon," i.e., a fugitive. de Principiis book 1 ch.5.5 p.260

 

After the Start of Muslim conquests (634 A.D.-)

John of Damascus (706-749 A.D.) mentions as the Old Testament all of the books of the Protestant/Jewish Old Testament (combining the minor prophets as "The Twelve") plus Wisdom of Solomon and Wisdom of Jesus [Sirach]. Exposition of the Orthodox Faith book 4 ch.17 p.89-90

 

OTc12. Psalms are scripture or God/Spirit spoke

 

Jesus quoted Psalm 41:9 as scripture, in John 13:18.

 

Eusebius of Caesarea (323-339/340 A.D.) alludes to Psalm 19:4 as "the divine Scriptures" Eusebius’ Ecclesiastical History book 2 ch.3 p.107

Athanasius of Alexandria (367 A.D.) "There are, then, of the Old Testament, twenty-two books in number; for, as I have heard, it is handed down that this is the number of the letters among the Hebrews; their respective order and names being as follows. The first is Genesis , then Exodus, next Leviticus, after that numbers, and then Deuteronomy. Following these there is Joshua, the son of Nun, then Judges, then Ruth. And again, after these four books of Kings, the first and second being reckoned as one book, and so likewise the third and fourth as one book. And again, the first and second of the Chronicles are reckoned as one book. Again Ezra, the first and second are similarly one book. After these there is the book of Psalms, then the Proverbs, next Ecclesiastes, and the Song of Songs. Job follows, then the Prophets, the twelve being reckoned as one book. Then Isaiah, one book, then Jeremiah with Baruch, Lamentations, and the epistle, one book, afterwards, Ezekiel and Daniel, each one book. Thus far constitutes the Old Testament." Paschal Letter 39 ch.4 p.552.

Synod of Laodicea (in Phrygia) (343-381 A.D.) canon 60 p.159 lists the books of the Old Testament and the New Testament. Canon 59 p.158 says only the canonical books of the Old and New Testaments may be read in church.

Cyril of Jerusalem (c.349-386 A.D.)

Epiphanius of Salamis (360-403 A.D.) was crazy over the number 22. He gives the 22 (!) books of the Old Testament in the following order: Pentateuch (5), Joshua, Job, Judges, Ruth, Psalms, Chronicles (2) Kings (4), Proverbs, Ecclesiastes, Canticles [Song of Solomon] Twelve prophets, Isaiah, Jeremiah, Ezekiel, Daniel, Ezra (2), Esther. The Book of Lamentations did not fit his contrived system, so he put Lamentations at the end. These are the 39 books we have today.

Amphilochius of Iconium (c.345-398/404) &&&

John Chrysostom (-407 A.D.) "For if thou wouldest learn how great is the profit of the Scriptures, examine thyself, what thou becomest by hearing Psalms, and what by listening to a song of Satan; and how thou art disposed when staying in a Church, and how when sitting in a theatre; and thou wilt see that great is the difference between this soul and that, although both be one." Homilies on Matthew homily 2 p.&&&

others too.

 

After the Start of Muslim conquests (634 A.D.-)

John of Damascus (706-749 A.D.) mentions as the Old Testament all of the books of the Protestant/Jewish Old Testament (combining the minor prophets as "The Twelve") plus Wisdom of Solomon and Wisdom of Jesus [Sirach]. Exposition of the Orthodox Faith book 4 ch.17 p.89-90

 

Among heretics

Arian heretic Eunomius (c.360-c.394 A.D.) (partial) alludes to Psalms 113:11 as by the prophetic voice. Apologetic Letter ch.23 p.65

 

OTc13. Proverbs are scripture or the Lord says

 

From the Council of Nicea I to the Council of Ephesus (325-431 A.D.)

Athanasius of Alexandria (356-360 A.D.) quotes Proverbs 8:22 and Hebrews 3:2 then says, "They are accustomed to allege the aforesaid passages of divine Scripture, which have a good meaning," Four Discourses Against the Arians discourse 2 ch.14.1 p.348

Athanasius of Alexandria (331 A.D.) lists the books of the Old Testament, including Proverbs in Letter 39 ch.4 p.552.

Synod of Laodicea (in Phrygia) (343-381 A.D.) canon 60 p.159 lists the books of the Old Testament and the New Testament. Canon 59 p.158 says only the canonical books of the Old and New Testaments may be read in church.

Cyril of Jerusalem (c.349-386 A.D.)

Epiphanius of Salamis (360-403 A.D.) gives the 22 (!) books of the Old Testament in the following order: Pentateuch (5), Joshua, Job, Judges, Ruth, Psalms, Chronicles (2) Kings (4), Proverbs, Ecclesiastes, Canticles [Song of Solomon] Twelve prophets, Isaiah, Jeremiah, Ezekiel, Daniel, Ezra (2), Esther. The Book of Lamentations did not fit his contrived system, so he put Lamentations at the end. These are the 39 books we have today.

Amphilochius of Iconium (c.345-398/404) &&&

Augustine of Hippo (338-430 A.D.) refers to Proverbs as Scripture in Commentary on Psalms p.412

others too.

 

From the Council of Ephesus to the start of Muslim conquests (431-634 A.D.)

The Didascalia (after 431 A.D.) "as the Lord said in Proverbs: ‘If thou sleep he keepeth thee; and when thou awakest, he will speak with thee’" [Prov 6.22].

others too.

 

After the Start of Muslim conquests (634 A.D.-)

John of Damascus (706-749 A.D.) mentions as the Old Testament all of the books of the Protestant/Jewish Old Testament (combining the minor prophets as "The Twelve") plus Wisdom of Solomon and Wisdom of Jesus [Sirach]. Exposition of the Orthodox Faith book 4 ch.17 p.89-90

 

Among heretics

Arian heretic Eunomius (c.360-c.394 A.D.) quotes part of Proverbs 8:22 as the Lord is speaking. Apologetic Letter ch.25 p.71

Arian heretic Eunomius (c.360-c.394 A.D.) quotes Proverbs 8:22,23,25 as "Holy Scripture proclaims" Apologetic Letter ch.28 p.75

 

OTc14. Isaiah is scripture or the Lord/Spirit says

 

From the Council of Nicea I to the Council of Ephesus (325-431 A.D.)

Athanasius of Alexandria (331 A.D.) lists the books of the Old Testament, including Isaiah in Letter 39 ch.4 p.552.

Synod of Laodicea (in Phrygia) (343-381 A.D.) canon 60 p.159 lists the books of the Old Testament and the New Testament. Canon 59 p.158 says only the canonical books of the Old and New Testaments may be read in church.

Cyril of Jerusalem (c.349-386 A.D.)

Epiphanius of Salamis (360-403 A.D.) gives the 22 (!) books of the Old Testament in the following order: Pentateuch (5), Joshua, Job, Judges, Ruth, Psalms, Chronicles (2) Kings (4), Proverbs, Ecclesiastes, Canticles [Song of Solomon] Twelve prophets, Isaiah, Jeremiah, Ezekiel, Daniel, Ezra (2), Esther. The Book of Lamentations did not fit his contrived system, so he put Lamentations at the end. These are the 39 books we have today.

Amphilochius of Iconium (c.345-398/404) &&&

others too.

 

From the Council of Ephesus to the start of Muslim conquests (431-634 A.D.)

The Didascalia (after 431 A.D.) "as the Lord said to them by Isaiah: ‘Hearing ye shall hear, and shall not understand; and seeing ye shall see, and shall not know. For the heart of this people is waxed gross; and their eyes they have shut, and their ears they have stopped, that they may not be converted: lest at any time they should see with their eyes, and hear with their ears’" [Isa 6.9-10; Acts 28.26-27].

The Didascalia (after 431 A.D.) ch.91 "See, then, that the People provoked our Lord in that they believed not in Him. Wherefore he saith: ‘They provoked the holy Spirit; and he was turned to enmity unto them’ [Isa 63.10]. And again He speaks otherwise of them by Isaiah the prophet: ‘Land of Zebulun, land of Naphtali, the way of the sea, beyond Jordan, Galilee of the nations, a people that sitteth in darkness: ye have seen a great light; and they that sit in darkness and in the shadow of death, light is risen upon them’" [Isa 9.1-2; Mt 4.15-16]

others too.

 

After the Start of Muslim conquests (634 A.D.-)

John of Damascus (706-749 A.D.) mentions as the Old Testament all of the books of the Protestant/Jewish Old Testament (combining the minor prophets as "The Twelve") plus Wisdom of Solomon and Wisdom of Jesus [Sirach]. Exposition of the Orthodox Faith book 4 ch.17 p.89-90

 

Among corrupt or spurious works

Constitutions of the Holy Apostles (3rd-5th century, compiled c.390 A.D.) book 2 ch.1 p.396 quotes Isaiah 66:2 as "The Lord says by Esias [Isaiah]"

 

OTc15. Jeremiah is scripture or the Lord says

 

From the Council of Nicea I to the Council of Ephesus (325-431 A.D.)

Athanasius of Alexandria (331 A.D.) lists the books of the Old Testament, including Jeremiah in Letter 39 ch.4 p.552.

Synod of Laodicea (in Phrygia) (343-381 A.D.) canon 60 p.159 lists the books of the Old Testament and the New Testament. Canon 59 p.158 says only the canonical books of the Old and New Testaments may be read in church.

Cyril of Jerusalem (c.349-386 A.D.)

Epiphanius of Salamis (360-403 A.D.) gives the 22 (!) books of the Old Testament in the following order: Pentateuch (5), Joshua, Job, Judges, Ruth, Psalms, Chronicles (2) Kings (4), Proverbs, Ecclesiastes, Canticles [Song of Solomon] Twelve prophets, Isaiah, Jeremiah, Ezekiel, Daniel, Ezra (2), Esther. The Book of Lamentations did not fit his contrived system, so he put Lamentations at the end. These are the 39 books we have today.

Amphilochius of Iconium (c.345-398/404) &&&

others too.

 

From the Council of Ephesus to the start of Muslim conquests (431-634 A.D.)

The Didascalia (after 431 A.D.) (partial, mistakenly quotes Ezekiel, not Jeremiah) "whom the Lord said by Jeremiah (sic) My laws ye have not kept [Ezek 5.7] but neither have ye conversed after the laws"

others too.

 

After the Start of Muslim conquests (634 A.D.-)

John of Damascus (706-749 A.D.) mentions as the Old Testament all of the books of the Protestant/Jewish Old Testament (combining the minor prophets as "The Twelve") plus Wisdom of Solomon and Wisdom of Jesus [Sirach]. Exposition of the Orthodox Faith book 4 ch.17 p.89-90

 

OTc16. Ezekiel is scripture or the Lord says

 

From the Council of Nicea I to the Council of Ephesus (325-431 A.D.)

Athanasius of Alexandria (331 A.D.) lists the books of the Old Testament, including Ezekiel in Letter 39 ch.4 p.552.

Synod of Laodicea (in Phrygia) (343-381 A.D.) canon 60 p.159 lists the books of the Old Testament and the New Testament. Canon 59 p.158 says only the canonical books of the Old and New Testaments may be read in church.

Cyril of Jerusalem (c.349-386 A.D.)

Epiphanius of Salamis (360-403 A.D.) gives the 22 (!) books of the Old Testament in the following order: Pentateuch (5), Joshua, Job, Judges, Ruth, Psalms, Chronicles (2) Kings (4), Proverbs, Ecclesiastes, Canticles [Song of Solomon] Twelve prophets, Isaiah, Jeremiah, Ezekiel, Daniel, Ezra (2), Esther. The Book of Lamentations did not fit his contrived system, so he put Lamentations at the end. These are the 39 books we have today.

Amphilochius of Iconium (c.345-398/404) &&&

others too.

 

From the Council of Ephesus to the start of Muslim conquests (431-634 A.D.)

The Didascalia (after 431 A.D.) ch.6 p.29 "And concerning this, that (men) are not to suppose that they perish or are defiled by the sins of others, He again cut off their evil thought, and by Ezekiel also the Lord our God spoke thus: ‘And the word of the Lord came unto me, saying: ‘Son of man, why use ye this proverb in the land of Israel, and say: ‘The fathers do eat sour grapes, and their sons’ teeth are on edge?’ As I live, saith the Lord Adonai, there shall no more be any that useth this proverb in Israel. For all the souls are mine: as the soul of the father is mine, so also the soul of the son is mine. The soul that sinneth, the same shall die."

others too.

 

After the Start of Muslim conquests (634 A.D.-)

John of Damascus (706-749 A.D.) mentions as the Old Testament all of the books of the Protestant/Jewish Old Testament (combining the minor prophets as "The Twelve") plus Wisdom of Solomon and Wisdom of Jesus [Sirach]. Exposition of the Orthodox Faith book 4 ch.17 p.89-90

 

OTc17. Daniel is scripture or God showed

 

From the Council of Nicea I to the Council of Ephesus (325-431 A.D.)

Eusebius of Caesarea (318-339/340 A.D.) "For the Scripture, in the book of Daniel, having expressly mentioned a certain number of weeks until the coming of Christ…" Eusebius’ Ecclesiastical History book 1 ch.6.11 p.90

Athanasius of Alexandria (331 A.D.) lists the books of the Old Testament, including Daniel in Letter 39 ch.4 p.552.

Synod of Laodicea (in Phrygia) (343-381 A.D.) canon 60 p.159 lists the books of the Old Testament and the New Testament. Canon 59 p.158 says only the canonical books of the Old and New Testaments may be read in church.

Cyril of Jerusalem (c.349-386 A.D.)

Epiphanius of Salamis (360-403 A.D.) gives the 22 (!) books of the Old Testament in the following order: Pentateuch (5), Joshua, Job, Judges, Ruth, Psalms, Chronicles (2) Kings (4), Proverbs, Ecclesiastes, Canticles [Song of Solomon] Twelve prophets, Isaiah, Jeremiah, Ezekiel, Daniel, Ezra (2), Esther. The Book of Lamentations did not fit his contrived system, so he put Lamentations at the end. These are the 39 books we have today.

Amphilochius of Iconium (c.345-398/404) &&&

 

After the Start of Muslim conquests (634 A.D.-)

John of Damascus (706-749 A.D.) mentions as the Old Testament all of the books of the Protestant/Jewish Old Testament (combining the minor prophets as "The Twelve") plus Wisdom of Solomon and Wisdom of Jesus [Sirach]. Exposition of the Orthodox Faith book 4 ch.17 p.89-90

 

OTc18. Hosea is scripture or God/the Word says

 

From the Council of Nicea I to the Council of Ephesus (325-431 A.D.)

Athanasius of Alexandria (356-360 A.D.) quotes Hosea 7:13 as the Lord Himself uttered by the prophet Hosea. Four Discourses Against the Arians Discourse 7 p.309-310

Athanasius of Alexandria (331 A.D.) (partial) lists the books of the Old Testament, mentioning the twelve minor prophets as "then the Prophets, the twelve being reckoned as one book." in Letter 39 ch.4 p.552.

Amphilochius of Iconium (c.345-398/404) &&&

 

OTc19. Joel is scripture or God says

 

From the Council of Nicea I to the Council of Ephesus (325-431 A.D.)

Athanasius of Alexandria (356-360 A.D.) alludes to the caterpillar in Joel 2:25 as ""Scripture". Four Discourses Against the Arians Discourse 1 ch.5 p.309

Athanasius of Alexandria (356-360 A.D.) alludes to "flesh" in Scripture as by Joel the Prophet. Four Discourses Against the Arians Discourse 3 ch.31 p.410

Athanasius of Alexandria (331 A.D.) (partial) lists the books of the Old Testament, mentioning the twelve minor prophets as "then the Prophets, the twelve being reckoned as one book." in Letter 39 ch.4 p.552.

 

OTc20. Amos is scripture or God said

 

From the Council of Nicea I to the Council of Ephesus (325-431 A.D.)

Athanasius of Alexandria (331 A.D.) (partial) lists the books of the Old Testament, mentioning the twelve minor prophets as "then the Prophets, the twelve being reckoned as one book." in Letter 39 ch.4 p.552.

Amphilochius of Iconium (c.345-398/404) &&&

Augustine of Hippo (388-430 A.D.) quotes part of Amos 9:3 as "of which another passage of Scripture speaks" On the Psalms Psalm 89 ch.11 p.432

 

OTc21. Micah is scripture

 

From the Council of Nicea I to the Council of Ephesus (325-431 A.D.)

Athanasius of Alexandria (331 A.D.) (partial) lists the books of the Old Testament, mentioning the twelve minor prophets as "then the Prophets, the twelve being reckoned as one book." in Letter 39 ch.4 p.552.

Amphilochius of Iconium (c.345-398/404) &&&

Rufinus (374-406 A.D.) freely translating Origen (225-253/254 A.D.) "the prophet Micah in these words" and quotes Micah 6:8." de Principiis [Latin] book 3 ch.1.6 p.305

 

OTc22. Habakkuk is scripture or God says

 

From the Council of Nicea I to the Council of Ephesus (325-431 A.D.)

Athanasius of Alexandria (331 A.D.) (partial) lists the books of the Old Testament, mentioning the twelve minor prophets as "then the Prophets, the twelve being reckoned as one book." in Letter 39 ch.4 p.552.

Life of Antony (probably by Athanasius of Alexandria) (355 A.D.) ch.26 p.203 says that God sent by the prophet Habakkuk. And quotes Habakkuk 2:15 (Septuagint)

Cyril of Jerusalem (c.349-386 A.D.)

Amphilochius of Iconium (c.345-398/404) &&&

 

OTc23. Zechariah is scripture or God says

 

From the Council of Nicea I to the Council of Ephesus (325-431 A.D.)

Athanasius of Alexandria (331 A.D.) (partial) lists the books of the Old Testament, mentioning the twelve minor prophets as "then the Prophets, the twelve being reckoned as one book." in Letter 39 ch.4 p.552.

Rufinus (374-406 A.D.) freely translating Origen (225-253/254 A.D.) alludes to Zechariah 3:1 as by Zechariah. de Principiis book 3 ch.2 p.329

Amphilochius of Iconium (c.345-398/404) &&&

 

OTc24. Malachi is scripture or God/Spirit says

 

From the Council of Nicea I to the Council of Ephesus (325-431 A.D.)

Athanasius of Alexandria (331 A.D.) (partial) lists the books of the Old Testament, mentioning the twelve minor prophets as "then the Prophets, the twelve being reckoned as one book." in Letter 39 ch.4 p.552.

Amphilochius of Iconium (c.345-398/404) &&&

 

OTc25. The Twelve [Minor Prophets]

 

From the Council of Nicea I to the Council of Ephesus (325-431 A.D.)

&&&Eusebius of Caesarea (323-339/340 A.D.) &&&

Athanasius of Alexandria (331 A.D.) lists the books of the Old Testament, mentioning the twelve minor prophets as "then the Prophets, the twelve being reckoned as one book." in Letter 39 ch.4 p.552.

Cyril of Jerusalem (c.349-386 A.D.) mentiosn the prophets and the twelve. Catechical Lectures Lecture 16.29 p.122

Didymus the Blind (398 A.D.) quotes Nahum 3:10 as by "Nahum, seventh of the twelve prophets" Commentary on Zechariah 11 p.257

Epiphanius of Salamis (360-403 A.D.) was crazy over the number 22. He gives the 22 (!) books of the Old Testament in the following order: Pentateuch (5), Joshua, Job, Judges, Ruth, Psalms, Chronicles (2) Kings (4), Proverbs, Ecclesiastes, Canticles [Song of Solomon] Twelve prophets, Isaiah, Jeremiah, Ezekiel, Daniel, Ezra (2), Esther. The Book of Lamentations did not fit his contrived system, so he put Lamentations at the end. These are the 39 books we have today.

RufinusCommentary on the Apostles’ Creed (374-406 A.D.)

Rufinus (410 A.D.) freely translated Origen (c.240 A.D.) mentions the twelve prophets. Commentary on the Song of Songs book 2 ch.10 p.165.

Jerome (373-420 A.D.) (implied)

Council of Carthage (393-419 A.D.)

Augustine of Hippo (338-430 A.D.) mentions Isaiah and the twelve prophets in The City of God book 17 ch.29 p.376

others too.

 

After the Start of Muslim conquests (634 A.D.-)

John of Damascus (706-749 A.D.) mentions as the Old Testament all of the books of the Protestant/Jewish Old Testament (combining the minor prophets as "The Twelve") plus Wisdom of Solomon and Wisdom of Jesus [Sirach]. Exposition of the Orthodox Faith book 4 ch.17 p.89-90

 

OTc26. Use of the term "Old Testament"

 

From the Council of Nicea I to the Council of Ephesus (325-431 A.D.)

Hegemonius of Sirmium (4th century) mentions the Old Testament and New Testament in Archelaus Disputation with Manes ch.41 p.214,215. See also ibid ch.40 p.214

Athanasius of Alexandria (331 A.D.) starts of the list of the books of the Old Testament as "These are, then, of the Old Testament," in Letter 39 ch.4 p.552.

Athanasius of Alexandria (326-372/373 A.D.) "Son, all the books of Scripture, both Old Testament and New, are inspired by God and useful for instruction [2 Tim 3:16], as it is written; but to those who really study it the Psalter yields especial treasure." Athanasius on Psalms

Cyril of Jerusalem (c.349-386 A.D.)

Epiphanius of Salamis (360-403 A.D.) mentions the Old and New Testaments. The Panarion section 3 scholion 1 and 5 p.334

 

After the Start of Muslim conquests (634 A.D.-)

John of Damascus (706-749 A.D.) mentions as the Old Testament all of the books of the Protestant/Jewish Old Testament (combining the minor prophets as "The Twelve") plus Wisdom of Solomon and Wisdom of Jesus [Sirach]. Exposition of the Orthodox Faith book 4 ch.17 p.89-90

 

OTc27. The Old Testament is scripture

 

Luke 24:44-45

 

Vaticanus (B) Most of the Old Testament, including all of Deuteronomy, and all of New Testament up to Hebrews 9:15 (325-350 A.D.) Luke 24:44-45

Sinaiticus (340-350 A.D.) Luke 24:44-45

Vercelli (Latin a) (4th century) Mt 1:1-25:1; 25:13-end; Mk 1:1-21;1:35-15:14; Lk 1:1-11:11; 11:27-12:36; 13:1-end Luke 24:44-45

Alexandrinus (c.450 A.D.) All of the Old Testament except Genesis 14:14-17; 15:1-5, 16-19; 16:6-9; 1 Samuel 12:17-14:9; Psalm 19:20-79:11. All of the New Testament except Matthew 1:1-25:6, John 6:50-8:52; Romans 16:24; and 2 Corinthians 4:13-12:6. Luke 24:44-45

 

From the Council of Nicea I to the Council of Ephesus (325-431 A.D.)

Athanasius of Alexandria (326-372/373 A.D.) "Son, all the books of Scripture, both Old Testament and New, are inspired by God and useful for instruction [2 Tim 3:16], as it is written; but to those who really study it the Psalter yields especial treasure." Athanasius on Psalms

Cyril of Jerusalem (c.349-386 A.D.)

 

After the Start of Muslim conquests (634 A.D.-)

John of Damascus (706-749 A.D.) (implied) discusses scripture and then lists the books of the Old and New Testaments. Exposition of the Orthodox Faith book 4 ch.17 p.89-90

 

OTc28. The Ten Commandments / Decalogue

 

From the Council of Nicea I to the Council of Ephesus (325-431 A.D.)

Augustine of Hippo (&&&) speaks of the ten commandments. Epistle 55 ch.&&&^

Gregory Nanzianzen (&&&) "Give me the tables of your heart; I will be your Moses, though this be a bold thing to say; I will write on them with the finger of God a new Decalogue." Letter 40 ch.45 p.&&&

John Chryosostom (died 407 A.D.)

 

From the Council of Ephesus to the start of Muslim conquests (431-634 A.D.)

The Didascalia (after 431 A.D.) ch.2 "For the first Law is that which the Lord God spoke before the people had made the calf and served idols, which consists of the Ten Words and the Judgements."

 

NEW TESTAMENT canon

 

NTc1. Matthew is scripture

 

(Jesus / the Lord / the Savior said is not counted.)

From the Council of Nicea I to the Council of Ephesus (325-431 A.D.)

Hegemonius of Sirmium (4th century) "The Spirit in the evangelist Matthew is also careful to give note of these words of our Lord Jesus Christ:" and then quotes Matthew 24:5,24. (Archelaus is speaking) Archelaus Disputation with Manes ch.35 p.209

Hegemonius of Sirmium (4th century) quotes Matthew 5:8 as Scripture. Archelaus Disputation with Manes ch.42 p.217

Hegemonius of Sirmium (4th century) quotes Matthew 24:4,5,23-26 including "For there shall arise false Christs, and false apostle, and false prophets, and shall show great signs and wonders;..." Then in the same chapter Archelaus tells Manes "whereas, even were you to do signs and wonders, we would still have to reckon you a false Christ, and a false prophet, according to the Scriptures." Archelaus Disputation with Manes ch.54 p.232

Athanasius of Alexandria (367 A.D.) "Again it is not tedious to speak of the [books] of the New Testament. These are, the four Gospels, according to Matthew, Mark, Luke, and John. Afterwards, the Acts of the Apostles and Epistles (called Catholic), seven, viz. of James, one; of Peter, two; of John, three; after these, one of Jude. In addition, there are fourteen Epistles of Paul, written in this order. The first, to the Romans; then two to the Corinthians; after these, to the Galatians; next, to the Ephesians; then to the Philippians; then to the Colossians; after these, two to the Thessalonians, and that to the Hebrews; and again, two to Timothy; one to Titus; and lastly, that to Philemon. And besides, the Revelation of John." (Athanasius of Alexandria’ Festal Letter 39 ch.5 p.552)

Cheltenham Canon (=Mommson Catalogue) (c.360-370 A.D.) mentions each of the four gospels, Acts, Paul’s letters, 1 Peter, 1 John, and Revelation.

Synod of Laodicea (343-381 A.D.) canon 60 p.159 lists the books of the Old Testament and the New Testament. Canon 59 p.158 says only the canonical books of the Old and New Testaments may be read in church.

Syrian Catalogue of St. Catherine’s (ca.400 A.D.) refers to the four gospels, Acts, Romans, and Galatians through Hebrews.

Jerome (317-420 A.D.) mentions by name the "New Testament", Matthew, Mark, Luke, John as "the Lord’s team of four", seven church letters of Paul, Hebrews, Timothy, Titus, Philemon, Acts of the Apostles, seven epistles among James, Peter, John, and Jude, and the Apocalypse of John all in letter 53 ch.9 p.101-102.

 

From the Council of Ephesus to the start of Muslim conquests (431-634 A.D.)

Prosper of Aquitaine (425-465 A.D.) quotes Matthew 11:25-30 as Holy Scripture

 

Start of Muslim conquests (634-)

John of Damascus (706-749 A.D.) "The New Testament contains four gospels, that according to Matthew, that according to Mark, that according to Luke, that according to John:" Exposition of the Orthodox Faith book 4 ch.17 p.90

 

NTc2. Mark is scripture or God said

 

Athanasius of Alexandria (367 A.D.) "Again it is not tedious to speak of the [books] of the New Testament. These are, the four Gospels, according to Matthew, Mark, Luke, and John. Afterwards, the Acts of the Apostles and Epistles (called Catholic), seven, viz. of James, one; of Peter, two; of John, three; after these, one of Jude. In addition, there are fourteen Epistles of Paul, written in this order. The first, to the Romans; then two to the Corinthians; after these, to the Galatians; next, to the Ephesians; then to the Philippians; then to the Colossians; after these, two to the Thessalonians, and that to the Hebrews; and again, two to Timothy; one to Titus; and lastly, that to Philemon. And besides, the Revelation of John." (Athanasius of Alexandria’ Festal Letter 39 ch.5 p.552)

Synod of Laodicea (343-381 A.D.) canon 60 p.159 lists the books of the Old Testament and the New Testament. Canon 59 p.158 says only the canonical books of the Old and New Testaments may be read in church.

 

From the Council of Ephesus to the start of Muslim conquests (431-634 A.D.)

Nestorius (444 A.D.)

 

Start of Muslim conquests (634-)

John of Damascus (706-749 A.D.) "The New Testament contains four gospels, that according to Matthew, that according to Mark, that according to Luke, that according to John:" Exposition of the Orthodox Faith book 4 ch.17 p.90

 

NTc3. Luke is scripture or God said

 

(Jesus / the Lord / the Savior said is not counted.)

 

From the Council of Nicea I to the Council of Ephesus (325-431 A.D.)

Hegemonius of Sirmium (4th century) "I understand, then, that his [Manes’] chief effort was directed to prove that the law of Moses is not consonant with the law of Christ; and this position he attempted to found on the authority of our Scriptures. Well, on the other hand, not only did we establish the law of Moses, and all things which are written in it, by the same Scripture; but we also proved that the whole Old Testament agrees with the New Testament, and is in perfect harmony with the same, and that they form really one texture, just as a person may see one and the same robe made up of weft and warp together." Archelaus Disputation with Manes ch.41 p.215

Athanasius of Alexandria (367 A.D.) "Again it is not tedious to speak of the [books] of the New Testament. These are, the four Gospels, according to Matthew, Mark, Luke, and John. Afterwards, the Acts of the Apostles and Epistles (called Catholic), seven, viz. of James, one; of Peter, two; of John, three; after these, one of Jude. In addition, there are fourteen Epistles of Paul, written in this order. The first, to the Romans; then two to the Corinthians; after these, to the Galatians; next, to the Ephesians; then to the Philippians; then to the Colossians; after these, two to the Thessalonians, and that to the Hebrews; and again, two to Timothy; one to Titus; and lastly, that to Philemon. And besides, the Revelation of John." (Athanasius of Alexandria’ Festal Letter 39 ch.5 p.552)

Cheltenham Canon (=Mommson Catalogue) (c.360-370 A.D.) mentions each of the four gospels, Acts, Paul’s letters, 1 Peter, 1 John, and Revelation.

Synod of Laodicea (343-381 A.D.) canon 60 p.159 lists the books of the Old Testament and the New Testament. Canon 59 p.158 says only the canonical books of the Old and New Testaments may be read in church.

Cyril of Jerusalem (c.349-386 A.D.) quotes part of Luke 4:41 as Scripture Lecture 10.15 p.4 and refers to it as the Gospel in Lecture 2.4 p.9.

Syrian Catalogue of St. Catherine’s (ca.400 A.D.) refers to the four gospels, Acts, Romans, and Galatians through Hebrews.

Jerome (317-420 A.D.) mentions by name the "New Testament", Matthew, Mark, Luke, John as "the Lord’s team of four", seven church letters of Paul, Hebrews, Timothy, Titus, Philemon, Acts of the Apostles, seven epistles among James, Peter, John, and Jude, and the Apocalypse of John all in letter 53 ch.9 p.101-102.

 

Start of Muslim conquests (634-)

John of Damascus (706-749 A.D.) "The New Testament contains four gospels, that according to Matthew, that according to Mark, that according to Luke, that according to John:" Exposition of the Orthodox Faith book 4 ch.17 p.90

 

NTc4. John is scripture

 

(Jesus / the Lord / the Savior said is not counted.)

 

Athanasius of Alexandria (367 A.D.) "Again it is not tedious to speak of the [books] of the New Testament. These are, the four Gospels, according to Matthew, Mark, Luke, and John. Afterwards, the Acts of the Apostles and Epistles (called Catholic), seven, viz. of James, one; of Peter, two; of John, three; after these, one of Jude. In addition, there are fourteen Epistles of Paul, written in this order. The first, to the Romans; then two to the Corinthians; after these, to the Galatians; next, to the Ephesians; then to the Philippians; then to the Colossians; after these, two to the Thessalonians, and that to the Hebrews; and again, two to Timothy; one to Titus; and lastly, that to Philemon. And besides, the Revelation of John." (Athanasius of Alexandria’ Festal Letter 39 ch.5 p.552)

 

From the Council of Nicea I to the Council of Ephesus (325-431 A.D.)

Eusebius of Caesarea (323-339/340 A.D.) quotes John 1:1 and 1:3 as Scripture. Eusebius’ Ecclesiastical History book 1 ch.2.3 p.82

Hegemonius of Sirmium (4th century) "Moreover, when they came upon the word which is given us in our Scriptures touching the Paraclete, he [Manes] took it into his head that he himself might be that Paraclete; for he had not read with sufficient care to observe that the Paraclete had come already,-namely, at the time when the apostles were still upon earth." Archelaus Disputation with Manes ch.54 p.232

Hegemonius of Sirmium (4th century) quotes John 16:14 as scripture. Archelaus Disputation with Manes ch.34 p.208

Hegemonius of Sirmium (4th century) "Furthermore, there is but one only inconvertible substance, the divine substance, eternal and invisible, as is known to all, and as is also borne out by this scripture: ‘No man hath seen God at any time, save the only begotten Son, which is in the bosom of the Father.’" (Archelaus is speaking) Archelaus Disputation with Manes ch.32 p.205

Athanasius of Alexandria (367 A.D.) "Again it is not tedious to speak of the [books] of the New Testament. These are, the four Gospels, according to Matthew, Mark, Luke, and John. Afterwards, the Acts of the Apostles and Epistles (called Catholic), seven, viz. of James, one; of Peter, two; of John, three; after these, one of Jude. In addition, there are fourteen Epistles of Paul, written in this order. The first, to the Romans; then two to the Corinthians; after these, to the Galatians; next, to the Ephesians; then to the Philippians; then to the Colossians; after these, two to the Thessalonians, and that to the Hebrews; and again, two to Timothy; one to Titus; and lastly, that to Philemon. And besides, the Revelation of John." (Athanasius of Alexandria’ Festal Letter 39 ch.5 p.552)

Cheltenham Canon (=Mommson Catalogue) (c.360-370 A.D.) mentions each of the four gospels, Acts, Paul’s letters, 1 Peter, 1 John, and Revelation.

Synod of Laodicea (343-381 A.D.) canon 60 p.159 lists the books of the Old Testament and the New Testament. Canon 59 p.158 says only the canonical books of the Old and New Testaments may be read in church.

Cyril of Jerusalem (c.349-386 A.D.) quotes John 4:24 as sacred scripture according to John. Catechical Lectures Lecture 17 ch.34 p.132

Syrian Catalogue of St. Catherine’s (ca.400 A.D.) refers to the four gospels, Acts, Romans, and Galatians through Hebrews.

Jerome (317-420 A.D.) mentions by name the "New Testament", Matthew, Mark, Luke, John as "the Lord’s team of four", seven church letters of Paul, Hebrews, Timothy, Titus, Philemon, Acts of the Apostles, seven epistles among James, Peter, John, and Jude, and the Apocalypse of John all in letter 53 ch.9 p.101-102.

Sozomon (370/380-425 A.D.) quotes John 3:13 as scripture. Sozomen’s Ecclesiastical History book 6 ch.27 p.364

 

Start of Muslim conquests (634-)

John of Damascus (706-749 A.D.) "The New Testament contains four gospels, that according to Matthew, that according to Mark, that according to Luke, that according to John:" Exposition of the Orthodox Faith book 4 ch.17 p.90

 

Among heretics

Pelagian heretic Theodore of Mopsuestia (392-423/429 A.D.) quotes John 6:49 as Scripture. Commentary on Hosea ch.2 p.45

 

NTc5. Acts is scripture

 

From the Council of Nicea I to the Council of Ephesus (325-431 A.D.)

Eusebius of Caesarea (323-339/340 A.D.) refers to Acts 12:3 as "as the divine Scripture says" Eusebius’ Ecclesiastical History book 2 ch.9 p.111

Hegemonius of Sirmium (4th century) writes that Archelaus quotes Acts 2:6 as Scripture. Archelaus Disputation with Manes ch.36 p.210. Archelaus also quotes Acts 9:15 in Archelaus Disputation with Manes ch.34 p.208.

Athanasius of Alexandria (367 A.D.) "Again it is not tedious to speak of the [books] of the New Testament. These are, the four Gospels, according to Matthew, Mark, Luke, and John. Afterwards, the Acts of the Apostles and Epistles (called Catholic), seven, viz. of James, one; of Peter, two; of John, three; after these, one of Jude. In addition, there are fourteen Epistles of Paul, written in this order. The first, to the Romans; then two to the Corinthians; after these, to the Galatians; next, to the Ephesians; then to the Philippians; then to the Colossians; after these, two to the Thessalonians, and that to the Hebrews; and again, two to Timothy; one to Titus; and lastly, that to Philemon. And besides, the Revelation of John." (Athanasius of Alexandria’ Festal Letter 39 ch.5 p.552)

Cheltenham Canon (=Mommson Catalogue) (c.360-370 A.D.) mentions each of the four gospels, Acts, Paul’s letters, 1 Peter, 1 John, and Revelation.

Synod of Laodicea (343-381 A.D.) canon 60 p.159 lists the books of the Old Testament and the New Testament. Canon 59 p.158 says only the canonical books of the Old and New Testaments may be read in church.

Syrian Catalogue of St. Catherine’s (ca.400 A.D.) refers to the four gospels, Acts, Romans, and Galatians through Hebrews.

Jerome (317-420 A.D.) mentions by name the "New Testament", Matthew, Mark, Luke, John as "the Lord’s team of four", seven church letters of Paul, Hebrews, Timothy, Titus, Philemon, Acts of the Apostles, seven epistles among James, Peter, John, and Jude, and the Apocalypse of John all in letter 53 ch.9 p.101-102.

 

Start of Muslim conquests (634-)

John of Damascus (706-749 A.D.) "The New Testament contains four gospels, that according to Matthew, that according to Mark, that according to Luke, that according to John: the Acts of the Holy Apostles by Luke the Evangelist: seven Catholic epistles, viz. one of James, two of Peter, three of John, one of Jude: fourteen letters of the Apostle Paul: [including Hebrews], the Revelation of John the Evangelist: the Canons of the Holy Apostles, by Clement." Exposition of the Orthodox Faith book 4 ch.17 p.90

 

NTc6. Paul’s letters are authoritative

 

2 Peter 3:15-16 (scripture)

 

p72 (=Bodmer 7 and 8) (ca.300 A.D.) all of 1 Peter, 2 Peter, Jude 191 verses. Calls the writings of Paul scripture. 2 Peter 3:15-16

p15 1 Corinthians 7:18-8:4 (late 3rd century) (implied because is 1 Corinthians)

p16 Philippians 3:10-17; 4:2-8 (late 3rd century) (implied because is Philippians)

 

From the Council of Nicea I to the Council of Ephesus (325-431 A.D.)

Eusebius of Caesarea wrote whole commentaries on Luke and 1 Corinthians. Nicene and Post-Nicene Fathers Second Series vol.1 p.41

Hegemonius of Sirmium (4th century) quotes 2 Corinthians 13:3 as by Paul and calls him an apostle. Archelaus Disputation with Manes ch.42 p.218

Hegemonius of Sirmium (4th century) Diodorus appeals to "the Apostle Paul and the Gospels" Archelaus Disputation with Manes ch.45 p.221

Life of Antony (probably by Athanasius of Alexandria) (355 A.D.) ch.7 p.198 "applied greater pains for advancement, often repeating to himself the saying of Paul: ‘Forgetting the things which are behind and stretching forward to the things which are before.’" [Philippians 3:13b]

Athanasius of Alexandria (367 A.D.) "Again it is not tedious to speak of the [books] of the New Testament. These are, the four Gospels, according to Matthew, Mark, Luke, and John. Afterwards, the Acts of the Apostles and Epistles (called Catholic), seven, viz. of James, one; of Peter, two; of John, three; after these, one of Jude. In addition, there are fourteen Epistles of Paul, written in this order. The first, to the Romans; then two to the Corinthians; after these, to the Galatians; next, to the Ephesians; then to the Philippians; then to the Colossians; after these, two to the Thessalonians, and that to the Hebrews; and again, two to Timothy; one to Titus; and lastly, that to Philemon. And besides, the Revelation of John." (Athanasius of Alexandria’ Festal Letter 39 ch.5 p.552)

Athanasius of Alexandria (335 A.D.) declares that eating meat is fine and quotes 1 Corinthians 6:13 as by Paul. Easter Letter 7 ch.2 p.524

Marius Victorinus to the Arian Candidus (359-362 A.D.) mentions Paul and refers to Ephesians 1:3. Marius’ Letter to Candidus ch.2 p.60. He also refers to Paul and Romans 11:13 in ch.1 p.60

Cheltenham Canon (=Mommson Catalogue) (c.360-370 A.D.) mentions each of the four gospels, Acts, Paul’s letters, 1 Peter, 1 John, and Revelation.

Gregory of Nyssa (356-397 A.D.) says Romans 1:1 is by Paul in Against Eunomius book 2 ch.4 p.105 and the Epistle to the Romans in Against Eunomius book 2 ch.9 p.117

Gregory of Nyssa (356-397 A.D.) 1 Corinthians 15:51,52 "the divine Apostle … to the Corinthians" On the Making of Man ch32.6 p.412

Synod of Laodicea (343-381 A.D.) canon 60 p.159 lists the books of the Old Testament and the New Testament, including gthe fourteen epistles of Paul. Canon 59 p.158 says only the canonical books of the Old and New Testaments may be read in church.

Syrian Catalogue of St. Catherine’s (ca.400 A.D.) refers to the four gospels, Acts, Romans, and Galatians through Hebrews.

Orosius/Hosius of Braga (414-418 A.D.) refers to 2 Corinthians 5:9-10 as by the Apostle Paul. Defense Against the Pelagians ch.18 p.140

Rufinus (374-406 A.D.) freely translating Origen (225-253/254 A.D.) quotes 1 Thessalonians 4:17 as by the apostle. de Principiis book 2 ch.11.5 p.299

Jerome (317-420 A.D.) mentions by name the "New Testament", Matthew, Mark, Luke, John as "the Lord’s team of four", seven church letters of Paul, Hebrews, Timothy, Titus, Philemon, Acts of the Apostles, seven epistles among James, Peter, John, and Jude, and the Apocalypse of John all in letter 53 ch.9 p.101-102.

Augustine of Hippo (388-430 A.D.) mentions the Epistles of Paul and then the four books of the Gospel. On The Profit of Believing ch.7 p.350

 

Start of Muslim conquests (634-)

John of Damascus (706-749 A.D.) "The New Testament contains four gospels, that according to Matthew, that according to Mark, that according to Luke, that according to John: the Acts of the Holy Apostles by Luke the Evangelist: seven Catholic epistles, viz. one of James, two of Peter, three of John, one of Jude: fourteen letters of the Apostle Paul: [including Hebrews], the Revelation of John the Evangelist: the Canons of the Holy Apostles, by Clement." Exposition of the Orthodox Faith book 4 ch.17 p.90

 

Among heretics

Marcionite heretic Megethius (c.300 A.D.) a self-labelled follower of Marcion, in his debate with Adamantius accepts Paul as an apostle and his letters are scripture. Dialogue on the True Faith first part ch.15d, 6 p.42-43

Marcus (c.300 A.D.) the Bardesene, in disputing Adamantius affirms that Paul was an apostle. Dialogue on the True Faith 2nd part ch.12 c p.89-90

Pelagian heretic Theodore of Mopsuestia (392-423/429 A.D.) alludes to Hebrews 7:11 as by the blessed Paul. Commentary on Hosea ch.24 p.56 and Hebrews 9:13 as by Paul in Commentary on Jonah preface p.187

 

NTc7. Romans is scripture

 

From the Council of Nicea I to the Council of Ephesus (325-431 A.D.)

Hegemonius of Sirmium (4th century) "Hegemonius of Sirmium said: By all means. Now let us select some instance from among those statements which you allege to be on your side; so that if these be once found to have been properly dealt with, other questions may also be held to rank with them; and if the case goes otherwise, I shall come under the condemnation of the judges, that is to say, I shall have to bear the shame of defeat. You say, then, that the law is a ministration of death, and you admit that ‘death, the prince of this world, reigned from Adam even to Moses; ‘ for the word of Scripture is this: ‘even over them that did not sin.’ [Romans 5:14] Manes said: Without doubt death did reign thus, for there is a duality, and these two antagonistic powers were nothing else than both unbegotten. Hegemonius of Sirmium said: Tell me this then,-how can an unbegotten death take a beginning at a certain time? For ‘from Adam’ is the word of Scripture, and not ‘before Adam.’" Archelaus Disputation with Manes ch.29 p.202

Athanasius of Alexandria (367 A.D.) "Again it is not tedious to speak of the [books] of the New Testament. These are, the four Gospels, according to Matthew, Mark, Luke, and John. Afterwards, the Acts of the Apostles and Epistles (called Catholic), seven, viz. of James, one; of Peter, two; of John, three; after these, one of Jude. In addition, there are fourteen Epistles of Paul, written in this order. The first, to the Romans; then two to the Corinthians; after these, to the Galatians; next, to the Ephesians; then to the Philippians; then to the Colossians; after these, two to the Thessalonians, and that to the Hebrews; and again, two to Timothy; one to Titus; and lastly, that to Philemon. And besides, the Revelation of John." (Athanasius of Alexandria’ Festal Letter 39 ch.5 p.552)

Cheltenham Canon (=Mommson Catalogue) (c.360-370 A.D.) mentions each of the four gospels, Acts, Paul’s letters, 1 Peter, 1 John, and Revelation.

Synod of Laodicea (343-381 A.D.) canon 60 p.159 lists the books of the Old Testament and the New Testament. Canon 59 p.158 says only the canonical books of the Old and New Testaments may be read in church.

Syrian Catalogue of St. Catherine’s (ca.400 A.D.) refers to the four gospels, Acts, Romans, and Galatians through Hebrews.

Ambrose of Milan (370-390 A.D.) quotes Romans 8:32 as Scripture. On the Christian Faith book 1 ch.17.109 p.219.

Rufinus (374-406 A.D.) freely translating Origen (225-253/254 A.D.) quotes of Romans 1:1-4 in "Paul’s Epistle to the Romans." de Principiis book 2 ch.4.2 p.276

 

Start of Muslim conquests (634-)

John of Damascus (706-749 A.D.) "The New Testament contains four gospels, that according to Matthew, that according to Mark, that according to Luke, that according to John: the Acts of the Holy Apostles by Luke the Evangelist: seven Catholic epistles, viz. one of James, two of Peter, three of John, one of Jude: fourteen letters of the Apostle Paul: [including Hebrews], the Revelation of John the Evangelist: the Canons of the Holy Apostles, by Clement." Exposition of the Orthodox Faith book 4 ch.17 p.90

 

Among heretics

The heretic Manes (4th century) accepts as scripture Archelaus quoting Romans 5:14. Archelaus Disputation with Manes ch.29 p.202

 

NTc8. 1 Corinthians is scripture

 

From the Council of Nicea I to the Council of Ephesus (325-431 A.D.)

Hegemonius of Sirmium (4th century) "But from this we are able to show that there is a unison of powers in these two substances, that is to say, in that of the body and in that of the soul; of which unison that greatest teacher in the Scriptures, Paul, speaks, when he tells us, that "God hath set the members every one of them in the body as it hath pleased Him.’" Archelaus Disputation with Manes ch.18 p.193

Hegemonius of Sirmium (4th century) (Archelaus is speaking) "For when the Scripture speaks of glory, it shows us also that it had cognizance of differences in glory. Thus it says: ‘There is one glory of the sun, and another glory of the moon, and another glory of the stars: for one star differeth from another star in glory.’" [1 Corinthians 15:21] Archelaus Disputation with Manes ch.43 p.218

Athanasius of Alexandria (367 A.D.) "Again it is not tedious to speak of the [books] of the New Testament. These are, the four Gospels, according to Matthew, Mark, Luke, and John. Afterwards, the Acts of the Apostles and Epistles (called Catholic), seven, viz. of James, one; of Peter, two; of John, three; after these, one of Jude. In addition, there are fourteen Epistles of Paul, written in this order. The first, to the Romans; then two to the Corinthians; after these, to the Galatians; next, to the Ephesians; then to the Philippians; then to the Colossians; after these, two to the Thessalonians, and that to the Hebrews; and again, two to Timothy; one to Titus; and lastly, that to Philemon. And besides, the Revelation of John." (Athanasius of Alexandria’ Festal Letter 39 ch.5 p.552)

Cheltenham Canon (=Mommson Catalogue) (c.360-370 A.D.) mentions each of the four gospels, Acts, Paul’s letters, 1 Peter, 1 John, and Revelation.

Synod of Laodicea (343-381 A.D.) canon 60 p.159 lists the books of the Old Testament and the New Testament. Canon 59 p.158 says only the canonical books of the Old and New Testaments may be read in church.

 

Start of Muslim conquests (634-)

John of Damascus (706-749 A.D.) "The New Testament contains four gospels, that according to Matthew, that according to Mark, that according to Luke, that according to John: the Acts of the Holy Apostles by Luke the Evangelist: seven Catholic epistles, viz. one of James, two of Peter, three of John, one of Jude: fourteen letters of the Apostle Paul: [including Hebrews], the Revelation of John the Evangelist: the Canons of the Holy Apostles, by Clement." Exposition of the Orthodox Faith book 4 ch.17 p.90

 

NTc9. 2 Corinthians is Scripture

 

From the Council of Nicea I to the Council of Ephesus (325-431 A.D.)

Athanasius of Alexandria (367 A.D.) "Again it is not tedious to speak of the [books] of the New Testament. These are, the four Gospels, according to Matthew, Mark, Luke, and John. Afterwards, the Acts of the Apostles and Epistles (called Catholic), seven, viz. of James, one; of Peter, two; of John, three; after these, one of Jude. In addition, there are fourteen Epistles of Paul, written in this order. The first, to the Romans; then two to the Corinthians; after these, to the Galatians; next, to the Ephesians; then to the Philippians; then to the Colossians; after these, two to the Thessalonians, and that to the Hebrews; and again, two to Timothy; one to Titus; and lastly, that to Philemon. And besides, the Revelation of John." (Athanasius of Alexandria’ Festal Letter 39 ch.5 p.552)

Cheltenham Canon (=Mommson Catalogue) (c.360-370 A.D.) mentions each of the four gospels, Acts, Paul’s letters, 1 Peter, 1 John, and Revelation.

Synod of Laodicea (343-381 A.D.) canon 60 p.159 lists the books of the Old Testament and the New Testament. Canon 59 p.158 says only the canonical books of the Old and New Testaments may be read in church.

 

Start of Muslim conquests (634-)

John of Damascus (706-749 A.D.) "The New Testament contains four gospels, that according to Matthew, that according to Mark, that according to Luke, that according to John: the Acts of the Holy Apostles by Luke the Evangelist: seven Catholic epistles, viz. one of James, two of Peter, three of John, one of Jude: fourteen letters of the Apostle Paul: [including Hebrews], the Revelation of John the Evangelist: the Canons of the Holy Apostles, by Clement." Exposition of the Orthodox Faith book 4 ch.17 p.90

 

NTc10. Galatians is scripture

 

From the Council of Nicea I to the Council of Ephesus (325-431 A.D.)

Athanasius of Alexandria (367 A.D.) "Again it is not tedious to speak of the [books] of the New Testament. These are, the four Gospels, according to Matthew, Mark, Luke, and John. Afterwards, the Acts of the Apostles and Epistles (called Catholic), seven, viz. of James, one; of Peter, two; of John, three; after these, one of Jude. In addition, there are fourteen Epistles of Paul, written in this order. The first, to the Romans; then two to the Corinthians; after these, to the Galatians; next, to the Ephesians; then to the Philippians; then to the Colossians; after these, two to the Thessalonians, and that to the Hebrews; and again, two to Timothy; one to Titus; and lastly, that to Philemon. And besides, the Revelation of John." (Athanasius of Alexandria’ Festal Letter 39 ch.5 p.552)

Cheltenham Canon (=Mommson Catalogue) (c.360-370 A.D.) mentions each of the four gospels, Acts, Paul’s letters, 1 Peter, 1 John, and Revelation.

Synod of Laodicea (343-381 A.D.) canon 60 p.159 lists the books of the Old Testament and the New Testament. Canon 59 p.158 says only the canonical books of the Old and New Testaments may be read in church.

Syriac Book of Steps (Liber Graduum) (350-400 A.D.) Quotes Galatians 6:10 as scripture. Memra 4 ch.1 p.24

Syrian Catalogue of St. Catherine’s (ca.400 A.D.) refers to the four gospels, Acts, Romans, and Galatians through Hebrews.

 

Start of Muslim conquests (634-)

John of Damascus (706-749 A.D.) "The New Testament contains four gospels, that according to Matthew, that according to Mark, that according to Luke, that according to John: the Acts of the Holy Apostles by Luke the Evangelist: seven Catholic epistles, viz. one of James, two of Peter, three of John, one of Jude: fourteen letters of the Apostle Paul: [including Hebrews], the Revelation of John the Evangelist: the Canons of the Holy Apostles, by Clement." Exposition of the Orthodox Faith book 4 ch.17 p.90

 

NTc11. Ephesians is scripture

 

From the Council of Nicea I to the Council of Ephesus (325-431 A.D.)

Athanasius of Alexandria (367 A.D.) "Again it is not tedious to speak of the [books] of the New Testament. These are, the four Gospels, according to Matthew, Mark, Luke, and John. Afterwards, the Acts of the Apostles and Epistles (called Catholic), seven, viz. of James, one; of Peter, two; of John, three; after these, one of Jude. In addition, there are fourteen Epistles of Paul, written in this order. The first, to the Romans; then two to the Corinthians; after these, to the Galatians; next, to the Ephesians; then to the Philippians; then to the Colossians; after these, two to the Thessalonians, and that to the Hebrews; and again, two to Timothy; one to Titus; and lastly, that to Philemon. And besides, the Revelation of John." (Athanasius of Alexandria’ Festal Letter 39 ch.5 p.552)

Cheltenham Canon (=Mommson Catalogue) (c.360-370 A.D.) mentions each of the four gospels, Acts, Paul’s letters, 1 Peter, 1 John, and Revelation.

Synod of Laodicea (343-381 A.D.) canon 60 p.159 lists the books of the Old Testament and the New Testament. Canon 59 p.158 says only the canonical books of the Old and New Testaments may be read in church.

Syrian Catalogue of St. Catherine’s (ca.400 A.D.) refers to the four gospels, Acts, Romans, and Galatians through Hebrews.

Rufinus (374-406 A.D.) freely translating Origen (225-253/254 A.D.) quotes Ephesians 6:12 as by Paul to the Ephesians. de Principiis book 3 ch.4 p.332

 

Start of Muslim conquests (634-)

John of Damascus (706-749 A.D.) "The New Testament contains four gospels, that according to Matthew, that according to Mark, that according to Luke, that according to John: the Acts of the Holy Apostles by Luke the Evangelist: seven Catholic epistles, viz. one of James, two of Peter, three of John, one of Jude: fourteen letters of the Apostle Paul: [including Hebrews], the Revelation of John the Evangelist: the Canons of the Holy Apostles, by Clement." Exposition of the Orthodox Faith book 4 ch.17 p.90

 

NTc12. Philippians is scripture

 

From the Council of Nicea I to the Council of Ephesus (325-431 A.D.)

Eusebius (318-339/340 A.D.) quotes Philippians 2:6 in Eusebius’ Ecclesiastical History book 5 ch.2 p.216. He quotes Philippians 2:6-8 as "Sacred Scriptures in book 8 ch.10 p.330-331. He says that Paul referred to other Christians as "fellow laborers" in book 3 ch.4 p.136

Athanasius of Alexandria (367 A.D.) "Again it is not tedious to speak of the [books] of the New Testament. These are, the four Gospels, according to Matthew, Mark, Luke, and John. Afterwards, the Acts of the Apostles and Epistles (called Catholic), seven, viz. of James, one; of Peter, two; of John, three; after these, one of Jude. In addition, there are fourteen Epistles of Paul, written in this order. The first, to the Romans; then two to the Corinthians; after these, to the Galatians; next, to the Ephesians; then to the Philippians; then to the Colossians; after these, two to the Thessalonians, and that to the Hebrews; and again, two to Timothy; one to Titus; and lastly, that to Philemon. And besides, the Revelation of John." (Athanasius of Alexandria’ Festal Letter 39 ch.5 p.552)

Cheltenham Canon (=Mommson Catalogue) (c.360-370 A.D.) mentions each of the four gospels, Acts, Paul’s letters, 1 Peter, 1 John, and Revelation.

Synod of Laodicea (343-381 A.D.) canon 60 p.159 lists the books of the Old Testament and the New Testament. Canon 59 p.158 says only the canonical books of the Old and New Testaments may be read in church.

Syrian Catalogue of St. Catherine’s (ca.400 A.D.) refers to the four gospels, Acts, Romans, and Galatians through Hebrews.

Rufinus (374-406 A.D.) freely translating Origen (225-253/254 A.D.) quotes Philippians 4:13 as by Paul. de Principiis book 3 ch.2.5 p.333

 

Start of Muslim conquests (634-)

John of Damascus (706-749 A.D.) "The New Testament contains four gospels, that according to Matthew, that according to Mark, that according to Luke, that according to John: the Acts of the Holy Apostles by Luke the Evangelist: seven Catholic epistles, viz. one of James, two of Peter, three of John, one of Jude: fourteen letters of the Apostle Paul: [including Hebrews], the Revelation of John the Evangelist: the Canons of the Holy Apostles, by Clement." Exposition of the Orthodox Faith book 4 ch.17 p.90

 

NTc13. Colossians is scripture

 

From the Council of Nicea I to the Council of Ephesus (325-431 A.D.)

Athanasius of Alexandria (367 A.D.) "Again it is not tedious to speak of the [books] of the New Testament. These are, the four Gospels, according to Matthew, Mark, Luke, and John. Afterwards, the Acts of the Apostles and Epistles (called Catholic), seven, viz. of James, one; of Peter, two; of John, three; after these, one of Jude. In addition, there are fourteen Epistles of Paul, written in this order. The first, to the Romans; then two to the Corinthians; after these, to the Galatians; next, to the Ephesians; then to the Philippians; then to the Colossians; after these, two to the Thessalonians, and that to the Hebrews; and again, two to Timothy; one to Titus; and lastly, that to Philemon. And besides, the Revelation of John." (Athanasius of Alexandria’ Festal Letter 39 ch.5 p.552)

Cheltenham Canon (=Mommson Catalogue) (c.360-370 A.D.) mentions each of the four gospels, Acts, Paul’s letters, 1 Peter, 1 John, and Revelation.

Syrian Catalogue of St. Catherine’s (ca.400 A.D.) refers to the four gospels, Acts, Romans, and Galatians through Hebrews.

Rufinus (374-406 A.D.) freely translating Origen (225-253/254 A.D.) quotes of Colossians 1:15 as by Paul. de Principiis book 1 ch.5 p.247

 

Start of Muslim conquests (634-)

John of Damascus (706-749 A.D.) "The New Testament contains four gospels, that according to Matthew, that according to Mark, that according to Luke, that according to John: the Acts of the Holy Apostles by Luke the Evangelist: seven Catholic epistles, viz. one of James, two of Peter, three of John, one of Jude: fourteen letters of the Apostle Paul: [including Hebrews], the Revelation of John the Evangelist: the Canons of the Holy Apostles, by Clement." Exposition of the Orthodox Faith book 4 ch.17 p.90

 

NTc14. 1 Thessalonians is Scripture

 

From the Council of Nicea I to the Council of Ephesus (325-431 A.D.)

Athanasius of Alexandria (367 A.D.) "Again it is not tedious to speak of the [books] of the New Testament. These are, the four Gospels, according to Matthew, Mark, Luke, and John. Afterwards, the Acts of the Apostles and Epistles (called Catholic), seven, viz. of James, one; of Peter, two; of John, three; after these, one of Jude. In addition, there are fourteen Epistles of Paul, written in this order. The first, to the Romans; then two to the Corinthians; after these, to the Galatians; next, to the Ephesians; then to the Philippians; then to the Colossians; after these, two to the Thessalonians, and that to the Hebrews; and again, two to Timothy; one to Titus; and lastly, that to Philemon. And besides, the Revelation of John." (Athanasius of Alexandria’ Festal Letter 39 ch.5 p.552)

Cheltenham Canon (=Mommson Catalogue) (c.360-370 A.D.) mentions each of the four gospels, Acts, Paul’s letters, 1 Peter, 1 John, and Revelation.

Synod of Laodicea (343-381 A.D.) canon 60 p.159 lists the books of the Old Testament and the New Testament. Canon 59 p.158 says only the canonical books of the Old and New Testaments may be read in church.

Jerome (317-420 A.D.) mentions by name the "New Testament", Matthew, Mark, Luke, John as "the Lord’s team of four", seven church letters of Paul, Hebrews, Timothy, Titus, Philemon, Acts of the Apostles, seven epistles among James, Peter, John, and Jude, and the Apocalypse of John all in letter 53 ch.9 p.101-102.

 

Start of Muslim conquests (634-)

John of Damascus (706-749 A.D.) "The New Testament contains four gospels, that according to Matthew, that according to Mark, that according to Luke, that according to John: the Acts of the Holy Apostles by Luke the Evangelist: seven Catholic epistles, viz. one of James, two of Peter, three of John, one of Jude: fourteen letters of the Apostle Paul: [including Hebrews], the Revelation of John the Evangelist: the Canons of the Holy Apostles, by Clement." Exposition of the Orthodox Faith book 4 ch.17 p.90

 

NTc15. 1 Timothy is Scripture

 

From the Council of Nicea I to the Council of Ephesus (325-431 A.D.)

Athanasius of Alexandria (367 A.D.) "Again it is not tedious to speak of the [books] of the New Testament. These are, the four Gospels, according to Matthew, Mark, Luke, and John. Afterwards, the Acts of the Apostles and Epistles (called Catholic), seven, viz. of James, one; of Peter, two; of John, three; after these, one of Jude. In addition, there are fourteen Epistles of Paul, written in this order. The first, to the Romans; then two to the Corinthians; after these, to the Galatians; next, to the Ephesians; then to the Philippians; then to the Colossians; after these, two to the Thessalonians, and that to the Hebrews; and again, two to Timothy; one to Titus; and lastly, that to Philemon. And besides, the Revelation of John." (Athanasius of Alexandria’ Festal Letter 39 ch.5 p.552)

Cheltenham Canon (=Mommson Catalogue) (c.360-370 A.D.) mentions each of the four gospels, Acts, Paul’s letters, 1 Peter, 1 John, and Revelation.

Synod of Laodicea (343-381 A.D.) canon 60 p.159 lists the books of the Old Testament and the New Testament. Canon 59 p.158 says only the canonical books of the Old and New Testaments may be read in church.

Jerome (317-420 A.D.) mentions by name the "New Testament", Matthew, Mark, Luke, John as "the Lord’s team of four", seven church letters of Paul, Hebrews, Timothy, Titus, Philemon, Acts of the Apostles, seven epistles among James, Peter, John, and Jude, and the Apocalypse of John all in letter 53 ch.9 p.101-102.

Start of Muslim conquests (634-)

John of Damascus (706-749 A.D.) "The New Testament contains four gospels, that according to Matthew, that according to Mark, that according to Luke, that according to John: the Acts of the Holy Apostles by Luke the Evangelist: seven Catholic epistles, viz. one of James, two of Peter, three of John, one of Jude: fourteen letters of the Apostle Paul: [including Hebrews], the Revelation of John the Evangelist: the Canons of the Holy Apostles, by Clement." Exposition of the Orthodox Faith book 4 ch.17 p.90

 

NTc16. 2 Timothy is Scripture

 

From the Council of Nicea I to the Council of Ephesus (325-431 A.D.)

Athanasius of Alexandria (367 A.D.) "Again it is not tedious to speak of the [books] of the New Testament. These are, the four Gospels, according to Matthew, Mark, Luke, and John. Afterwards, the Acts of the Apostles and Epistles (called Catholic), seven, viz. of James, one; of Peter, two; of John, three; after these, one of Jude. In addition, there are fourteen Epistles of Paul, written in this order. The first, to the Romans; then two to the Corinthians; after these, to the Galatians; next, to the Ephesians; then to the Philippians; then to the Colossians; after these, two to the Thessalonians, and that to the Hebrews; and again, two to Timothy; one to Titus; and lastly, that to Philemon. And besides, the Revelation of John." (Athanasius of Alexandria’ Festal Letter 39 ch.5 p.552)

Cheltenham Canon (=Mommson Catalogue) (c.360-370 A.D.) mentions each of the four gospels, Acts, Paul’s letters, 1 Peter, 1 John, and Revelation.

Synod of Laodicea (343-381 A.D.) canon 60 p.159 lists the books of the Old Testament and the New Testament. Canon 59 p.158 says only the canonical books of the Old and New Testaments may be read in church.

 

Start of Muslim conquests (634-)

John of Damascus (706-749 A.D.) "The New Testament contains four gospels, that according to Matthew, that according to Mark, that according to Luke, that according to John: the Acts of the Holy Apostles by Luke the Evangelist: seven Catholic epistles, viz. one of James, two of Peter, three of John, one of Jude: fourteen letters of the Apostle Paul: [including Hebrews], the Revelation of John the Evangelist: the Canons of the Holy Apostles, by Clement." Exposition of the Orthodox Faith book 4 ch.17 p.90

 

NTc17. Titus is scripture

 

From the Council of Nicea I to the Council of Ephesus (325-431 A.D.)

Athanasius of Alexandria (367 A.D.) "Again it is not tedious to speak of the [books] of the New Testament. These are, the four Gospels, according to Matthew, Mark, Luke, and John. Afterwards, the Acts of the Apostles and Epistles (called Catholic), seven, viz. of James, one; of Peter, two; of John, three; after these, one of Jude. In addition, there are fourteen Epistles of Paul, written in this order. The first, to the Romans; then two to the Corinthians; after these, to the Galatians; next, to the Ephesians; then to the Philippians; then to the Colossians; after these, two to the Thessalonians, and that to the Hebrews; and again, two to Timothy; one to Titus; and lastly, that to Philemon. And besides, the Revelation of John." (Athanasius of Alexandria’ Festal Letter 39 ch.5 p.552)

Cheltenham Canon (=Mommson Catalogue) (c.360-370 A.D.) mentions each of the four gospels, Acts, Paul’s letters, 1 Peter, 1 John, and Revelation.

Synod of Laodicea (343-381 A.D.) canon 60 p.159 lists the books of the Old Testament and the New Testament. Canon 59 p.158 says only the canonical books of the Old and New Testaments may be read in church.

Jerome (317-420 A.D.) mentions by name the "New Testament", Matthew, Mark, Luke, John as "the Lord’s team of four", seven church letters of Paul, Hebrews, Timothy, Titus, Philemon, Acts of the Apostles, seven epistles among James, Peter, John, and Jude, and the Apocalypse of John all in letter 53 ch.9 p.101-102.

 

Start of Muslim conquests (634-)

John of Damascus (706-749 A.D.) "The New Testament contains four gospels, that according to Matthew, that according to Mark, that according to Luke, that according to John: the Acts of the Holy Apostles by Luke the Evangelist: seven Catholic epistles, viz. one of James, two of Peter, three of John, one of Jude: fourteen letters of the Apostle Paul: [including Hebrews], the Revelation of John the Evangelist: the Canons of the Holy Apostles, by Clement." Exposition of the Orthodox Faith book 4 ch.17 p.90

 

NTc18. Revelation is scripture or the Lord says

 

Revelation 1:1;22:18-19

Sinaiticus (340-350 A.D.) has all of Revelation

Alexandrinus (450 A.D.) has all of Revelation.

 

From the Council of Nicea I to the Council of Ephesus (325-431 A.D.)

X Eusebius’ Ecclesiastical History (323-339/340 A.D.) book 3 ch.3 p.133-135 discusses the books of the New Testament. He says the Apocalypse is not genuine. Nicene and Post-Nicene Fathers Second Series vol.1 p.123-145

Athanasius of Alexandria (356-360 A.D.) quotes "John in the Apocalypse" saying Jesus is the Alpha and Omega. Four Discourses Against the Arians discourse 4 ch.28 p.444

Athanasius of Alexandria (367 A.D.) "Again it is not tedious to speak of the [books] of the New Testament. These are, the four Gospels, according to Matthew, Mark, Luke, and John. Afterwards, the Acts of the Apostles and Epistles (called Catholic), seven, viz. of James, one; of Peter, two; of John, three; after these, one of Jude. In addition, there are fourteen Epistles of Paul, written in this order. The first, to the Romans; then two to the Corinthians; after these, to the Galatians; next, to the Ephesians; then to the Philippians; then to the Colossians; after these, two to the Thessalonians, and that to the Hebrews; and again, two to Timothy; one to Titus; and lastly, that to Philemon. And besides, the Revelation of John." (Athanasius of Alexandria’ Festal Letter 39 ch.5 p.552)

Hilary of Poitiers (355-367/368 A.D.)

Ephraem Syrus (350-378 A.D.) alludes to Revelation

Ambrosiaster (Latin, after 384 A.D.)

Synod of Laodicea (343-381 A.D.) canon 60 p.159 lists the books of the Old Testament and the New Testament. Canon 59 p.158 says only the canonical books of the Old and New Testaments may be read in church.

Ambrose of Milan (378-381 A.D.) quotes Revelation 1:8 as "Scripture". On the Christian Faith book 2 ch.4.35 p.228. See also Concerning Repentance book 1 ch.10 no.46 p.337

The Donatist schismatic Tyconius (after 390 A.D.) refers to Revelation 1:15

Gregory of Nazianzen (330-391 A.D.)

Gregory of Elvira (after 392 A.D.)

Gregory of Nyssa (c.356-397 A.D.) alludes to Revelation 1:6 in On Virginity ch.24 p.376

Didymus the Blind (398 A.D.)

Epiphanius of Salamis (360-403 A.D.)

Rufinus (374-406 A.D.)

John Chrysostom (-407 A.D.) alludes to Revelation (vol.14)

Chromatius of Acquileia (died 407 A.D.)

Sulpicius/Sulpitius Severus (363-420 A.D.) says John the apostle and evangelist wrote Revelation in History book 2 ch.31 p.112

Council of Carthage (393-419 A.D.)

Orosius/Hosius of Braga (414-418 A.D.) alludes to Revelation 20:12 as in the Apocalypse of John. Defense Against the Pelagians ch.13 p.131

Jerome (317-420 A.D.) mentions by name the "New Testament", Matthew, Mark, Luke, John as "the Lord’s team of four", seven church letters of Paul, Hebrews, Timothy, Titus, Philemon, Acts of the Apostles, seven epistles among James, Peter, John, and Jude, and the Apocalypse of John all in letter 53 ch.9 p.101-102.

Augustine of Hippo (388-8/28/430 A.D.) quotes Revelation 5:9 as by John. On the Forgiveness of Sin, and Baptism) book 1 ch.51 p.34. He also refers to Revelation 21:3.

Augustine of Hippo (388-430 A.D.) quotes Revelation 1:8 as Jesus speaking in the Apocalypse. On Faith and the Creed ch.5.15 p.327

John Cassian the Semi-Pelagian (419-420 A.D.) quotes Revelation 4:4 as the Holy Apocalypse in the Conference of the Abbot Abraham ch.1 p.531.

 

From the Council of Ephesus to the start of Muslim conquests (431-634 A.D.)

Quodvultdeus (c.453 A.D.)

Theodoret of Cyrus (423-458 A.D.)

Leo I of Rome (440-461 A.D.) quotes Revelation 3:2 in Letter 108.6 p.79

Varimadum (445/480 A.D.)

 

Start of Muslim conquests (634-)

John of Damascus (706-749 A.D.) "The New Testament contains four gospels, that according to Matthew, that according to Mark, that according to Luke, that according to John: the Acts of the Holy Apostles by Luke the Evangelist: seven Catholic epistles, viz. one of James, two of Peter, three of John, one of Jude: fourteen letters of the Apostle Paul: [including Hebrews], the Revelation of John the Evangelist: the Canons of the Holy Apostles, by Clement." Exposition of the Orthodox Faith book 4 ch.17 p.90

 

Among heretics

The heretic Priscillian (385 A.D.) refers to Revelation 18:2,3,12

 

NTc19. Using the term "New Testament"

 

From the Council of Nicea I to the Council of Ephesus (325-431 A.D.)

Eusebius’ Ecclesiastical History (323-326 A.D.) book 3 ch.3 p.133-135 discusses the books of the New Testament. He says 1 Peter is genuine. He says that Paul’s 14 letters are well-known, though the church in Rome doubted that Paul wrote Hebrews. He says that 2 Peter is disputed. The so-called Acts of Paul, [Shepherd of] Hermas, Acts of Peter, and Gospel of Peter and Preaching of Peter, and the Apocalypse are not genuine. Nicene and Post-Nicene Fathers Second Series vol.1 p.123-145

Hegemonius of Sirmium (4th century) mentions the Old Testament and New Testament in Archelaus Disputation with Manes ch.41 p.214,215. See also ibid ch.40 p.214

Hegemonius of Sirmium (4th century) mentions there are neither two old testaments nor two new testaments. (The Christian Diodorus is speaking) Archelaus Disputation with Manes ch.45 p.220

Basil of Cappadocia (357-379 A.D.) "Never neglect reading, especially of the New Testament, because very frequently mischief comes of reading the Old; not because what is written is harmful, but because the minds of the injured are weak. All bread is nutritious, but it may be injurious to the sick. Just so all Scripture is God inspired and profitable, and there is nothing in it unclean: only to him who think it is unclean, to him it is unclean." Basil to Julian Letter 42.3 p.144-145

Athanasius of Alexandria (326-372/373 A.D.) "Son, all the books of Scripture, both Old Testament and New, are inspired by God and useful for instruction [2 Tim 3:16], as it is written; but to those who really study it the Psalter yields especial treasure." Athanasius on Psalms

Athanasius of Alexandria (367 A.D.) "Again it is not tedious to speak of the [books] of the New Testament. These are, the four Gospels, according to Matthew, Mark, Luke, and John. Afterwards, the Acts of the Apostles and Epistles (called Catholic), seven, viz. of James, one; of Peter, two; of John, three; after these, one of Jude. In addition, there are fourteen Epistles of Paul, written in this order. The first, to the Romans; then two to the Corinthians; after these, to the Galatians; next, to the Ephesians; then to the Philippians; then to the Colossians; after these, two to the Thessalonians, and that to the Hebrews; and again, two to Timothy; one to Titus; and lastly, that to Philemon. And besides, the Revelation of John." (Athanasius of Alexandria’ Festal Letter 39 ch.5 p.552)

Synod of Laodicea (343-381 A.D.) canon 60 p.159 lists the books of the Old Testament and the New Testament. Canon 59 p.158 says only the canonical books of the Old and New Testaments may be read in church.

Ambrose of Milan (370-390 A.D.) mentions the Old and New Testaments in Of the Christian Faith book 1 ch.8.57 p.210

Pacian of Barcelona (342-379/392 A.D.) mentions the New Testament in On Penitents ch.4.1 p.74

Didymus the Blind (398 A.D.) refers to the Old and New Testament. Commentary on Zechariah 8 p.201

Epiphanius of Salamis (360-403 A.D.) mentions the Old and New Testaments. The Panarion section 3 scholion 1 and 5 p.334

Jerome (317-420 A.D.) mentions by name the "New Testament", Matthew, Mark, Luke, John as "the Lord’s team of four", seven church letters of Paul, Hebrews, Timothy, Titus, Philemon, Acts of the Apostles, seven epistles among James, Peter, John, and Jude, and the Apocalypse of John all in letter 53 ch.9 p.101-102.

Augustine of Hippo (388-430 A.D.) mentions the New Testament in The City of God book 17 ch.4 p.341; book 17 ch.6 p.344

Augustine of Hippo (388-430 A.D.) mentions the New Testament in Commentary on Psalms p.405,521,531,681

John Cassian (419-430 A.D.) The New Testament referred to by name in the Institutes of John Cassian book 1.1 p.201 and the Conference of the Abbot Paphnutius ch.15 p.327

 

After the start of Muslim conquests (431-634 A.D.)

John of Damascus (706-749 A.D.) "The New Testament contains four gospels, that according to Matthew, that according to Mark, that according to Luke, that according to John: the Acts of the Holy Apostles by Luke the Evangelist: seven Catholic epistles, viz. one of James, two of Peter, three of John, one of Jude: fourteen letters of the Apostle Paul: [including Hebrews], the Revelation of John the Evangelist: the Canons of the Holy Apostles, by Clement." Exposition of the Orthodox Faith book 4 ch.17 p.90

 

Among heretics

Theodore of Mopsuestia (392-423.429 A.D.) refers by name to the New Testament, quoting Matthew 28:2-3. Commentary on Zechariah ch.1 p.331

 

NTc20. The "New Testament" is Scripture

 

Mentioning just a verse or portion of the New Testament is not counted here.

 

From the Council of Nicea I to the Council of Ephesus (325-431 A.D.)

Athanasius of Alexandria (346-356 A.D.) calls the "New Testament" scripture. Defense of the Nicene Definition ch.26 p.168

Athanasius of Alexandria (326-372/373 A.D.) "Son, all the books of Scripture, both Old Testament and New, are inspired by God and useful for instruction [2 Tim 3:16], as it is written; but to those who really study it the Psalter yields especial treasure." Athanasius on Psalms

Synod of Laodicea (343-381 A.D.) canon 60 p.159 lists the books of the Old Testament and the New Testament. Canon 59 p.158 says only the canonical books of the Old and New Testaments may be read in church.

 

After the Start of Muslim conquests (634 A.D.-)

John of Damascus (706-749 A.D.) (implied) discusses scripture and then lists the books of the Old and New Testaments. Exposition of the Orthodox Faith book 4 ch.17 p.89-90

 

Teachings on Bible canon not on the list

1. The Law is our teacher (1 writer so far: Hegemonius of Sirmium)

 

 

OLD TESTAMENT AUTHORS

 

OTa1. OT has writing in Hebrew

 

From the Council of Nicea I to the Council of Ephesus (325-431 A.D.)

Cyril of Jerusalem (c.349-386 A.D.) speaks of the Hebrews of Isaiah 52:11. Catechical Lectures Lecture 10 ch.12 p.60

 

OTa2. Moses wrote the Law [Pentateuch]

 

From the Council of Nicea I to the Council of Ephesus (325-431 A.D.)

Hegemonius of Sirmium (4th century) "But after Moses had made his appearance, and had given the law to the children of Israel," Archelaus Disputation with Manes ch.30 p.203

Hegemonius of Sirmium (4th century) "I understand, then, that his [Manes’] chief effort was directed to prove that the law of Moses is not consonant with the law of Christ; and this position he attempted to found on the authority of our Scriptures." Archelaus Disputation with Manes ch.41 p.215

Hilary of Poitiers (355-367/368 A.D.) (implied) "Let this be taken as our answer from the books of Moses, or rather as the answer of Moses himself. This is after quoting Exodus 3:2,4-6; Deuteronomy 6:4; 32:39; and 32:43 (LXX). Then he quotes Deuteronomy 33:16. On the Trinity book 4 ch.33-35 p.81

Athanasius of Alexandria (347 A.D.) (implied) "For had they believed him to whom they hearkened, they would not have denied the Lord, Who spake by Moses, when He was present." Easter Letter 19 ch.5 p.546

Didymus the Blind (398 A.D.) refers to the "Law of Moses" Commentary on Zechariah 12 p.300

Didymus the Blind (398 A.D.) quotes Leviticus 26:27-28 as "in the composition of Moses". Commentary on Zechariah 7 p.150

Augustine of Hippo (338-430 A.D.) alludes to Leviticus 23 as by Moses Reply to Faustus the Manichaean book 32 ch.3 p.333

Augustine of Hippo (338-430 A.D.) refers to Deuteronomy 21:23 as written by Moses in Reply to Faustus the Manichaean book 14 ch.1 p.207.

Cyril of Jerusalem (c.349-386 A.D.) says Exodus 7:23 by Moses. Catechical Lectures Lecture 13 ch.3 p.82

Cyril of Jerusalem (c.349-386 A.D.) quotes Numbers 11:29 as by Moses in Lecture 16 ch.26 p.122

 

From the Council of Ephesus to the start of Muslim conquests (431-634 A.D.)

The Didascalia (after 431 A.D.) "but if (thou wouldst read of) the beginning of the world, thou hast the Genesis of the great Moses; and if laws and commandments, thou hast the glorious Law of the Lord God."

 

Among heretics

Ebionite Gospel of pseudo-Matthew (600-625 A.D.) ch.15 p.375 mentions the Law of Moses.

 

OTa3. Moses wrote Genesis

 

From the Council of Nicea I to the Council of Ephesus (325-431 A.D.)

Eusebius of Caesarea (323-339/340 A.D.) says Moses wrote Genesis 1:26. Eusebius’ Ecclesiastical History book 1 ch.2 p.82

Hegemonius of Sirmium (4th century) "Hence in Genesis , where Moses gives an account of the construction of the world," (Archelaus is speaking) Archelaus Disputation with Manes ch.22 p.195

 

From the Council of Ephesus to the start of Muslim conquests (431-634 A.D.)

The Didascalia (after 431 A.D.) "but if (thou wouldst read of) the beginning of the world, thou hast the Genesis of the great Moses; and if laws and commandments, thou hast the glorious Law of the Lord God."

 

OTa4. Moses wrote Exodus

 

From the Council of Nicea I to the Council of Ephesus (325-431 A.D.)

Cyril of Jerusalem (c.349-386 A.D.) says Exodus 7:23 was by Moses in Lecture 13 ch.3 p.82

John Chrysostom (-407 A.D.) refers to Exodus 17:12 as by Moses vol.14 Commentary on John homily 14 p.50

Pacian of Barcelona (342-379/392 A.D.) God addresses Moses and quotes Exodus 32:33. On Penitents ch.5.1 p.75

 

OTa5. Moses wrote Leviticus

 

From the Council of Nicea I to the Council of Ephesus (325-431 A.D.)

Athanasius of Alexandria (347 A.D.) says Moses wrote Leviticus. Easter Letter 19 ch.3 p.545

Didymus the Blind (398 A.D.) quotes Leviticus 26:27-28 as "in the composition of Moses". Commentary on Zechariah 7 p.150

Rufinus (374-406 A.D.) freely translating Origen (225-253/254 A.D.) "In connection with which, even this statement does not appear superfluous, that Moses indeed hears from God what is described in the book of Leviticus, while in Deuteronomy it is the people that are the auditors of Moses, and who learn from him what they could not hear from God." de Principiis book 4 ch.24 p.375. (The Greek of Origen does not say this.)

Augustine of Hippo (338-430 A.D.) alludes to Leviticus 23 as by Moses Reply to Faustus the Manichaean book 32 ch.3 p.333

 

OTa6. Moses wrote Numbers

 

From the Council of Nicea I to the Council of Ephesus (325-431 A.D.)

Cyril of Jerusalem (c.349-386 A.D.) quotes Numbers 11:29 as by Moses in Lecture 16 ch.26 p.122

Augustine of Hippo (338-430 A.D.) alludes to Numbers 9:10-12 as "Moses, indeed, is accused by the voice of God" Reply to Faustus the Manichaean book 16 ch.16 p.225

 

OTa7. Moses wrote Deuteronomy

 

From the Council of Nicea I to the Council of Ephesus (325-431 A.D.)

Hegemonius of Sirmium (277/278 A.D.) refers to Deuteronomy 18:15 as by Moses. Archelaus Disputation with Manes ch.42 p.217

Athanasius of Alexandria (346-356 A.D.) quotes as true Dionysius of Rome who quotes Deuteronomy 32:6 as "says Moses in his great song in Deuteronomy". Defense of the Nicene Definition ch.26 p.168

Cyril of Jerusalem (c.349-386 A.D.) says Deuteronomy 28:66 was by Moses in Catechetical Lectures Lecture 12.19 p.87

Pacian of Barcelona (342-379/392 A.D.) quotes Deuteronomy 13:6; 13:8-9 (Septuagint) as by "Moses" and "the Book of Deuteronomy" Letter 3 ch.17.1 p.58

John Chrysostom (martyred 407 A.D.) quotes Deuteronomy 4:2 as by Moses Commentary on Matthew homily 5.1 p.314

Augustine of Hippo (338-430 A.D.) refers to Deuteronomy 21:23 as written by Moses in Reply to Faustus the Manichaean book 14 ch.1 p.207.

 

From the Council of Ephesus to the start of Muslim conquests (431-634 A.D.)

Vincent of Lerins (c.434 A.D.) says that Moses writes in Deuteronomy. A Commonitory ch.10 p.138

 

OTa8. David a writer of Psalms

 

From the Council of Nicea I to the Council of Ephesus (325-431 A.D.)

Eusebius’ Ecclesiastical History (323-339/340 A.D.) book 1 ch.3.6 p.86 says that David wrote Psalm 2:1-2.

Eusebius of Caesarea (323-339/340 A.D.) calls Psalm 45:6-7 scripture, written by David, and refers to Christ. Eusebius’ Ecclesiastical History book 1 ch.3.14 p.86

Athanasius of Alexandria (356-360 A.D.) David wrote Psalm 71/72. Four Discourses Against the Arians discourse 1 ch.41 p.330

John Chrysostom (-407 A.D.) quotes Psalms 2:1,2 as by David in Commentary on Matthew homily 36.3 p.240

 

Reformation

John Calvin quotes Psalm 38:7 as by David. Commentaries on Daniel Lecture 17 c.4:406 p.249

 

Among heretics

Pelagian heretic Theodore of Mopsuestia (392-423/429 A.D.) quotes part of Psalm 30:11 as by David. Commentary on Zechariah ch.13 p.377

 

OTa9. Solomon a writer of Proverbs

 

From the Council of Nicea I to the Council of Ephesus (325-431 A.D.)

Eusebius’ Ecclesiastical History (323-339/340 A.D.) book 1 ch.2.14 p.83-84 says that Solomon wrote Proverbs 8:12,14,16.

Hilary of Poitiers (355-367/368 A.D.) "The Prophet Solomon teaches us what this Tree of Life is in his exhortation concerning Wisdom: ‘She is a tree of life to all them that lay hold upon her, and lean upon her.’" (Proverbs 3:18) Homilies on Psalms Psalm 1 ch.14 p.239

Athanasius of Alexandria (357 A.D.) says Solomon wrote Proverbs 10:27. In Defense of his Flight ch.14 p.260

Rufinus (374-406 A.D.) translating Origen (225-253/254 A.D.) quotes Proverbs 9:1-5 as "according to the declaration of holy Scripture" de Principiis book 2 ch.11.3 p.297

John Chrysostom (-407 A.D.) alludes to Proverbs 25:21,22 as by Solomon. To Those Who Had Not Attended the Assembly ch.6 p.230

 

Ota10. Solomon, writer of Ecclesiastes

 

From the Council of Nicea I to the Council of Ephesus (325-431 A.D.)

Cyril of Jerusalem (c.349-386 A.D.) quotes Ecclesiastes 9:7,8 as by Solomon in Ecclesiastes in Lecture 22 ch.8 p.152

Rufinus loosely translating Origen (225-253/254 A.D.) "That this, however, is also brought about by the opposing powers, is shown by Solomon in the book of Ecclesiastes in the following manner: ‘If the spirit of the ruler rise up against thee, leave not thy place; for soundness restrains great offences.’" de Principiis book 3 ch.2.4 p.&&&

John Chrysostom (-407 A.D.) says that Solomon wrote that the sleep of the laborer is sweet (Ecclesiastes 5:12). On the Statues Homily 2 ch.23 p.352

John Chrysostom (-407 A.D.) said Ecclesiastes 7:2 was by Solomon vol.10 Commentary on Matthew Homily 40 p.263

 

OTa11. Isaiah wrote or said Isaiah

 

From the Council of Nicea I to the Council of Ephesus (325-431 A.D.)

Eusebius of Caesarea (323-339/340 A.D.) says Isaiah wrote Isaiah 61:1 (Septuagint). Eusebius’ Ecclesiastical History book 1 ch.3.13 p.86

Athanasius of Alexandria (357 A.D.) says Isaiah wrote Isaiah 26:20. In Defense of his Flight ch.21 p.262

Ambrose of Milan (370-390 A.D.) quotes Isaiah 40:12 as by Isaiah. Of the Holy Spirit book 2 ch.9.90 p.126.

 

From the Council of Ephesus to the start of Muslim conquests (431-634 A.D.)

The Didascalia (after 431 A.D.) ch.91 "See, then, that the People provoked our Lord in that they believed not in Him. Wherefore he saith: ‘They provoked the holy Spirit; and he was turned to enmity unto them’ [Isa 63.10]. And again He speaks otherwise of them by Isaiah the prophet: ‘Land of Zebulun, land of Naphtali, the way of the sea, beyond Jordan, Galilee of the nations, a people that sitteth in darkness: ye have seen a great light; and they that sit in darkness and in the shadow of death, light is risen upon them’" [Isa 9.1-2; Mt 4.15-16]

 

Among corrupt or spurious works

Constitutions of the Holy Apostles (3rd-5th century, compiled c.390 A.D.) book 2 ch.1 p.396 quotes Isaiah 66:2 as "The Lord says by Esias [Isaiah]"

 

OTa12. Jeremiah wrote or said Jeremiah

 

From the Council of Nicea I to the Council of Ephesus (325-431 A.D.)

Athanasius of Alexandria (326-372/373 A.D.) quotes Jeremiah 31:22 as "which Jeremiah says, according to the edition of the seventy translators" Statement of Faith ch.3 p.85

John Chrysostom (died 407 A.D.) "Moses foretold this, but Jeremiah shows that it came true. For Moses said: ‘The refined and delicate woman, so delicate and refined that she would not venture to put her foot upon the step, shall put her hand to the unholy table and eat her own children.’ But Jeremiah shows that this came true when he said: ‘The hands of compassionate women boiled their own children.’" Against the Jews ch.5

 

OTa13. Ezekiel is by Ezekiel

 

From the Council of Nicea I to the Council of Ephesus (325-431 A.D.)

Athanasius of Alexandria (331 A.D.) says Ezekiel wrote Ezekiel 18:23,32. Easter Letter 3 ch.4 p.514

Didymus the Blind (398 A.D.) quotes Ezekiel 31:3-9 as by the prophet Ezekiel. Commentary on Zechariah 11 p.258-259

John Chrysostom (-407 A.D.) refers to Ezekiel 9:4 as by Ezekiel in vol.9 Concerning the Statues homily 18.9 p.462

 

From the Council of Ephesus to the start of Muslim conquests (431-634 A.D.)

The Didascalia (after 431 A.D.) ch.6 p.29 "and by Ezekiel also the Lord our God spoke thus: ‘And the word of the Lord came unto me, saying: Son of man, why use ye this proverb in the land of Israel, and say: The fathers do eat sour grapes, and their sons’ teeth are on edge?’" He goes on to quote Ezekiel 18.

 

OTa14. Daniel spoke or wrote Daniel

 

From the Council of Nicea I to the Council of Ephesus (325-431 A.D.)

Eusebius of Caesarea (323-339/340 A.D.) says that Daniel prophesied the number of weeks before the coming of Christ. Eusebius’ Ecclesiastical History book 1 ch.6 p.90

 

OTa15. Hosea wrote or spoke Hosea

 

From the Council of Nicea I to the Council of Ephesus (325-431 A.D.)

Athanasius of Alexandria (356-360 A.D.) quotes Hosea 7:13 as the Lord Himself uttered by the prophet Hosea. Four Discourses Against the Arians Discourse 1 ch.7 p.309-310

 

OTa16. Joel wrote Joel

 

From the Council of Nicea I to the Council of Ephesus (325-431 A.D.)

Athanasius of Alexandria (356-360 A.D.) says Joel wrote Joel 2:28. Four Discourses Against the Arians discourse 3 ch.30 p.410

Rufinus (374-406 A.D.) freely translating Origen (225-253/254 A.D.) "Saviour, it is written that the prediction of the prophet Joel was fulfilled," de Principiis book 2 ch.7.2 p.285

 

OTa17. Amos wrote Amos

 

From the Council of Nicea I to the Council of Ephesus (325-431 A.D.)

Cyril of Jerusalem (c.349-386 A.D.) quotes Amos 8:9 as by the prophet Amos. Catechical Lectures Lecture 13 ch.25 p.89

 

OTa18. Micah wrote or said Micah

 

"In Micah" in Melito of Sardis and Cyprian or Carthage, is not counted.

 

From the Council of Nicea I to the Council of Ephesus (325-431 A.D.)

(no Athanasius of Alexandria)

Didymus the Blind (398 A.D.) quotes Micah 7:1-3 as by Micah the prophet. Commentary on Zechariah 12 p.294

Rufinus (376-406 A.D.) translating Origen (225-253/254 A.D.) (implied) "the prophet Micah will prove when he says: ‘If it has been announced to thee, O man, what is good, or what does the Lord require of thee, except to do justice and to love mercy?’" [in both Latin and Greek] de Principiis book 3 ch.1.6 p.305

John Chrysostom (-407 A.D.) refers to Micah 6:1 as by Micah Commentary on Romans Homily 5 p.366

 

Among heretics

Pelagian heretic Theodore of Mopsuestia (392-423/429 A.D.) Micah has a thankfulness towards God. Commentary on Micah ch.7 p.244

 

OTa19. Habakkuk wrote Habakkuk

 

"In Habakkuk" per Cyprian and Melitio of Sardis, is not counted here.

 

From the Council of Nicea I to the Council of Ephesus (325-431 A.D.)

Cyril of Jerusalem (c.349-386 A.D.) quotes Habakkuk 3:3 as by Habakkuk. Catechical Lectures Lecture 12 ch.20 p.77

 

Macarius Chrysocephalus quoting Clement of Alexandria (193-217/220 A.D.) refers to Habakkuk 3:4. "And the prophet Habakkuk sees Him bearing horns, and celebrates His defensive attitude-’horns in His hands.’" fragment 11 ch.2 p.582

 

OTa20. Zephaniah is by Zephaniah/Sophonias

 

From the Council of Nicea I to the Council of Ephesus (325-431 A.D.)

John Chrysostom (died 407 A.D.) "It is Zephaniah who said: "The Lord shall appear to all nations, and will make all the gods of the nations waste away; then each from its own place shall adore Him." Against the Jews book 5 ch.12.8

 

OTa21. Zechariah wrote Zechariah

 

From the Council of Nicea I to the Council of Ephesus (325-431 A.D.)

Aphrahat the Syrian (337-345 A.D.) quotes Zechariah 4:2 as by the prophet Zechariah. Select Demonstrations Demonstration 1 ch.8 p.347-348.

Athanasius of Alexandria (356-360 A.D.) says Zecharias wrote Zechariah 1:3,12. Four Discourses Against the Arians discourse 2 ch.31 p.360.

Basil of Cappadocia (357-378 A.D.) quotes parts of Zechariah 10:1,2 as by Zechariah. Letter 210 ch.6 p.251

Cyril of Jerusalem (c.349-386 A.D.) mentions the books of the Prophets, both of the Twelve and of the others. Micah 3:8 as in Micah, Joel 2:28 as in Joel, Haggai 2:4 as in Haggai, Zechariah 1:6 as in Zechariah. Catechetical Lectures Lecture 16.29 p.122

Rufinus (374-406 A.D.) translating Origen (225-253/254 A.D.) alludes to Zechariah 3:1 as by Zechariah. [Latin] de Principiis book 3 ch.2 p.329

John Chrysostom (-407 A.D.) mentions Zechariah 5:7,8 as by Zechariah vol.10 Commentary on Matthew homily 38 p.253

 

Among corrupt or spurious works

Constitutions of the Holy Apostles (c.380 A.D.) book 5 section 3 ch.20 p.448 quotes Zechariah 9:9 as Zechariah says.

 

OTa22. Malachi wrote Malachi

 

From the Council of Nicea I to the Council of Ephesus (325-431 A.D.)

Athanasius of Alexandria (356-360 A.D.) says Malachi wrote Malachi 2:10. Four Discourses Against the Arians discourse 2 ch.59 p.380

Cyril of Jerusalem (c.349-386 A.D.) quotes Malachi 3:1-3,5 as by Malachi the prophet in Lecture 15 ch.2 p.104

Book of Steps (Liber Graduum) (350-400 A.D.) (partial) "In order that you may be assured that this is so, the following was written in Malachi, ‘I will reject your offerings, because I have been a witness among you and the women of your youth, that you have been unfaithful to, those who are the women of your covenant. But I will be true with you.’" Memra 22 ch.19 p.268

John Chrysostom (-407 A.D.) quotes Malachi 3:2-3 by Malachi. Vol.9 Letters to the Fallen Theodore ch.12 p.101

 

 

NEW TESTAMENT AUTHORS

 

NTa1. At least 1 NT word originally in Greek

 

From the Council of Nicea I to the Council of Ephesus (325-431 A.D.)

Hegemonius of Sirmium (4th century) "Moreover, when they came upon the word which is given us in our Scriptures touching the Paraclete, he took it into his head that he himself might be that Paraclete; for he had not read with sufficient care to observe that the Paraclete had come already,-namely, at the time when the apostles were still upon earth." Archelaus Disputation with Manes ch.54 p.232

Rufinus (374-406 A.D.) freely translating Origen (225-253/254 A.D.) "and since our Saviour also is called the Paraclete in the Epistle of John, when he says, ‘If any of us sin, we have a Paraclete with the Father, Jesus Christ the righteous, and He is the propitiation for our sins;’ let us consider whether this term Paraclete should happen to have one meaning when applied to the Saviour, and another when applied to the Holy Spirit. Now Paraclete, when spoken of the Saviour, seems to mean intercessor. For in Greek, Paraclete has both significations-that of intercessor and comforter. On account, then, of the phrase which follows, when he says, ‘And He is the propitiation for our sins,’ the name Paraclete seems to be understood in the case of our Saviour as meaning intercessor; for He is said to intercede with the Father because of our sins. In the case of the Holy Spirit, the Paraclete must be understood in the sense of comforter, inasmuch as He bestows consolation upon the souls to whom He openly reveals the apprehension of spiritual knowledge." de Principiis book 2 ch.7.4 p.286

 

NTa2. Matthew wrote the Gospel of Matthew

 

From the Council of Nicea I to the Council of Ephesus (325-431 A.D.)

Eusebius’ Ecclesiastical History (323-339/340 A.D.) book 3 ch.24 p.152 discusses the four gospels: Matthew, Mark, Luke, and John. Nicene and Post-Nicene Fathers Second Series vol.1 p.152

Hegemonius of Sirmium (4th century) "The Spirit in the evangelist Matthew is also careful to give note of these words of our Lord Jesus Christ: ‘Take heed that no man deceive you: for many shall come in my name, saying, I am Christ; and shall deceive many. But if any man shall say unto you, Lo, here is Christ, or there; believe it not. For there shall arise false Christs, and false apostles, and false prophets, and shall show great signs and wonders; insomuch that, if it were possible, they shall deceive the very elect. Behold, I have told you before. If they shall say unto you, Behold, he is in the desert; go not forth: if they shall say, Behold, he is in the secret chambers; believe it not.’" Archelaus Disputation with Manes ch.35 p.209

Athanasius of Alexandria (367 A.D.) "Again it is not tedious to speak of the [books] of the New Testament. These are, the four Gospels, according to Matthew, Mark, Luke, and John. Afterwards, the Acts of the Apostles and Epistles (called Catholic), seven, viz. of James, one; of Peter, two; of John, three; after these, one of Jude. In addition, there are fourteen Epistles of Paul, written in this order. The first, to the Romans; then two to the Corinthians; after these, to the Galatians; next, to the Ephesians; then to the Philippians; then to the Colossians; after these, two to the Thessalonians, and that to the Hebrews; and again, two to Timothy; one to Titus; and lastly, that to Philemon. And besides, the Revelation of John." (Athanasius of Alexandria’ Festal Letter 39 ch.5 p.552)

 

From the Council of Ephesus to the start of Muslim conquests (431-634 A.D.)

John of Damascus (706-749 A.D.) "The New Testament contains four gospels, that according to Matthew, that according to Mark, that according to Luke, that according to John:" Exposition of the Orthodox Faith book 4 ch.17 p.90

 

NTa3. Mark wrote the Gospel of Mark

From the Council of Nicea I to the Council of Ephesus (325-431 A.D.)

Eusebius’ Ecclesiastical History (323-339/340 A.D.) book 3 ch.24 p.152 discusses the four gospels: Matthew, Mark, Luke, and John. Nicene and Post-Nicene Fathers Second Series vol.1 p.152

Athanasius of Alexandria (367 A.D.) "Again it is not tedious to speak of the [books] of the New Testament. These are, the four Gospels, according to Matthew, Mark, Luke, and John. Afterwards, the Acts of the Apostles and Epistles (called Catholic), seven, viz. of James, one; of Peter, two; of John, three; after these, one of Jude. In addition, there are fourteen Epistles of Paul, written in this order. The first, to the Romans; then two to the Corinthians; after these, to the Galatians; next, to the Ephesians; then to the Philippians; then to the Colossians; after these, two to the Thessalonians, and that to the Hebrews; and again, two to Timothy; one to Titus; and lastly, that to Philemon. And besides, the Revelation of John." (Athanasius of Alexandria’ Festal Letter 39 ch.5 p.552)

 

From the Council of Ephesus to the start of Muslim conquests (431-634 A.D.)

John of Damascus (706-749 A.D.) "The New Testament contains four gospels, that according to Matthew, that according to Mark, that according to Luke, that according to John:" Exposition of the Orthodox Faith book 4 ch.17 p.90

 

NTa4. Luke wrote the Gospel of Luke

 

From the Council of Nicea I to the Council of Ephesus (325-431 A.D.)

Eusebius’ Ecclesiastical History (323-339/340 A.D.) book 3 ch.24 p.152 discusses the four gospels: Matthew, Mark, Luke, and John. Nicene and Post-Nicene Fathers Second Series vol.1 p.152

Athanasius of Alexandria (356-360 A.D.) mentions Luke writing his gospel. Four Discourses Against the Arians discourse 3 ch.51 p.421

Athanasius of Alexandria (367 A.D.) "Again it is not tedious to speak of the [books] of the New Testament. These are, the four Gospels, according to Matthew, Mark, Luke, and John. Afterwards, the Acts of the Apostles and Epistles (called Catholic), seven, viz. of James, one; of Peter, two; of John, three; after these, one of Jude. In addition, there are fourteen Epistles of Paul, written in this order. The first, to the Romans; then two to the Corinthians; after these, to the Galatians; next, to the Ephesians; then to the Philippians; then to the Colossians; after these, two to the Thessalonians, and that to the Hebrews; and again, two to Timothy; one to Titus; and lastly, that to Philemon. And besides, the Revelation of John." (Athanasius of Alexandria’ Festal Letter 39 ch.5 p.552)

Gregory of Nyssa (382-383 A.D.) "The evangelist Luke, when giving the genealogy according to the flesh our God and Saviour Jesus Christ…" Against Eunomius book 2 p.312

 

From the Council of Ephesus to the start of Muslim conquests (431-634 A.D.)

John of Damascus (706-749 A.D.) "The New Testament contains four gospels, that according to Matthew, that according to Mark, that according to Luke, that according to John:" Exposition of the Orthodox Faith book 4 ch.17 p.90

 

NTa5. John wrote the Gospel of John

 

From the Council of Nicea I to the Council of Ephesus (325-431 A.D.)

Eusebius’ Ecclesiastical History (323-339/340 A.D.) book 3 ch.24 p.152 discusses the four gospels: Matthew, Mark, Luke, and John. Nicene and Post-Nicene Fathers Second Series vol.1 p.152

Athanasius of Alexandria (346-356 A.D.) quotes John 1:12 as in the Gospel of John. In Defense of the Nicene Definition ch.3.6 p.154.

Athanasius of Alexandria (367 A.D.) "Again it is not tedious to speak of the [books] of the New Testament. These are, the four Gospels, according to Matthew, Mark, Luke, and John. Afterwards, the Acts of the Apostles and Epistles (called Catholic), seven, viz. of James, one; of Peter, two; of John, three; after these, one of Jude. In addition, there are fourteen Epistles of Paul, written in this order. The first, to the Romans; then two to the Corinthians; after these, to the Galatians; next, to the Ephesians; then to the Philippians; then to the Colossians; after these, two to the Thessalonians, and that to the Hebrews; and again, two to Timothy; one to Titus; and lastly, that to Philemon. And besides, the Revelation of John." (Athanasius of Alexandria’ Festal Letter 39 ch.5 p.552)

Cyril of Jerusalem (c.349-386 A.D.) quotes John 4:24 as according to John. Catechical Lectures Lecture 17 ch.34 p.132

Rufinus (374-406 A.D.) Latin translation of Origen (225-253/254 A.D.) speaks of "John, in his Gospel" Origen’s de Principiis 8 p.245

Orosius/Hosius of Braga (414-418 A.D.) alludes to Revelation 20:12 as in the Apocalypse of John. Defense Against the Pelagians ch.13 p.131

 

From the Council of Ephesus to the start of Muslim conquests (431-634 A.D.)

John of Damascus (706-749 A.D.) "The New Testament contains four gospels, that according to Matthew, that according to Mark, that according to Luke, that according to John: " Exposition of the Orthodox Faith book 4 ch.17 p.90

 

NTa6. Luke wrote Acts

 

From the Council of Nicea I to the Council of Ephesus (325-431 A.D.)

Eusebius’ Ecclesiastical History (323-339/340 A.D.) book 2 ch.18 p.122 says that is in "the sacred book of Acts" Nicene and Post-Nicene Fathers Second Series vol.1 p.122 Luke wrote Acts of the Apostles. ibid ch.22 p.124

Hegemonius of Sirmium (4th century) (partial) (quotes Acts as scripture, but no mention of Luke) Hegemonius of Sirmium quotes Acts 2:6 as Scripture. Archelaus Disputation with Manes ch.36 p.210. Hegemonius of Sirmium also quotes Acts 9:15 in Archelaus Disputation with Manes ch.34 p.208. He possibly alludes to Acts 9:40 in fragment 1 p.234. He does not refer to any other verses in Acts.

Athanasius of Alexandria (356 A.D.) quotes Acts 1:1 "as Luke wrote". Letter to the Bishops of Egypt ch.1.1 p.223.

 

From the Council of Ephesus to the start of Muslim conquests (431-634 A.D.)

John of Damascus (706-749 A.D.) "the Acts of the Holy Apostles by Luke the Evangelist:" Exposition of the Orthodox Faith book 4 ch.17 p.90

 

NTa7. Paul wrote Romans

 

Romans 1:1

 

Eusebius’ Ecclesiastical History (323-326 A.D.) (implied) book 3 ch.3 p.134 (implied) He says, "Paul’s fourteen epistles are well known and undisputed." Then he says some dispute whether Paul wrote Hebrews or not. He also says in book 3 ch.25 p.155 that the letters of Paul are scripture. Nicene and Post-Nicene Fathers Second Series vol.1 p.155.

Athanasius of Alexandria (367 A.D.) "there are fourteen Epistles of Paul, written in this order. The first, to the Romans; then two to the Corinthians; after these, to the Galatians; next, to the Ephesians; then to the Philippians; then to the Colossians; after these, two to the Thessalonians, and that to the Hebrews; and again, two to Timothy; one to Titus; and lastly, that to Philemon." (Athanasius of Alexandria’ Festal Letter 39 ch.5 p.552)

Hilary of Poitiers (355-367/368 A.D.) quotes Romans 1:2-4 as by Paul. On the Trinity book 7 ch.25 p.129

Synopsis Scripturae Sacrae (350-370 A.D. or 5th century) mentions Paul’s Letter to the Romans as part of the New Testament. It quotes all of Romans 1:1.

Cheltenham Canon (=Mommsen Catalogue) (ca.360-370 A.D.)

Basil of Cappadocia (357-378/379 A.D.) quotes Romans 11:36 as by Paul. On the Spirit ch.5 p.5

Cyril of Jerusalem (c.349-386 A.D.) mentions Romans 8:14 as by Paul written to the Romans Lecture 14.29 p.102

Ambrose of Milan (370-390 A.D.) quotes Romans 1:24-25 as by "Paul, who, filled with the Spirit of God." On the Christian Faith book 1 ch.16.101 p.218.

Gregory of Nyssa (c.356-397 A.D.) says Romans 1:1 is by Paul in Against Eunomius book 2 ch.4 p.105 and the Epistle to the Romans in Against Eunomius book 2 ch.9 p.117

Pacian of Barcelona (342-379/392 A.D.) quotes Romans 2:4-5 as by the Apostle Paul. On Penitents ch.11.2 p.84

Gregory of Nyssa (c.356-397 A.D.) says Romans 1:1 is by Paul in Against Eunomius book 2 ch.4 p.105 and the Epistle to the Romans in Against Eunomius book 2 ch.9 p.117

Didymus the Blind (398 A.D.) quotes Romans 1:1-4 as by Paul. Commentary on Zechariah 10 p.233-234

Rufinus (374-406 A.D.) freely translating Origen (225-253/254 A.D.) quotes Romans 1:1-4 in "Paul’s Epistle to the Romans." de Principiis book 2 ch.4.2 p.276

John Chrysostom (-406 A.D.) quotes Romans 1:4 as by Paul in Homilies on John homily 23 p.12

John Chrysostom (-406 A.D.) quotes Romans 9:3 as by Paul. On the Priesthood book 3 ch.7 p.48

 

Among heretics

Pelagian heretic Theodore of Mopsuestia (392-423/429 A.D.) paraphrases Romans 1:26,28 as by Paul. Commentary on Zechariah ch.11 p.380. He quotes part of Romans 1:18 as by the blessed Paul. Commentary on Hosea ch.5 p.61

 

NTa8. Paul wrote 1 Corinthians

 

1 Corinthians 1:1

 

From the Council of Nicea I to the Council of Ephesus (325-431 A.D.)

Eusebius’ Ecclesiastical History (323-326 A.D.) (implied) book 3 ch.3 p.134 (implied) He says, "Paul’s fourteen epistles are well known and undisputed." Then he says some dispute whether Paul wrote Hebrews or not. He also says in book 3 ch.25 p.155 that the letters of Paul are scripture. Nicene and Post-Nicene Fathers Second Series vol.1 p.155.

Hegemonius of Sirmium (4th century) quotes 1 Corinthians 13:8-10 as "For in that first Epistle to the Corinthians, Paul speaks…" (Archelaus is speaking) Archelaus Disputation with Manes ch.37 p.211

Hegemonius of Sirmium (4th century) quotes as by Paul 1 Corinthians 15:3-9 as "his epistle to the Corinthians" Archelaus Disputation with Manes ch.34 p.208

Athanasius of Alexandria (367 A.D.) "there are fourteen Epistles of Paul, written in this order. The first, to the Romans; then two to the Corinthians; after these, to the Galatians; next, to the Ephesians; then to the Philippians; then to the Colossians; after these, two to the Thessalonians, and that to the Hebrews; and again, two to Timothy; one to Titus; and lastly, that to Philemon." (Athanasius of Alexandria’ Festal Letter 39 ch.5 p.552)

Cyril of Jerusalem (c.349-386 A.D.) quotes 1 Corinthians 11:23 by the blessed Paul in Lecture 22.1 p.151

Pacian of Barcelona (342-379/392 A.D.) quotes 1 Corinthians 11:16 as by Paul. Letter 1 ch.2.3 p.19

Gregory of Nyssa (c.356-397 A.D.) 1 Corinthians 15:51,52 "the divine Apostle .. to the Corinthians" On the Making of Man ch32.6 p.412

Didymus the Blind (398 A.D.) refers to 1 Corinthians as Paul to the Corinthians. Commentary on Zechariah 10 p.233

Syriac Book of Steps (Liber Graduum) (350-400 A.D.) quotes 1 Corinthians 8:8 as by Paul. Memra 15 ch.6 p.143

Epiphanius of Salamis (360-403 A.D.) quotes 1 Corinthians 3:2 as by Paul. The Panarion section 2 end of the Letter to Flora p.207

John Chrysostom (-407 A.D.) quotes part of 1 Corinthians 15:32 as by Paul. On the Statues homily 1 ch.20 p.339

Rufinus (374-406 A.D.) freely translating Origen (225-253/254 A.D.) quotes 1 Corinthians 1:24 as by Paul. de Principiis book 1 ch.2.1 p.246

Rufinus (374-406 A.D.) freely translating Origen (225-253/254 A.D.) quotes 1 Corinthians 14:15 as by Paul in de Principiis book 2 ch.2 p.287

Orosius/Hosius of Braga (414-418 A.D.) quotes part of 1 Corinthians 15:10 as by Paul. Defense Against the Pelagians ch.10 p.127

Orosius/Hosius of Braga (414-418 A.D.) quotes 1 Corinthians 1:4-7 as what "the Apostle Paul wrote to the Corinthians" Defense Against the Pelagians ch.21 p.144

Sozomon (370/380-425 A.D.) says 1 Corinthians 11:12 as by the Apostle Paul. Sozomen’s Ecclesiastical History book 4 ch.29 p.324

Augustine of Hippo (388-430 A.D.) quotes 1 Corinthians 10:17 as being by the Apostle Paul in The City of God book 17 ch.5 p.345

John Cassian (419-430 A.D.) quotes one-fourth of 1 Corinthians 3:16; 4:16 as by Paul in the Institutes of John Cassian book 9.3 p.264

John Cassian (419-430 A.D.) refers to 1 Corinthians 12:9 as by the Apostle Paul in Conference of the Abbot Piamun ch.13 p.485 as well as p.470

 

Among heretics

Mani/Manes (4th century) "As Paul, too, has given these further testimonies, that" and quotes part of 2 Corinthians 3:6-7, 1 Corinthians 15:56. (Manes is speaking) Archelaus Disputation with Manes ch.31 p.203

Pelagian heretic Theodore of Mopsuestia (392-423/429 A.D.) quotes 1 Corinthians 16:22 as by Paul. Commentary on Zechariah ch.14 p.394, and 1 Corinthians 10:11 as by Paul in Commentary on Jonah preface p.187

 

NTa9. Paul wrote 2 Corinthians

 

From the Council of Nicea I to the Council of Ephesus (325-431 A.D.)

Eusebius’ Ecclesiastical History (323-326 A.D.) (implied) book 3 ch.3 p.134 (implied) He says, "Paul’s fourteen epistles are well known and undisputed." Then he says some dispute whether Paul wrote Hebrews or not. He also says in book 3 ch.25 p.155 that the letters of Paul are scripture. Nicene and Post-Nicene Fathers Second Series vol.1 p.155.

Hegemonius of Sirmium (4th century) quotes 2 Corinthians 13:3 as by Paul and calls him an apostle. Archelaus Disputation with Manes ch.42 p.218

Hegemonius of Sirmium (4th century) quotes as by Paul 2 Corinthians 11:23 as "in another place" Archelaus Disputation with Manes ch.35 p.209

Athanasius of Alexandria (367 A.D.) "there are fourteen Epistles of Paul, written in this order. The first, to the Romans; then two to the Corinthians; after these, to the Galatians; next, to the Ephesians; then to the Philippians; then to the Colossians; after these, two to the Thessalonians, and that to the Hebrews; and again, two to Timothy; one to Titus; and lastly, that to Philemon." (Athanasius of Alexandria’ Festal Letter 39 ch.5 p.552)

Hilary of Poitiers (355-367/368 A.D.) (partial) quotes 2 Corinthians 13:4 as "to the Corinthians he [the blessed Apostle] writes" On the Trinity book 9 ch.3 p.159

Cyril of Jerusalem (c.349-386 A.D.) quotes 2 Corinthians 13:3 as by Paul in Lecture 10.17 p.62

Pacian of Barcelona (342-379/392 A.D.) quotes 2 Corinthians 2:6-8 as by Paul in the Second Letter to the Corinthians. Letter 3 ch.18.1 p.60

Gregory of Nyssa (c.356-397 A.D.) alludes to 2 Corinthians 5:16 as by Paul in Against Eunomius book 6 ch.2 p.184. Also Paul to the Corinthians for 2 Corinthians 5:20 in Against Eunomius book 2 ch.14 p.128-129

Orosius/Hosius of Braga (414-418 A.D.) refers to 2 Corinthians 5:9-10 as by the Apostle Paul. Defense Against the Pelagians ch.18 p.140

 

Among heretics

Pelagian heretic Theodore of Mopsuestia (392-423/429 A.D.) quotes 2 Corinthians 4:13 as by Paul. Commentary on Nahum ch.1 p.248

 

NTa10. Paul wrote Galatians

 

From the Council of Nicea I to the Council of Ephesus (325-431 A.D.)

Eusebius’ Ecclesiastical History (323-326 A.D.) (implied) book 3 ch.3 p.134 (implied) He says, "Paul’s fourteen epistles are well known and undisputed." Then he says some dispute whether Paul wrote Hebrews or not. He also says in book 3 ch.25 p.155 that the letters of Paul are scripture. Nicene and Post-Nicene Fathers Second Series vol.1 p.155.

Hegemonius of Sirmium (4th century) quotes part of Galatians 4:3 as by Paul the apostle. Archelaus Disputation with Manes ch.13 p.188

Athanasius of Alexandria (367 A.D.) "there are fourteen Epistles of Paul, written in this order. The first, to the Romans; then two to the Corinthians; after these, to the Galatians; next, to the Ephesians; then to the Philippians; then to the Colossians; after these, two to the Thessalonians, and that to the Hebrews; and again, two to Timothy; one to Titus; and lastly, that to Philemon." (Athanasius of Alexandria’ Festal Letter 39 ch.5 p.552)

Cyril of Jerusalem (c.349-386 A.D.) quotes part of Galatians 4:4 as by Paul in Lecture 12.31 p.80

Pacian of Barcelona (342-379/392 A.D.) quotes part of Galatians 5:13 as by the Apostle Paul. On Penitents ch.3.2 p.74

Gregory of Nyssa (c.356-397 A.D.) quotes part of Galatians 1:8-9 as by Paul in Against Eunomius book 2 ch.14 p.129

John Chrysostom (406 A.D.) quotes Galatians 5:19,20,21 as the words of Saint Paul. On the Priesthood 2.2 p.40

John Chrysostom (-406 A.D.) wrote commentaries on John, Romans, 1 Corinthians, 2 Corinthians, Galatians, Ephesians, Colossians, Philippians, 1 Thessalonians, 2 Thessalonians, 1 Timothy, 2 Timothy, Titus, Philemon, Hebrews.

 

From the Council of Ephesus to the start of Muslim conquests (431-634 A.D.)

Prosper of Aquitaine (425-465 A.D.) says Galatians 5:6 is by Paul

 

Among heretics

Pelagian heretic Theodore of Mopsuestia (392-423/429 A.D.) alludes to Galatians 3:22 as by Paul. Commentary on Jonah preface p.190

 

NTa11. Paul wrote Ephesians

 

From the Council of Nicea I to the Council of Ephesus (325-431 A.D.)

Eusebius’ Ecclesiastical History (323-326 A.D.) (implied) book 3 ch.3 p.134 (implied) He says, "Paul’s fourteen epistles are well known and undisputed." Then he says some dispute whether Paul wrote Hebrews or not. He also says in book 3 ch.25 p.155 that the letters of Paul are scripture. Nicene and Post-Nicene Fathers Second Series vol.1 p.155.

Hegemonius of Sirmium (4th century) quotes half of Ephesians 3:8 as by Paul. Archelaus Disputation with Manes ch.34 p.207

Athanasius of Alexandria (367 A.D.) "there are fourteen Epistles of Paul, written in this order. The first, to the Romans; then two to the Corinthians; after these, to the Galatians; next, to the Ephesians; then to the Philippians; then to the Colossians; after these, two to the Thessalonians, and that to the Hebrews; and again, two to Timothy; one to Titus; and lastly, that to Philemon." (Athanasius of Alexandria’ Festal Letter 39 ch.5 p.552)

Synopsis Scripturae Sacrae (350-370 A.D. or 5th century) mentions Paul’s Letter to the Ephesians as part of the New Testament. It quotes all of Ephesians 1:1.

The schismatic Lucifer of Cagliari (370/371 A.D.) refers to Ephesians 4:9; 5:9; 5:15

Marcellus of Ancyra (c.374 A.D.) refers to Ephesians 4:6

Titus of Bostra (before 378 A.D.)

Ephraim the Syrian hymn-writer (350-378 A.D.)

Basil of Cappadocia (357-378 A.D.) refers to Ephesians 4:32

Ambrosiaster (after 384 A.D.)

Cyril of Jerusalem (c.349-386 A.D.) (implied) quotes Ephesians 2:10 as by the Apostle in Lecture 2.1 p.8

Ambrose of Milan (370-390 A.D.)

Gregory of Nazianzen (330-391 A.D.)

Gregory of Elvira (after 392 A.D.)

Gregory of Nyssa (c.356-397 A.D.) alludes to Ephesians 3:18 as "Paul … people of Ephesus". Also, the Great Catechism ch.32 p.150

John Chrysostom (406 A.D.) quotes Ephesians 6:12 as the words of Saint Paul. On the Priesthood 2.2 p.40

John Chrysostom (-406 A.D.) wrote commentaries on John, Romans, 1 Corinthians, 2 Corinthians, Galatians, Ephesians, Colossians, Philippians, 1 Thessalonians, 2 Thessalonians, 1 Timothy, 2 Timothy, Titus, Philemon, Hebrews.

Rufinus (374-406 A.D.) freely translating Origen (225-253/254 A.D.) quotes Ephesians 6:12 as by Paul to the Ephesians. de Principiis book 3 ch.4 p.332

Prosper of Aquitaine (425-465 A.D.) (implied) quotes Ephesians 2:8f as by the Apostle.

 

NTa12. Paul wrote Philippians

 

From the Council of Nicea I to the Council of Ephesus (325-431 A.D.)

Eusebius (318-339/340 A.D.) quotes Philippians 2:6 in Eusebius’ Ecclesiastical History book 5 ch.2 p.216. He quotes Philippians 2:6-8 as "Sacred Scriptures" in book 8 ch.10 p.330-331. He says that Paul referred to other Christians as "fellow laborers" in book 3 ch.4 p.136

Hegemonius of Sirmium (4th century) (partial) Against the Manichaeans ch.38 p.212 quotes from Philippians 3:19 as by the Apostle.

Life of Antony (probably by Athanasius of Alexandria) (355 A.D.) ch.7 p.198 quotes Philippians 3:4 as by Paul

Athanasius of Alexandria (367 A.D.) "there are fourteen Epistles of Paul, written in this order. The first, to the Romans; then two to the Corinthians; after these, to the Galatians; next, to the Ephesians; then to the Philippians; then to the Colossians; after these, two to the Thessalonians, and that to the Hebrews; and again, two to Timothy; one to Titus; and lastly, that to Philemon." (Athanasius of Alexandria’ Festal Letter 39 ch.5 p.552)

Athanasius of Alexandria (331 A.D.) says Paul wrote Philippians. History of the Arians book 7 ch.52 p.189

Rufinus (374-406 A.D.) freely translating Origen (225-253/254 A.D.) quotes Philippians 4:13 as by Paul. de Principiis book 3 ch.2.5 p.333

John Chrysostom (-406 A.D.) quotes Philippians 4:4 as by Paul in Homilies on Acts of the Apostles homily 16 p.104

John Chrysostom (-406 A.D.) wrote commentaries on John, Romans, 1 Corinthians, 2 Corinthians, Galatians, Ephesians, Colossians, Philippians, 1 Thessalonians, 2 Thessalonians, 1 Timothy, 2 Timothy, Titus, Philemon, Hebrews.

Augustine of Hippo (388-430 A.D.) alludes to Philippians 1:15,17 as being by the Apostle Paul in On Baptism, Against the Donatists ch.47 p.511

 

NTa13. Paul wrote Colossians

 

From the Council of Nicea I to the Council of Ephesus (325-431 A.D.)

Eusebius’ Ecclesiastical History (323-326 A.D.) (implied) book 3 ch.3 p.134 (implied) He says, "Paul’s fourteen epistles are well known and undisputed." Then he says some dispute whether Paul wrote Hebrews or not. He also says in book 3 ch.25 p.155 that the letters of Paul are scripture. Nicene and Post-Nicene Fathers Second Series vol.1 p.155.

Hegemonius of Sirmium (4th century) quotes as by Paul Colossians 1:23; 2:6-9 as "in the epistle which he wrote to the Colossians" Archelaus Disputation with Manes ch.35 p.209

Athanasius of Alexandria (367 A.D.) "there are fourteen Epistles of Paul, written in this order. The first, to the Romans; then two to the Corinthians; after these, to the Galatians; next, to the Ephesians; then to the Philippians; then to the Colossians; after these, two to the Thessalonians, and that to the Hebrews; and again, two to Timothy; one to Titus; and lastly, that to Philemon." (Athanasius of Alexandria’ Festal Letter 39 ch.5 p.552)

Hilary of Poitiers (355-367/368 A.D.) refers to Colossians 2:2-3 as by Paul. On the Trinity book 9 ch.62 p.177

Synopsis Scripturae Sacrae (350-370 A.D. or 5th century) mentions Paul’s Letter to the Colossians as part of the New Testament. It quotes Colossians 1:1-2a.

Cyril of Jerusalem (c.349-386 A.D.) quotes Colossians on p.19

Pacian of Barcelona (342-379/392 A.D.) (implied) quotes Colossians 2:14-15 as by the apostle. On Baptism ch.4.1 p.90

Gregory of Nyssa (c.356-397 A.D.) quotes Colossians 1:16 as by Paul in Against Eunomius book 1 ch.22 p.63-64

John Chrysostom 396 A.D. wrote down 12 sermons on Colossians, which we still have today. He said it was by Paul

John Chrysostom (-406 A.D.) wrote commentaries on John, Romans, 1 Corinthians, 2 Corinthians, Galatians, Ephesians, Colossians, Philippians, 1 Thessalonians, 2 Thessalonians, 1 Timothy, 2 Timothy, Titus, Philemon, Hebrews.

Rufinus (374-406 A.D.) freely translating Origen (225-253/254 A.D.) quotes Colossians 1:15 as by Paul. de Principiis book 1 ch.5 p.247.

Rufinus (374-406 A.D.) freely translation Origen (225-253/254 A.D.) quotes Colossians 1:15 was by Paul. de Principiis book 2 ch.6.1 p.281.

Augustine of Hippo (388-430 A.D.) says Paul (On the Forgiveness of Sin, and Baptism) book 1 ch.43 p.31 (vol.5) wrote the books Romans, 1 Corinthians and 2 Corinthians (ch.44 p.32), Galatians (ch.45 p.32), Ephesians (ch.46 p.33), Colossians (ch.47 p.33), 1 Timothy and 2 Timothy (ch.48 p.33), Titus (ch.49 p.33), Epistle to the Hebrews (doubted by some) (ch.50 p.34)

The semi-Pelagian John Cassian (419-430 A.D.) quotes Colossians 1:16 as by Paul in Seven Books book 6.21 p.601

 

From the Council of Ephesus to the start of Muslim conquests (431-634 A.D.)

Prosper of Aquitaine (425-465 A.D.) (implied) says Colossians 1:12 was by the Apostle.

Speculum (5th century) refers to Colossians 1:12

Cyril of Alexandria (444 A.D.)

Quodvultdeus (c.453 A.D.)

Varimadum (445/480 A.D.) refers to Colossians 1:12

Theodoret of Cyrus (bishop and historian) (423-458 A.D.)

 

Among heretics

The heretic Marcion according to Tertullian

The heretic Priscillian (-385 A.D.) refers to Colossians 2:13

Arian heretic Eunomius of Cyzicus (c.360-c.394 A.D.) quotes Colossians 1:15-16 as by "the blessed Paul" Apologetic Letter ch.24 p.65

The heretic Pelagius (416-418 A.D.) refers to Colossians 3:4

Pelagian heretic Theodore of Mopsuestia (428 A.D.)

 

NTa14. Paul wrote 1 Thessalonians

 

From the Council of Nicea I to the Council of Ephesus (325-431 A.D.)

Athanasius of Alexandria (367 A.D.) "Again it is not tedious to speak of the [books] of the New Testament. These are, the four Gospels, according to Matthew, Mark, Luke, and John. Afterwards, the Acts of the Apostles and Epistles (called Catholic), seven, viz. of James, one; of Peter, two; of John, three; after these, one of Jude. In addition, there are fourteen Epistles of Paul, written in this order. The first, to the Romans; then two to the Corinthians; after these, to the Galatians; next, to the Ephesians; then to the Philippians; then to the Colossians; after these, two to the Thessalonians, and that to the Hebrews; and again, two to Timothy; one to Titus; and lastly, that to Philemon. And besides, the Revelation of John." (Athanasius of Alexandria’ Festal Letter 39 ch.5 p.552)

Cheltenham Canon (=Mommson Catalogue) (c.360-370 A.D.) mentions each of the four gospels, Acts, Paul’s letters, 1 Peter, 1 John, and Revelation.

Jerome (317-420 A.D.) mentions by name the "New Testament", Matthew, Mark, Luke, John as "the Lord’s team of four", seven church letters of Paul, Hebrews, Timothy, Titus, Philemon, Acts of the Apostles, seven epistles among James, Peter, John, and Jude, and the Apocalypse of John all in letter 53 ch.9 p.101-102.

 

NTa15. Paul wrote 2 Thessalonians

 

From the Council of Nicea I to the Council of Ephesus (325-431 A.D.)

Eusebius’ Ecclesiastical History (323-326 A.D.) (implied) book 3 ch.3 p.134 (implied) He says, "Paul’s fourteen epistles are well known and undisputed." Then he says some dispute whether Paul wrote Hebrews or not. He also says in book 3 ch.25 p.155 that the letters of Paul are scripture. Nicene and Post-Nicene Fathers Second Series vol.1 p.155.

Athanasius of Alexandria (367 A.D.) "there are fourteen Epistles of Paul, written in this order. The first, to the Romans; then two to the Corinthians; after these, to the Galatians; next, to the Ephesians; then to the Philippians; then to the Colossians; after these, two to the Thessalonians, and that to the Hebrews; and again, two to Timothy; one to Titus; and lastly, that to Philemon." (Athanasius of Alexandria’ Festal Letter 39 ch.5 p.552)

 

NTa16. Paul wrote 1 Timothy

 

From the Council of Nicea I to the Council of Ephesus (325-431 A.D.)

Eusebius’ Ecclesiastical History (323-326 A.D.) (implied) book 3 ch.3 p.134 (implied) He says, "Paul’s fourteen epistles are well known and undisputed." Then he says some dispute whether Paul wrote Hebrews or not. He also says in book 3 ch.25 p.155 that the letters of Paul are scripture. Nicene and Post-Nicene Fathers Second Series vol.1 p.155.

Athanasius of Alexandria (367 A.D.) "there are fourteen Epistles of Paul, written in this order. The first, to the Romans; then two to the Corinthians; after these, to the Galatians; next, to the Ephesians; then to the Philippians; then to the Colossians; after these, two to the Thessalonians, and that to the Hebrews; and again, two to Timothy; one to Titus; and lastly, that to Philemon." (Athanasius of Alexandria’ Festal Letter 39 ch.5 p.552)

John Chrysostom (-406 A.D.) quotes 1 Timothy 3:7 as by "the blessed Paul". On the Priesthood book 2 ch.4 p.42

 

NTa17. Paul wrote a 2nd letter to Timothy

 

From the Council of Nicea I to the Council of Ephesus (325-431 A.D.)

Eusebius of Caesarea (323-339/340 A.D.) says Paul wrote in his second letter to Timothy. Eusebius’ Ecclesiastical History book 2 ch.22.6 p.124

Hegemonius of Sirmium (4th century) "as Paul also gives us to understand when he writes in the following terms in his second Epistle to Timothy: ‘As Jamnes and Mambres withstood Moses, so have these also resisted the truth: men of corrupt mind, reprobate concerning the faith." (The orthodox Diodorus is speaking) Archelaus Disputation with Manes ch.45 p.221

Hegemonius of Sirmium (4th century) (partial) quotes 2 Timothy 4:7-8 as by "the blessed apostle" Archelaus Disputation with Manes ch.35 p.209. He also alludes to 2 Timothy 3:8,9 in ch.36 p.210.

 

NTa18. Paul wrote Titus

 

Titus 1:1

 

From the Council of Nicea I to the Council of Ephesus (325-431 A.D.)

Athanasius of Alexandria (367 A.D.) "Again it is not tedious to speak of the [books] of the New Testament. These are, the four Gospels, according to Matthew, Mark, Luke, and John. Afterwards, the Acts of the Apostles and Epistles (called Catholic), seven, viz. of James, one; of Peter, two; of John, three; after these, one of Jude. In addition, there are fourteen Epistles of Paul, written in this order. The first, to the Romans; then two to the Corinthians; after these, to the Galatians; next, to the Ephesians; then to the Philippians; then to the Colossians; after these, two to the Thessalonians, and that to the Hebrews; and again, two to Timothy; one to Titus; and lastly, that to Philemon. And besides, the Revelation of John." (Athanasius of Alexandria’ Festal Letter 39 ch.5 p.552)

Cheltenham Canon (=Mommson Catalogue) (c.360-370 A.D.) mentions each of the four gospels, Acts, Paul’s letters, 1 Peter, 1 John, and Revelation.

Jerome (317-420 A.D.) mentions by name the "New Testament", Matthew, Mark, Luke, John as "the Lord’s team of four", seven church letters of Paul, Hebrews, Timothy, Titus, Philemon, Acts of the Apostles, seven epistles among James, Peter, John, and Jude, and the Apocalypse of John all in letter 53 ch.9 p.101-102.

 

NTa19. Peter wrote 1 Peter

 

From the Council of Nicea I to the Council of Ephesus (325-431 A.D.)

Eusebius’ Ecclesiastical History (323-339/340 A.D.) book 3 ch.3 p.133-135 discusses the books of the New Testament. He says 1 Peter is genuine. He says that Paul’s 14 letters are well-known, though the church in Rome doubted that Paul wrote Hebrews. He says that 2 Peter is disputed. The so-called Acts of Paul, [Shepherd of] Hermas, Acts of Peter, and Gospel of Peter and Preaching of Peter, and the Apocalypse are not genuine. Nicene and Post-Nicene Fathers Second Series vol.1 p.123-145

Athanasius of Alexandria (367 A.D.) "Again it is not tedious to speak of the [books] of the New Testament. These are, the four Gospels, according to Matthew, Mark, Luke, and John. Afterwards, the Acts of the Apostles and Epistles (called Catholic), seven, viz. of James, one; of Peter, two; of John, three; after these, one of Jude. In addition, there are fourteen Epistles of Paul, written in this order. The first, to the Romans; then two to the Corinthians; after these, to the Galatians; next, to the Ephesians; then to the Philippians; then to the Colossians; after these, two to the Thessalonians, and that to the Hebrews; and again, two to Timothy; one to Titus; and lastly, that to Philemon. And besides, the Revelation of John." (Athanasius of Alexandria’ Festal Letter 39 ch.5 p.552)

Synopsis Scripturae Sacrae (350-370 A.D. or 5th century) lists Hebrews (by Paul), James, 1 and 2 Peter, 1, 2, 3, John, Jude as scripture.

Cheltenham Canon (=Mommson Catalogue) (c.360-370 A.D.) mentions each of the four gospels, Acts, Paul’s letters, 1 Peter, 1 John, and Revelation.

Cyril of Jerusalem (c.349-386 A.D.) quotes 1 Peter 3:22 as by Peter in Lecture 14:29 p.102

Didymus the Blind (398 A.D.) quotes 1 Peter 1:2 as by Peter. Commentary on Zechariah 13 p.307-308

Rufinus (374-406 A.D.) freely translating Origen (225-253/254 A.D.) quotes 1 Peter 1:9 as by Peter. de Principiis book 2 ch.3 p.287

 

From the Council of Ephesus to the start of Muslim conquests (431-634 A.D.)

Leo I of Rome (440-461 A.D.) 1 Peter 1:2 by Peter Letter 28.3 p.42

 

NTa20. John wrote 1 John

 

From the Council of Nicea I to the Council of Ephesus (325-431 A.D.)

Eusebius of Caesarea (323-339/340 A.D.) discusses John writing in his gospel and his epistle, and then quotes from John 1 and 1 John 1. Eusebius’ Ecclesiastical History book 7 ch.25.17-20 p.310

Athanasius of Alexandria (367 A.D.) "Again it is not tedious to speak of the [books] of the New Testament. These are, the four Gospels, according to Matthew, Mark, Luke, and John. Afterwards, the Acts of the Apostles and Epistles (called Catholic), seven, viz. of James, one; of Peter, two; of John, three; after these, one of Jude. In addition, there are fourteen Epistles of Paul, written in this order. The first, to the Romans; then two to the Corinthians; after these, to the Galatians; next, to the Ephesians; then to the Philippians; then to the Colossians; after these, two to the Thessalonians, and that to the Hebrews; and again, two to Timothy; one to Titus; and lastly, that to Philemon. And besides, the Revelation of John." (Athanasius of Alexandria’ Festal Letter 39 ch.5 p.552)

Cyril of Jerusalem (c.349-386 A.D.) (partial) quotes 1 John 2:22 as by the Apostle in Lecture 10.14 p.61

Pacian of Barcelona (342-379/392 A.D.) quotes 1 John 5:16 (sins leading to death) as by John. On Penitents ch.4.3 p.75

Gregory of Nyssa (c.356-397 A.D.) says "John in one of his Catholic Epistles" and quotes 1 John 2:1. Against Eunomius book 2 ch.14 p.128

Rufinus (374-406 A.D.) freely translating Origen (225-253/254 A.D.) quotes 1 John 1:5 as John writes in his Epistle. de Principiis book 1 ch.1.1 p.242

Augustine of Hippo (388-430 A.D.) mentions the Apostle John and refers to 1 John 4:7 in The City of God book 17 ch.5 p.342

John Cassian (419-430 A.D.) quotes 1 John 1:1-2 as by the Apostle John in Seven Books book 5.6 p.584

 

From the Council of Ephesus to the start of Muslim conquests (431-634 A.D.)

Leo I of Rome (440-461 A.D.) says 1 John 4:2,3 is by the evangelist John Letter 28.3 p.42. Also 1 John 1:7 by the apostle John in Letter 28.3 p.42

Prosper of Aquitaine (425-465 A.D.) refers to 1 John 4:10 as by John the Apostle

 

NTa21. Jude wrote Jude

 

From the Council of Nicea I to the Council of Ephesus (325-431 A.D.)

m Eusebius’ Ecclesiastical History (323-339/340 A.D.) book 2 ch.23 p.128 says that James and Jude are said to have written the letters that bear their names, though this is disputed. Nicene and Post-Nicene Fathers Second Series vol.1 p.128

Athanasius of Alexandria (367 A.D.) "Again it is not tedious to speak of the [books] of the New Testament. These are, the four Gospels, according to Matthew, Mark, Luke, and John. Afterwards, the Acts of the Apostles and Epistles (called Catholic), seven, viz. of James, one; of Peter, two; of John, three; after these, one of Jude. In addition, there are fourteen Epistles of Paul, written in this order. The first, to the Romans; then two to the Corinthians; after these, to the Galatians; next, to the Ephesians; then to the Philippians; then to the Colossians; after these, two to the Thessalonians, and that to the Hebrews; and again, two to Timothy; one to Titus; and lastly, that to Philemon. And besides, the Revelation of John." (Athanasius of Alexandria’ Festal Letter 39 ch.5 p.552)

Cyril of Jerusalem (c.349-386 A.D.) mentions Jude in the "Seven Catholic Epistles of James, Peter, John, and Jude" in Lecture 4.36 p.28

Epiphanius of Salamis (360-403 A.D.) mentions the four gospels, 14 letters of Paul, James, Peter, John, Jude, Acts, Apocalypse of John, Wisdom of Solomon and Sirach (=Ecclesiasticus).

Jerome (317-420 A.D.) mentions by name the "New Testament", Matthew, Mark, Luke, John as "the Lord’s team of four", seven church letters of Paul, Hebrews, Timothy, Titus, Philemon, Acts of the Apostles, seven epistles among James, Peter, John, and Jude, and the Apocalypse of John all in letter 53 ch.9 p.101-102.

Augustine of Hippo quotes Jude 24 as being by Jude the apostle in On Rebuke and Grace ch.10 p.475 (vol.5). Also The City of God book 18 ch.38 p.383

John Cassian (419-430 A.D.) quotes Jude 5 as by the Apostle in Seven Books book 5.9 p.586

 

NTa22. The evangelists [gospel writers]

 

From the Council of Nicea I to the Council of Ephesus (325-431 A.D.)

Hegemonius of Sirmium (4th century) "But the holy John, the greatest of the evangelists, also tells us of the giving and diffusing of grace for grace; for he indicates, indeed, that we have received the law of Moses out of the fulness of Christ, and he means that for that one grace this other grace has been made perfect in us through Jesus Christ." Acts of Archelaus (= Disputation with Manes) ch.45 p.&&&

Athanasius of Alexandria (356-360 A.D.) "declared by the evangelists" Four Discourses Against the Arians Discourse 3 ch.29 p.424

Ambrose of Milan (370-390 A.D.) mentions the evangelist Mark in On the Christian Faith book 5 ch.5.64 p.292

 

 

God’s TranscendEnce

 

G1. There is only One True God

 

Deuteronomy 6:4,35-39; 2 Samuel 7:22; Mark 12:29-33; Isaiah 43:10-12; 44:6-8,24; 45:5-14; 46:9; Matthew 19:17; Mark 10;18; 12:29,32; John 17:3; 1 Timothy 1:17; 6:15-16; James 2:19

 

Vaticanus (B) Most of the Old Testament, including all of Deuteronomy, and all of New Testament up to Hebrews 9:15 (325-350 A.D.) Matthew 19:17; Mark 10:18; 12:29,32; John 17:3

Sinaiticus (340-350 A.D.) Matthew 19:17; Mark 10:18; 12:29,32; John 17:3

Alexandrinus (c.450 A.D.) All of the Old Testament except Genesis 14:14-17; 15:1-5, 16-19; 16:6-9; 1 Samuel 12:17-14:9; Psalm 19:20-79:11. All of the New Testament except Matthew 1:1-25:6, John 6:50-8:52; Romans 16:24; and 2 Corinthians 4:13-12:6.

 

While Mormonism has taught that there are many gods over many planets, both the Bible and the early church teach there is only one true God.

 

From the Council of Nicea I to the Council of Ephesus (325-431 A.D.)

Council of Nicea (325 A.D.) Creed p.3 "One God, the Father Almighty, maker of all things…"

Private Creed of Arius (328 A.D.) "We believe in one God, the Father Almighty;"

Synod of Antioch in Encaeniis (341 A.D.) (implied by Nicea) Canon 1 p.108 says to excommunicate people who presume to set Nice[a] under Constantine.

Athanasius of Alexandria (346-356 A.D.) says there is only One God. Defense of the Nicene Definition ch.7 p.154

Hegemonius of Sirmium (4th century) mentions "the One God" Archelaus Disputation with Manes ch.18 p.192 and "one God" in Archelaus Disputation with Manes ch.29 p.202.

Hilary of Poitiers (355-367/368 A.D.) (implied) says that if any man says that the Father and the Son and the Holy Spirit are three Gods; let him be anathema. On the Councils ch.38 Canon 22 of the Council of Sirmium p.15.

Council of Sirmium (Greek creed) 351 A.D. One God, Father Almighty. Socrates Ecclesiastical History book 2 ch.30 in Nicene and Post-Nicene Fathers 2nd Series vol.2 p.56-57.

Synod of Seleucia in Isauria (357/358 A.D.) , One God, Father Almighty, made all things, Socrates’ Ecclesiastical History book 2 ch.40 in The Nicene and post-Nicene Fathers Second series vol.2 p.60

Marius Victorinus to the Arian Candidus (359-362 A.D.) says that God is the One and Only. Marius’ Letter to Candidus ch.3 (12) p.69

Gregory of Nyssa (382-383 A.D.) says there are not three gods but a Trinity in On Not Three Gods p.336

Cyril of Jerusalem (c.349-386 A.D.) says that God is one. Lecture 4 ch.4 p.20; Lecture 7 ch.1 p.74

John Chrysostom (before 407 A.D.) mentions only one God in vol.10 Commentary on Matthew homily 71 p.432.

Augustine of Hippo (388-430 A.D.) says that Christ is God, and very God, and with the Father "the One and only God" On the Trinity book 1 ch.6 p.21

 

From the Council of Ephesus to the start of Muslim conquests (431-634 A.D.)

Nestorius (c.451 A.D.) says there are not two Gods, not tow sons … but one. Bazaar ofHEracleides book 1 part 1 ch.53.

Patrick of Ireland (420-461 A.D.) "[T]here is no other God, nor has there been heretofore, nor will there be hereafter, except God the Father unbegotten, without beginning, from whom is all beginning, upholding all things, as we say, and his Son Jesus Christ, whom we likewise to confess to have always been with the Father--before the world’s beginning . . . Jesus Christ is the Lord and God in whom we believe . . . and who has poured out on us abundantly the Holy Spirit . . . whom we confess and adore as one God in the Trinity of the Sacred Name" Confession of St. Patrick 4

Fulgentius of Ruspe (507-532/533 A.D.) "still, in the name of, and with the help of, the Holy Trinity, which is the one, true, and good God, I may say those things in which, at least for the most part, the Catholic faith may stand forth without any of the fog of error." To Peter on the Faith ch.2 p.61

 

Among heretics

The Arian Candidus’ Letter to Marius Victorinus (359-362 A.D.) says there is One God, who is the first cause of all things and unchangeable. Candidus’ First Letter ch.1,2 p.54

Creed of Eunomius (Extreme Arian) (c.360-c.377 A.D.) "We believe in One God, the Father Almighty, of Whom are all things…" Nicene and Post-Nicene Fathers Second Series vol.8 p.xxxiv

 

G2. Living God

 

Deuteronomy 5:26; Joshua 3:10; 1 Samuel 17:26,33; 2 Kings 19:4,16; Psalm 42:2; 84:2; Isaiah 37:4,17; Jeremiah 10:10; 23:36; Daniel 6:20,26; Hosea 1:10

Matthew 16:26; 26:63; John 6:69; Acts 14:15; Romans 9:26; 2 Corinthians 3:3; 6:16; 1 Thessalonians 1:9; 3:15; 4:10; 6:27; Hebrews 3:22; 9:14; 10:31; 12:22; Revelation 7:2

 

Vaticanus (B) (325-350 A.D.) contains all of Deuteronomy. It has most of the Old Testament and all of New Testament up to Hebrews 9:15 (325-350 A.D.)

Alexandrinus (c.450 A.D.) All of the Old Testament except Genesis 14:14-17; 15:1-5, 16-19; 16:6-9; 1 Samuel 12:17-14:9; Psalm 19:20-79:11. All of the New Testament except Matthew 1:1-25:6, John 6:50-8:52; Romans 16:24; and 2 Corinthians 4:13-12:6.

 

From the Council of Nicea I to the Council of Ephesus (325-431 A.D.)

Hegemonius of Sirmium translating Archelaus (4th century) "we believe in the living God alone." Archelaus Disputation with Manes ch.2 p.179

Athanasius of Alexandria (335 A.D.) "And one earnestly implores, saying, ‘As the hart panteth after the fountains of waters, so panteth my soul after Thee, O God! My soul thirsteth for the living God, when shall I come and see the face of God?’" Easter Letter 335 A.D. ch.6 p.&&&

Palladius (419-420 A.D.) mentions the Living God. Lausiac History in Four Desert Fathers. p.488

 

Among heretics

The Ebionite Gospel of pseudo-Matthew ch.39 p.382 (600-625 A.D.) "the people the great things of the living God"

 

G3. God / Jesus before birth was incorporeal

 

(partial, Implied) John 1:14 The Word became flesh

(partial) John 3:8 Holy Spirit is like the wind

 

From the Council of Ephesus to the start of Muslim conquests (431-634 A.D.)

Athanasius of Alexandria (346-356 A.D.) "Men were created of matter, and that passible; but God is immaterial and incorporeal." In Defense of the Nicene Definition ch.10 p.&&&

Nestorius (451/452 A.D.) (partial) "God the Word is unchangeable and immortal and He is continuously that where He is in the eternity of the Father. … there was not when he was not." The Bazaar of Heracleides book 2 ch.1 p.82

 

G4. God is holy, good, or pure

 

Habakkuk 1:13; Hebrews 12:10; (implied) John 10:11

 

Vaticanus (B) Most of the Old Testament and all of New Testament up to Hebrews 9:15 (325-350 A.D.) (implied) John 10:11

Sinaiticus (340-350 A.D.) (implied) John 10:11

Alexandrinus (c.450 A.D.) All of the Old Testament except Genesis 14:14-17; 15:1-5, 16-19; 16:6-9; 1 Samuel 12:17-14:9; Psalm 19:20-79:11. All of the New Testament except Matthew 1:1-25:6, John 6:50-8:52; Romans 16:24; and 2 Corinthians 4:13-12:6.

 

From the Council of Nicea I to the Council of Ephesus (325-431 A.D.)

Hegemonius of Sirmium (4th century) "irrational and foolish fashion common to the mass of men, and ascribe no such confusion to the God of goodness." Archelaus Disputation with Manes book 1 ch.5 p.182

Hegemonius of Sirmium (4th century) mentions that contrary to Manes thinking, the God who gave Moses the Old Testament is good. (Diodorus, friend of Archelaus, is speaking) Archelaus Disputation with Manes ch.45 p.220

Athanasius of Alexandria (335 A.D.) discusses the Father’s lovingkindness and goodness. Easter Letter 9 ch.10 p.527

Hilary of Poitiers (355-367/368 A.D.) wrote that when the Arians point to Isaiah 65:16; Mark 10:18; 1 Timothy 6:15, leaving no truth, goodness, or power to the Son.

Gregory of Nyssa (382-383 A.D.) "It is easy, however, to show that not even the word ‘one’ separates the Father from the Son. … For He says, ‘I and the Father are one.’ [John 10:30] If, then, the good is one, and a particular kind of unity is contemplated in the Father and the Son, it follows that the Word, in predicating goodness of ‘one,’ claimed under the term ‘one’ the title of ‘good’ also for Himself, Who is one with the Father, and not severed from oneness of nature." Against Eunomius book 11 ch.2 p.232-233 in Nicene and Post-Nicene Fathers Second Series vol.5.

Epiphanius of Salamis (360-403 A.D.) God is good and just. The Panarion section 3 scholion 7 and 15 p.32-

Rufinus (374-406 A.D.) freely translating Origen (225-253/254 A.D.) says the world was created by "This just and good God, the Father of our Lord Jesus Christ" de Principiis Preface ch.4 p.240

Augustine of Hippo (388-430 A.D.) says God has no change at all. The City of God book 11 ch.6 p.208

Augustine of Hippo (388-430 A.D.) says that Christ is God and the Son of God is "unchangeably good". On the Trinity book 13 ch.10.13 p.175

 

From the Council of Ephesus to the start of Muslim conquests (431-634 A.D.)

Nestorius (451/452 A.D.) God is good and just and wise and mighty. The Bazaar of Heracleides book 1 ch.1.86 p.78-79

Fulgentius of Ruspe (507-532/533 A.D.) "still, in the name of, and with the help of, the Holy Trinity, which is the one, true, and good God, I may say those things in which, at least for the most part, the Catholic faith may stand forth without any of the fog of error." To Peter on the Faith ch.2 p.61

Fulgentius of Ruspe (507-532/533 A.D.) says that God is holy and good. To Peter on the Faith ch.6 p.64

 

G5. God does not speak lies / is Truth

 

Numbers 23:19; 1 Samuel 15:24; John 7:28; 14:6; Titus 1:2; Hebrews 6:18

 

Vaticanus (B) Most of the Old Testament and all of New Testament up to Hebrews 9:15 (325-350 A.D.) John 7:28; 14:6

Sinaiticus (340-350 A.D.) John 7:28; 14:6

Alexandrinus (c.450 A.D.) All of the Old Testament except Genesis 14:14-17; 15:1-5, 16-19; 16:6-9; 1 Samuel 12:17-14:9; Psalm 19:20-79:11. All of the New Testament except Matthew 1:1-25:6, John 6:50-8:52; Romans 16:24; and 2 Corinthians 4:13-12:6.

 

From the Council of Nicea I to the Council of Ephesus (325-431 A.D.)

Hegemonius of Sirmium (4th century) (partial) said that Manes was wrong to make Jesus into a liar. Archelaus Disputation with Manes ch.27 p.200

Athanasius of Alexandria (347 A.D.) quotes Hebrews 6:18 that it is impossible for God to lie. Easter Letter 19 ch.3 p.546

Athanasius of Alexandria (356-360 A.D.) says God cannot lie. Four Discourses Against the Arians discourse 2 ch.6 p.351

Athanasius of Alexandria (356-360 A.D.) Jesus says of God the Father "Thy wordis truth." Four Discourses Against the Arians discourse 3 ch.19 p.404

Ephraim the Syrian (350-378 A.D.) (implied) says that God is the Father of Truth. Nativity Hymns hymn 1 p.273

Gregory of Nyssa (382-383 A.D.) says that God cannot lie in Against Eunomius book 2 ch.4 p.104

Rufinus (374-406 A.D.) freely translating Origen (225-253/254 A.D.) de Principiis book 1 ch.2.7 p.248

John Chrysostom (died 407 A.D.) "as he [the apostle] does in the Epistle to the Hebrews; where he says, ‘Taht by two immutable things in which it was impossible for God to lie, we may have a strong encouragement.’" vol.13 Homilies on Ephesians homily 2 verse 14 p.56

John Chrysostom (died 407 A.D.) (partial) God knows all truth vol.14 Commentary on John homily 42 p.152

Augustine of Hippo (388-430 A.D.) says that God is Almighty, but He cannot die, be deceived, lie, or deny Himself. On the Creed ch.2 p.371

Augustine of Hippo (388-430 A.D.) says God is not the author or creator of a lie. The City of God book 14 ch.4 p.264

 

From the Council of Ephesus to the start of Muslim conquests (431-634 A.D.)

Fulgentius of Ruspe (507-532/533 A.D.) says that God is truth and cannot lie. Letter 1 to Optatus ch.20 p.289

 

Among heretics

The Ebionite Clementine Homilies (uncertain date) homily 2 ch.43 p.237 says that God does not lie.

 

G6. God is a Father

 

First person Isaiah 63:16 (twice); 64:8

2 Samuel 7:14; 1 Chronicles 17:11-14; 22:10; 28:6; Psalm 2:7; Proverbs 3:12; 30:4f; Isaiah 9:6; Jeremiah 3:4; 3:19; 31:9; Hosea 11:1; Malachi 1:6; 2:10; others

Matthew 26:39,42; Luke 9:21-22; Tt 1:4; Hebrews 12:9, 1 Peter 1:2,17; others

(implied) Hebrews 12:6

 

Vaticanus (B) Most of the Old Testament and all of New Testament up to Hebrews 9:15 (325-350 A.D.) Luke 9:21-22

Sinaiticus (340-350 A.D.) Luke 9:21-22

Alexandrinus (c.450 A.D.) All of the Old Testament except Genesis 14:14-17; 15:1-5, 16-19; 16:6-9; 1 Samuel 12:17-14:9; Psalm 19:20-79:11. All of the New Testament except Matthew 1:1-25:6, John 6:50-8:52; Romans 16:24; and 2 Corinthians 4:13-12:6.

 

From the Council of Nicea I to the Council of Ephesus (325-431 A.D.)

Council of Nicea (325 A.D.) Creed p.3 "One God, the Father Almighty, maker of all things… one Lord Jesus Christ, the Son of God, the only-begotten of his Father…"

Private Creed of Arius (328 A.D.) "We believe in one God, the Father Almighty;"

Eusebius’ Ecclesiastical History (323-339/340 A.D.) book 1 ch.2 p.83 says that God is a Father.

Hegemonius of Sirmium (4th century) mentions God the Father and the Lord’s prayer in Archelaus Disputation with Manes ch.20 p.194 . He also mentions God the Father in Archelaus Disputation with Manes ch.31 p.203. See also Archelaus Disputation with Manes ch.34 p.208.

Hegemonius of Sirmium (4th century) mentions God as the Father. (Diodorus, friend of Archelaus, is speaking) Archelaus Disputation with Manes ch.45 p.221

Life of Antony (probably by Athanasius of Alexandria) (355 A.D.) ch.69 p.214 "the Son of God was not a created being, neither had He come into being from non-existence, but that He was the Eternal Word and Wisdom of the Essence with the Father."

Hilary of Poitiers (355-367/368 A.D.) says there is no question that the Father is greater than Jesus. Of the Synods ch.8 p.6. See also Of the Synods ch.15 p.8 and ch.20 p.9.

Athanasius of Alexandria (335-342 A.D.) mentions the Father and the Son. On Luke 10:22 (Matthew 11:27) ch.1 p.87

Athanasius of Alexandria (335-342 A.D.) mentions the Father. On Luke 10:22 (Matthew 11:27) ch.1 p.87

Synod of Antioch in Encaeniis (341 A.D.) (implied by Nicea) Canon 1 p.108 says to excommunicate people who presume to set Nice[a] under Constantine.

Council of Sirmium (Greek creed) 351 A.D. One God, Father Almighty. Socrates Ecclesiastical History book 2 ch.30 in Nicene and Post-Nicene Fathers 2nd Series vol.2 p.56-57.

Synod of Seleucia in Isauria (357/358 A.D.) , One God, Father Almighty, made all things, Socrates’ Ecclesiastical History book 2 ch.40 in The Nicene and post-Nicene Fathers Second series vol.2 p.60

Marius Victorinus to the Arian Candidus (359-362 A.D.) speaks of the all-powerful Father. Marius’ Letter to Candidus ch.5 (32) p.83

Ephraim the Syrian (350-378 A.D.) says that God is the Father of Truth. Nativity Hymns hymn 1 p.273

Constitutions of the Holy Apostles (c.380 A.D.) "For our Savior Himself entreated His Father for those who had sinned, as it is written in the Gospel:" and then he quotes Luke 23:34 ch.16 p.402

Constitutions of the Holy Apostles (c.380 A.D.) book 5 ch.6 p.439 "believing in the one and the only true God and Father, through Jesus Christ, the great High Priest, and Redeemer of our souls, and rewarder of our sufferings."

Gregory of Nyssa (382-383 A.D.) speaks of God the Father in many places. Against Eunomius book 1 ch.14 p.31; book 1 ch.23 p.63. Also Against Eunomius book 2 ch.8 p.113

Cyril of Jerusalem (349-386 A.D.) says that God is a Father. (First Catechetical Lecture 6 ch.1 Nicene & Post-Nicene Fathers p.33)

Gregory Nazianzen (330-391) discusses God the Father, the unbegotten, and the begotten being of the same essence. On the Son ch.11 p.305

Ambrose of Milan (378-381 A.D.) says Jesus it the image of the Father. On the Christian Faith book 1 ch.7.48 p.208

Syriac Book of Steps (Liber Graduum) (350-400 A.D.) God is a Father. Memra 4 ch.1 p.24

Epiphanius of Salamis (360-403 A.D.) Excerpts "The Father gives to the Son, and the Son, who is not inferior to the Father, receives from the Father, particularly in two ways. First, that we might be led to one union with the Deity, Father, Son, and Holy Ghost, in contradistinction to a multitude of gods." Panarion 2.2 as quoted in The Two Natures in Christ, p.357

Epiphanius of Salamis (360-403 A.D.) "The Father, truly having begotten the Son, and the Son truly having been begotten of the Father, is personally subsisting without beginning and eternal; and the Holy Spirit, as truly of the Father and the Son, being of the same Godhead…" homily Against the Sabellians, as quoted by the Tubingen theologians in Augsburg and Constantinople, p.229

John Chrysostom (before 407 A.D.) mentions the father, and Holy Ghost along with Jesus our Lord. Commentary on Philippians Introductory discourse p.183

John Chrysostom (died 407 A.D.) "confessing, indeed, that the Godhead of the Father and of the Son and of the Holy Ghost, is all one, while we add thereunto a Trinity of Persons." On the Christian Priesthood book 4 ch.4 p.66

Rufinus (410 A.D.) freely translated Origen (240 A.D.) quotes John 14:22. Commentary on the Song of Songs book 3 p.211

Orosius/Hosius of Braga (414-418 A.D.) says the Father, Son, and Holy Spirit are one. Memoir to Augustine on the Error of the Priscillianists and Origenists ch.2 p.171

Orosius of Braga (414-418 A.D.) "Son of God" and the Father. Defense Against the Pelagians ch.25 p.151-152

Palladius (419-420 A.D.) mentions God the Father. Lausiac History in Four Desert Fathers. p.487

 

From the Council of Ephesus to the start of Muslim conquests (431-634 A.D.)

Peter Chrysologus of Ravenna (406-450 A.D.) "‘Go’, he [Jesus] says, ‘and baptize all nations in the name of the Father, and of the Son, and of the Holy Spirit’ [Matthew 28:19] in remission of sins. If in the remission of sins the Trinity is united in showing mercy, how is the whole Trinity not one in will in the Passion of the Son?" Sermon 72A ch.4 p.4-5

Nestorius (451/452 A.D.) Jesus was born of God the Father. The Bazaar of Heracleides book 2 ch.1(b) p.295

Nestorius (451/452 A.D.) God is Father and God is Son and God is Holy Spirit. The Bazaar of Heracleides book 2 ch.1(b) p.309

Nestorius (451/452 A.D.) The Father is God. The Bazaar of Heracleides book 1 ch.1.47 p.38

Nestorius (451/452 A.D.) Father, Son, and Spirit are distinct. The Bazaar of Heracleides book 1 ch.1.71 p.64-65

Nestorius (451/452 A.D.) says God is a Father. Bazaar of Heracleides book 1 part 1 ch.53

Leo I of Rome (422-461 A.D.) discusses the Father and only-begotten Son. Sermon 68.1 p.180

Fulgentius of Ruspe (507-532/533 A.D.) mentions that God is a Father. To Peter on the Faith ch.10 p.66

Council of Constantinople II (May 553 A.D.) mentions the Father, Son, and Holy Ghost in a consubstantial Trinity, one Godhead to be worshipped in three substances. The Capitula of the Council canon 1 p.312

Venantius (lived ca.530-609 A.D.) speaks of Christ as the "only offspring from the Godhead of the Father" Poem on Easter p.329

 

Among heretics

The First Form of the Gospel of Thomas (shorter Greek version) ch.19 p.398 has Jesus saying "I must be about my Father’s business" It concludes with "And Jesus advanced in wisdom, and stature, and grace. To whom be glory for ever and ever. Amen."

The Second Form of the Gospel of Thomas (longer Greek version) ch.11 p.399 says that Mary "rejoiced and glorified Him [Jesus], with the Father and the Holy Spirit, now and ever, and forevermore. Amen."

The Latin Form of the Gospel of Thomas ch.15 p.404 mentions "God the Father Almighty". It ends with "He is the Son of God throughout all the world. To Him is due all glory and honour for ever, who lives and reigns God through all ages of ages. Amen."

Arabic Gospel of the Infancy of the Saviour p.405 begins with "In the name of the Father, and the son, and the Holy Spirit, one God."

Pelagian heretic Theodore of Mopsuestia (392-423/429 A.D.) Refers to God the Father. Commentary on Malachi ch.3 p.416

 

There are more besides these too among heretics.

 

G7. The Trinity: one God in three ‘Persons’

 

(partial) Matthew 28:19

 

Vaticanus (B) Most of the Old Testament and all of New Testament up to Hebrews 9:15 (325-350 A.D.) (partial) Matthew 28:19

Sinaiticus (340-350 A.D.) (partial) Matthew 28:19

Alexandrinus (c.450 A.D.) (partial) All of the Old Testament except Genesis 14:14-17; 15:1-5, 16-19; 16:6-9; 1 Samuel 12:17-14:9; Psalm 19:20-79:11. All of the New Testament except Matthew 1:1-25:6, John 6:50-8:52; Romans 16:24; and 2 Corinthians 4:13-12:6.

 

From the Council of Nicea I to the Council of Ephesus (325-431 A.D.)

Juvencus (329 A.D.)"It is not too great toil to praise the Trinity." Englynion book 1

The Macrostich Creed (344/345 A.D.) (implied) extensively discusses the Trinity, without using the name. Athanasius of Alexandria’ On the Councils (=de Synodis) part 1 ch.26 p.462-464

Hegemonius of Sirmium (4th century) (partial, against Sabellius) "or what alien dogmas he has destroyed, whether of a Valentinian, or a Marcion, or a Tatian, or a Sabellius, or any others of those who have constructed for themselves their peculiar systems of knowledge." (Archelaus is speaking) Archelaus Disputation with Manes ch.37 p.211

Synod of Seleucia in Isauria (357/358 A.D.) (partial)

Athanasius of Alexandria (356-360 A.D.) refers to the Holy Trinity in Letter to the Church of Antioch ch.3 p.484

Marius Victorinus to the Arian Candidus (359-362 A.D.) (partial) mentions God the Father, and the Son Jesus Christ or Word and the Holy Spirit. (Does not use the word Trinity though.) Marius’ Letter to Candidus ch.5 (32) p.83

Hilary of Poitiers (355-367/368 A.D.) wrote an entire work, of twelve books, called On the Trinity.

Ephraim/Ephrem, Syrian hymn-writer (350-378 A.D.) Nisibine Hymns hymn 3 no.14 p.173

Cyril of Jerusalem (c.349-386 A.D.) "We neither separate the Holy Trinity, like some; nor do we as Sebellius work confusion." Catechetical Letters Lecture 16 ch.4 p.116

Damasus I of Rome (386-389 A.D.)

Ambrose of Milan (378-381 A.D.) mentions the "Trinity" in On the Christian Faith book 1 ch.4.33 p.206

Gregory Nazianzen (330-391) mentions the Trinity twice and discusses it. On the Son - Third Theological Oration ch.21 p.309

Pacian of Barcelona (342-379/392 A.D.) (partial) Baptize in the name of the Father, Son, and Holy Spirit. Letter 3 ch.11.1 p.51

Epiphanius of Salamis (360-403 A.D.) "the one deity of the Trinity is indicated ... and in the second place, that by the incarnation of the deity He assumed the gift of dignity, power, and perfection which have been given by the Father to the Son for the one spiritual union of the deity." Panarion 2.2 as quoted in The Two Natures in Christ, p.357

Rufinus (374-406 A.D.) freely translating Origen (225-253/254 A.D.) (implied) discusses in detail about the distinctness in the Trinity in de Principiis book 1 ch.7 p.254-255

Chromatius of Aquileia (407 A.D.)

John Chrysostom (died 407 A.D.) "confessing, indeed, that the Godhead of the Father and of the Son and of the Holy Ghost, is all one, while we add thereunto a Trinity of Persons." On the Christian Priesthood book 4 ch.4 p.66

Asterius of Amasea (c.410) "and the mystery of the Trinity was adequately bodied forth in the tent of this old man when he entertained the three angels as wayfaring men." The Rich Man and Lazarus ch.35

Niceta of Remesianus (366-415 A.D.) Instructions for Candidates for Baptism

Orosius/Hosius of Braga (414-418 A.D.) (partial) says the Father, Son, and Holy Spirit are one. Memoir to Augustine on the Error of the Priscillianists and Origenists ch.2 p.171

Jerome (373-420 A.D.)

Palladius (419-420 A.D.) says that three particular demons denied the mystery of the Holy Trinity. [Both Greek and Coptic] Lausiac History 38.11 in Four Desert Fathers. (Chapter: Evagrius Debates Three Demons) p.179

Augustine of Hippo (388-8/28/430 A.D.) wrote an entire work, On the Holy Trinity.

John Cassian (410-430 A.D.) mentions the Trinity in a number of places, including Seven Books of John Cassian book 2 ch.2 p.557

Macarius the Great (392-423/429 A.D.)

 

From the Council of Ephesus to the start of Muslim conquests (431-634 A.D.)

Vincent of Lerins (c.434 A.D.) "He [the heretic Photinus] denies the completeness of the Trinity, and does not believe that there is any Person of God the Word, or any Person of the Holy Ghost. Christ he affirms to be a mere man, whose original was from Mary. Hence he insists with the utmost obstinacy that we are to render worship only to the Person of God the Father, and that we are to honour Christ as man only. This is the doctrine of Photinus." A Commonitory ch.12 p.139

Socrates of Constantinople (400-439 A.D.) in discussing Didymus the Blind says, "Not only this, but he was so well acquainted with the Divine oracles contained in the Old and New Testaments that he composed several treatises in exposition of them, besdies three books on the Trinity." Ecclesiastical History book 4 ch.25 p.110

Sechnall/Seachnall of Ireland (439-447/448 A.D.) "Hymns, with Revelation and the Psalms of God [St. Patrick] sings, and does expound the same for the edifying of God’s people. This law he holds in the Trinity of the Sacred Name and teaches one Being in three Persons" Hymn in Praise of St. Patrick 22.

Peter Chrysologus of Ravenna (406-450 A.D.) "If in the remission of sins the Trinity is united in showing mercy, how is the whole Trinity not one in will in the Passion of the Son?" Sermon 72A ch.4 p.4-5

Council of Chalcedon (451 A.D.) (implied because affirmed the Council of Nicea)

Nestorius (451/452 A.D.) spoke of the incarnation and the Trinity. The Bazaar of Heracleides book 1 ch.1.34 p.25

Nestorius (451/452 A.D.) Father, Son, and Spirit are distinct. The Bazaar of Heracleides book 1 part 1 ch.71 p.64-65. He also mentions the Trinity in The Bazaar of Heracleides book 1 part 1 ch.15.

Theodoret of Cyrus (bishop & historian) (423-458 A.D.) "It [the Holy Spirit] together with the Father and the Son in the one faith fothe Holy Trinity, because the Godhead ofthe Holy Trinity is one." Ecclesiastical History book 4 ch.3 p.109

Patrick of Ireland (420-461 A.D.) "[T]here is no other God, nor has there been heretofore, nor will there be hereafter, except God the Father unbegotten, without beginning, from whom is all beginning, upholding all things, as we say, and his Son Jesus Christ, whom we likewise to confess to have always been with the Father--before the world’s beginning . . . Jesus Christ is the Lord and God in whom we believe . . . and who has poured out on us abundantly the Holy Spirit . . . whom we confess and adore as one God in the Trinity of the Sacred Name" Confession of St. Patrick 4

Patrick of Ireland (420-461 A.D.) "I bind to myself to day the strong power of an invocation of the Trinity--the faith of the Trinity in Unity, the Creator of the universe" The Breastplate of St. Patrick 1

Leo I of Rome (422-461 A.D.) says the divine Trinity is to be honored and worshipped in Letter 37 p.50

Leo I of Rome (422-461 A.D.) says that the Trinity has no division. Sermon 68.1 p.180

What has been called the Athanasian Creed (474-484 A.D.)

Fulgentius of Ruspe (507-532/533 A.D.) "still, in the name of, and with the help of, the Holy Trinity, which is the one, true, and good God, I may say those things in which, at least for the most part, the Catholic faith may stand forth without any of the fog of error." To Peter on the Faith ch.2 p.61

Fulgentius of Ruspe (507-532/533 A.D.) wrote an entire work, entitled The Trinity. "See, in short you have it that the Father is one, the Son another, and the Holy Spirit another; in person, each is other, but in nature they are not other. In this regard he [Christ] says, ‘The Father and I, we are one’ [John 10:30]. He teaches us that ‘one’ refers to their nature and ‘we are’ to their persons. In like manner it is said, ‘There are three who bear witness in heaven, the Father, the Word, and the Spirit, and these three are one’ [1John 5:7]. Let Sabellius hear ‘we are,’ let him hear ‘three,’ and let him believe that there are three Persons" The Trinity book 4 ch.1

Council of Constantinople II (about 153 bishops present) (551/553 A.D.) "In anyone shall not confess that the nature or essence of the Father, of the Son, and of the Holy Ghost is one, as also the force and the power; [if anyone does not confess] a consubstantial Trinity, one Godhead to be worshipped in three subsistences or Persons: let him be anathema. For there is but one God even the Father of whom are all things, and one Lord Jesus Christ..." Capitula of the Council ch.1 p.313

Council of Constantinople II (May 553 A.D.) mentions the Father, Son, and Holy Ghost in a consubstantial Trinity, one Godhead to be worshipped in three substances. The Capitula of the Council canon 1 p.312

Vigilius’ letter to Constantinople II Council (551/553 A.D.) (implied because affirmed the Nicene Creed)

 

Among heretics

X Karl Barth (1919) denied the Trinity according to Christian News Nov. 23, 2015 p.14.

 

G8. God is the Father of all [things]

 

Just saying God is a/the Father is not counted here.

 

From the Council of Nicea I to the Council of Ephesus (325-431 A.D.)

Eusebius of Caesarea (318-339-340 A.D.) says that God is the Father of all things. Eusebius’ Ecclesiastical History book 1 ch.2 p.82.

Athanasius of Alexandria (after 347 A.D.) (implied) Athanasius is quoting a letter from Constantius, Victor, Maximus, Augustus to Alexandria. "take care to offer up with him your prayers to God, the Father of all, in behalf of yourselves, and for the well-being of your whole lives." Defence Against the Arians ch.55 p.130

John Chrysostom (died 407 A.D.) "For to all hath He given one nobility, having vouchsafed to be called the Father of all alike." Homilies on Matthew homily 19 ch.6 p.&&&

 

G9. God/The Father is perfect

 

From the Council of Nicea I to the Council of Ephesus (325-431 A.D.)

Athanasius of Alexandria (356-360 A.D.) "For never was the essence of the Father imperfect, that what is proper to it should be added afterwards; nor, as man from man, has the Son been begotten, so as to be later than His Father’s existence, but He is God’s offspring, and as being proper Son of God, who is ever, He exists eternally." Four Discourses Against the Arians discourse 1 ch.2.14 p.&&&

Athanasius of Alexandria (346-356 A.D.) (partial, Son, not the Father) "And again, who should be Son of God, but His Word? For there are not many words, or each would be imperfect, but one is the Word, that He only may be perfect, and because, God being one, His Image too must be one, which is the Son." Defence of the Nicene Definition ch.17 p.160

 

G10. Sun / beam / ray analogy of the Trinity

 

From the Council of Nicea I to the Council of Ephesus (325-431 A.D.)

Athanasius of Alexandria (328 A.D.) gives an analogy of the Father and the Son as brightness coming from light. Statement of Faith ch.4 p.85 and On Luke 10:22 (Matthew 11:27) ch.4 p.89. See also Four Discourses Against the Arians (356-360 A.D.) discourse 2 ch.33 p.366 and discourse 3 ch.11 p.400.

 

G11. Majesty or glory of God

 

Psalm 19:1; Zechariah 2:5; Micah 5:4

Matthew 24:30; Mark 13:26; Luke 2:9; 21:27; John 1:14; 2:14; 7:18; 12:28; 17:5; Romans 1:23; 3:7,23; 11:36; 15:7; 16:27; 1 Corinthians 10:31; 2 Corinthians 1:20; 4:6; 4:15; 8:19; Galatians 1:5; Ephesians 3:21; Philippians 4:19; Colossians 1:17; 2 Thessalonians 1:9; Titus 2:13; Hebrews 1:3; 1 Peter 4:13,14; 2 Peter 1:17

 

Alexandrinus (c.450 A.D.) All of the Old Testament except Genesis 14:14-17; 15:1-5, 16-19; 16:6-9; 1 Samuel 12:17-14:9; Psalm 19:20-79:11. All of the New Testament except Matthew 1:1-25:6, John 6:50-8:52; Romans 16:24; and 2 Corinthians 4:13-12:6.

 

From the Council of Nicea I to the Council of Ephesus (325-431 A.D.)

Hegemonius of Sirmium (4th century) "I understand, then, that his [Manes’] chief effort was directed to prove that the law of Moses is not consonant with the law of Christ; and this position he attempted to found on the authority of our Scriptures. Well, on the other hand, not only did we establish the law of Moses, and all things which are written in it, by the same Scripture; but we also proved that the whole Old Testament agrees with the New Testament, and is in perfect harmony with the same, and that they form really one texture, just as a person may see one and the same robe made up of weft and warp together. For the truth is simply this, that just as we trace the purple in a robe, so, if we may thus express it, we can discern the New Testament in the texture of the Old Testament; for we see the glory of the Lord mirrored in the same." (Archelaus is speaking) Archelaus Disputation with Manes ch.41 p.215

Athanasius of Alexandria (346-356 A.D.) quotes Dionysius of Rome: "the dignity and exceeding majesty of the Lord;" Defense of the Nicene Definition ch.26 p.168

Ambrose of Milan (370-390 A.D.) mentions the eternal Majesty. Of the Holy Spirit book 1 ch.8.97 p.106

Ambrose of Milan (378-381 A.D.) mentions the "divine majesty" in On the Christian Faith book 5 ch.5.66 p.293

John Chrysostom (before 407 A.D.) speaks of the "infinite majesty" of God in Commentary on John homily 3 (vol.14) p.13. See also Homilies on John homily 27 p.95

 

G12. God is a jealous God

 

Exodus 20:5; 34:14; Deuteronomy 4:24; 5:9; 6:15; Joshua 24:19; Nahum 1:2; Zechariah 8:1; 1 Corinthians 10:22

 

Vaticanus (B) (325-350 A.D.) contains all of Deuteronomy. It has most of the Old Testament and all of New Testament up to Hebrews 9:15 (325-350 A.D.)

Alexandrinus (c.450 A.D.) All of the Old Testament except Genesis 14:14-17; 15:1-5, 16-19; 16:6-9; 1 Samuel 12:17-14:9; Psalm 19:20-79:11. All of the New Testament except Matthew 1:1-25:6, John 6:50-8:52; Romans 16:24; and 2 Corinthians 4:13-12:6.

 

From the Council of Nicea I to the Council of Ephesus (325-431 A.D.)

X Athanasius of Alexandria (356-360 A.D.) says we should not ascribe jealousy to God. Four Discourses Against the Arians discourse 2 ch.29 p.363

John Chrysostom (martyred 407 A.D.) "And hath God jealousy? Yea the jealousy not of passion, but of love, and earnest zeal." Eutropius, and the Vanity of Riches vol.9 ch.6 p.256

Palladius (c.430 A.D.) sepaks of the "jealous God" Four Desert Fathers &&& p.487.

 

From the Council of Ephesus to the start of Muslim conquests (431-634 A.D.)

The Didascalia (after 431 A.D.) ch.21 p.93 quotes Deuteronomy 32:21.

 

Among heretics

Pelagian heretic Theodore of Mopsuestia (392-423/429 A.D.) God is a jealous God. Commentary on Nahum ch.1 p.252

 

G13. Genesis 1:26 refers to the Father & Son

 

Genesis 1:26

 

Athanasius of Alexandria (356-360 A.D.) says Genesis 1:26 refers to the Father. Four Discourses Against the Arians Discourse 2 ch.18.31 p.365.

 

Among corrupt or spurious books

Constitutions of the Holy Apostles (c.380 A.D.) book 5 section 1 p.441 "the divine Scripture testifies that God said to Christ, His only-begotten, ‘Let us make man after our image, and after our likeness. And God made man: after the image of God made He him; male and female made He them.’"

G14. God is Light

 

Isaiah 49:6; 60:19,20; John 1:4-9; John 8:12; 2 Corinthians 4:6; 1 John 1:5

 

From the Council of Nicea I to the Council of Ephesus (325-431 A.D.)

Eusebius’ Ecclesiastical History (323-339/340 A.D.) book 1 ch.2.2 p.82 mentions the Light that was before the world (Christ).

Hegemonius of Sirmium (4th century) (implied) "If, then, God is a light, it must needs be that light (if Jesus is to be credited) shall shine on the whole world, and not on any portions of it merely." (The judges are speaking) Archelaus Disputation with Manes ch.22 p.195

Athanasius of Alexandria (328 A.D.) gives an analogy of the Father and the Son as brightness coming from light. Statement of Faith ch.4 p.85. See also On Luke 10:22 (Matthew 11:27) ch.4 p.89

 

G15. The God of Jesus / Christ

 

Ephesians 1:3, 17; 1 Peter 1:3; Hebrews 1:9

Revelation 1:6 (God of Jesus)

 

From the Council of Nicea I to the Council of Ephesus (325-431 A.D.)

Athanasius of Alexandria (356-360 A.D.) (partial) quotes Ephesians 1:3-5. Four Discourses Against the Arians discourse 2 ch.75 p.189

 

G16. God’s Holy Name

 

From the Council of Nicea I to the Council of Ephesus (325-431 A.D.)

Gregory Nazianzen (330-391 A.D.) "If, however, they rely on the passage, The Word was made Flesh and dwelt among us, and because of this erase the noblest part of Man (as cobblers do the thicker part of skins) that they may join together God and Flesh, it is time for them to say that God is God only of flesh, and not of souls, because it is written, "As Thou hast given Him power over all Flesh," [Jn 17:2] and "Unto Thee shall all Flesh come;" [Ps 65:2] and "Let all Flesh bless His holy Name," [Ps 145:21] meaning every Man." Letter 101 p.&&&

 

From the Council of Ephesus to the start of Muslim conquests (431-634 A.D.)

The Didascalia (after 431 A.D.) "(such) glorious light has He promised to give to them that understand and confess His holy name, and bear witness." [Daniel 12:3]

 

G17. The Godhead

 

Acts 17:29; Romans 1:20; Colossians 2:9

 

Alexandrinus (c.450 A.D.) All of the Old Testament except Genesis 14:14-17; 15:1-5, 16-19; 16:6-9; 1 Samuel 12:17-14:9; Psalm 19:20-79:11. All of the New Testament except Matthew 1:1-25:6, John 6:50-8:52; Romans 16:24; and 2 Corinthians 4:13-12:6.

 

From the Council of Nicea I to the Council of Ephesus (325-431 A.D.)

Hegemonius of Sirmium (4th century) "For in Him dwelleth all the fullness of the Godhead." (Archelaus is speaking) Archelaus Disputation with Manes ch.35 p.209

Athanasius of Alexandria (356-360 A.D.) mentions the Godhead Four Discourses Against the Arians discourse 3 ch.29 p.424. See also ibid. discourse 1 ch.12 no.50 p.336

Hilary of Poitiers (355-367/368 A.D.) wrote about the Godhead. On the Trinity book 5 ch.18 p.77. See also On The Trinity book 8 ch.42 p.149.

Ephraim/Ephrem, Syrian hymn-writer (350-378 A.D.) mentions Jesus’ Godhead. Hymns on the Nativity hymn 3 p.236. See also Nisibine Hymns hymn 21 no.11 p.192

Gregory of Nyssa (382-383 A.D.) talks about Jesus and the Godhead. Against Eunomius book 6 ch.1 p.183. See also Against Eunomius book 7 ch. 1 p.194.

Ambrose of Milan (378-381 A.D.) discusses God’s power and Godhead are eternal. On the Christian Faith book 1 ch.10.62 p.211

Ambrose of Milan (370-390 A.D.) distinguishes the true Father, Son and Spirit in the Godhead, vs. the confusion of the Sabellians or the division of Arius. Of the Holy Spirit book 2 ch.12 p.133. See also Of the Holy Spirit book 1 ch.8.95 p.106. Ambrose frequently uses the word "Godhead".

Gregory of Nazianzen (330-391 A.D.) mentions the Godhead in many places, including Oration on the Holy Light ch.11 p.355 and Fourth Theological Oration ch. 5 p.311.

Gregory Nazianzen (330-391 A.D.) "This is the wish of our schoolmaster the law, of the prophets who intervened between Christ and the law, of Christ who is the fulfiller and end of the spiritual law; of the emptied Godhead, of the assumed flesh, of the novel union between God and man," In Defense of His Flight to Pontus ch.23 p.209

Council of Constantinople II (381 A.D.) canon 5 p.181 "the unity of the Godhead of the Father, and of the Son, and of the Holy Spirit. The Synodical Letter of 382 A.D. also mentions the Godhead on p.189.

Epiphanius of Salamis (360-403 A.D.) Excerpts "For in the transfiguration His [the Son’s] face, even in the flesh, since His deity was still present, shone like the sun, that is, the flesh which came from Mary and from our human race was transfigured to heavenly glory, so that it acquired, in addition to its own natural powers, the glory, honor, and perfection of the Godhead, the flesh receiving the heavenly glory here in communion with the divine Logos, which it did not have from the beginning." Panarion 2.2 as quoted in The Two Natures in Christ, p.357

John Chrysostom (died 407 A.D.) "confessing, indeed, that the Godhead of the Father and of the Son and of the Holy Ghost, is all one, while we add thereunto a Trinity of Persons." On the Christian Priesthood book 4 ch.4 p.66

Rufinus (410 A.D.) freely translated Origen (240 A.D.) "contemplation of the Godhead with pure and spiritual love." Commentary on the Song of Songs Prologue p.44

 

From the Council of Ephesus to the start of Muslim conquests (431-634 A.D.)

Council of Constantinople II (about 153 bishops present) (551/553 A.D.) "In anyone shall not confess that the nature or essence of the Father, of the Son, and of the Holy Ghost is one, as also the force and the power; [if anyone does not confess] a consubstantial Trinity, one Godhead to be worshipped in three subsistences or Persons: let him be anathema. For there is but one God even the Father of whom are all things, and one Lord Jesus Christ..." Capitula of the Council ch.1 p.313

Venantius (lived ca.530-609 A.D.) speaks of Christ as the "only offspring from the Godhead of the Father" Poem on Easter p.329

 

G18. God is a consuming fire

 

Deuteronomy 4:24; Deuteronomy 9:3; Hebrews 12:29

 

Vaticanus (B) (325-350 A.D.) contains all of Deuteronomy. It has most of the Old Testament and all of New Testament up to Hebrews 9:15 (325-350 A.D.)

Alexandrinus (c.450 A.D.) All of the Old Testament except Genesis 14:14-17; 15:1-5, 16-19; 16:6-9; 1 Samuel 12:17-14:9; Psalm 19:20-79:11. All of the New Testament except Matthew 1:1-25:6, John 6:50-8:52; Romans 16:24; and 2 Corinthians 4:13-12:6.

 

From the Council of Nicea I to the Council of Ephesus (325-431 A.D.)

Hegemonius of Sirmium (4th century) "The God of the Old Testament is the inventor of evil, who speaks thus of Himself: ‘I am a consuming fire.’" (Manes is speaking, but Hegemonius of Sirmium accepts this description of the God of the Old Testament) fragment from Cyril of Archelaus Disputation with Manes ch.1 p.234

Athanasius of Alexandria (332 A.D.) quotes Deuteronomy 4:24/Hebrews 12:29 in Paschal Letter 4 ch.3 p.514

Athanasius of Alexandria (326-372/373 A.D.) says God is a consuming fire. Festal Letter 3 ch.3 p.514

Rufinus (410 A.D.) freely translated Origen (240 A.D.) says that God is a consuming fire. Commentary on the Song of Songs book 2 ch.2 p.112

 

G19. God is blessed

 

From the Council of Nicea I to the Council of Ephesus (325-431 A.D.)

Athanasius of Alexandria (338 A.D.) "Blessed be the Lord, Who hath not given us over as a prey to their teeth" Easter Letter 10 ch.11 p.531

 

Cassiodorus translating Clement of Alexandria (193-217/220 A.D.) "‘Blessed be the God and Father of our Lord Jesus Christ, who by His great mercy hath regenerated us.’ For if God generated us of matter, He afterwards, by progress in life, regenerated us." (Latin translation by Cassiodorus) Comments on 1 Peter ch.1:3 p.571

 

G20. God is Spirit

 

John 4:24a

 

Alexandrinus (c.450 A.D.) All of the Old Testament except Genesis 14:14-17; 15:1-5, 16-19; 16:6-9; 1 Samuel 12:17-14:9; Psalm 19:20-79:11. All of the New Testament except Matthew 1:1-25:6, John 6:50-8:52; Romans 16:24; and 2 Corinthians 4:13-12:6.

 

From the Council of Nicea I to the Council of Ephesus (325-431 A.D.)

Athanasius of Alexandria (326-372/373 A.D.) quotes John 4:24a. On the Opinion of Dionysius ch.15 p.182

Athanasius of Alexandria (356-360 A.D.) Four Discourses Against the Arians discourse 2 ch.41 p.370

Rufinus (374-406 A.D.) freely translating Origen (225-253/254 A.D.) quotes all of John 4:24. de Principiis book 1 ch.1 p.242.

 

Among corrupt or spurious works

pseudo-Gregory Thaumaturgus (?) (author unknown but could be Gregory Thaumaturgus) quotes John 4:24 in A Sectional Confession of Faith ch.10 p.43.

 

G21. Fragrance of Heaven/God/Christ/Holy Spirit

 

2 Corinthians 2:15-16 (implied) (we are the aroma of Christ)

Ephesians 5:2b [Christ was] "an offering and a sacrificed ot God for a sweet-smelling aroma."

 

Vaticanus (B) Most of the Old Testament and all of New Testament up to Hebrews 9:15 (325-350 A.D.) References 2 Corinthians 2:15-16; Ephesians 5:2b

Sinaiticus (340-350 A.D.) References 2 Corinthians 2:15-16; Ephesians 5:2b

Alexandrinus (c.450 A.D.) All of the Old Testament except Genesis 14:14-17; 15:1-5, 16-19; 16:6-9; 1 Samuel 12:17-14:9; Psalm 19:20-79:11. All of the New Testament except Matthew 1:1-25:6, John 6:50-8:52; Romans 16:24; and 2 Corinthians 4:13-12:6. References References 2 Corinthians 2:15-16; Ephesians 5:2b.

 

From the Council of Nicea I to the Council of Ephesus (325-431 A.D.)

Ambrose of Milan (370-390 A.D.) "…destroyed the odour of sorrowful death. And so the Apostle says: ‘For we are the good odour of Christ to God;’" OF the Holy Spirit book 1 ch.9.102 p.107.

Cyril of Jerusalem (c.349-386 A.D.) &&& Catechetical Lectures Lecture

 

G22. God is not in everything (pantheism is wrong)

 

From the Council of Nicea I to the Council of Ephesus (325-431 A.D.)

Gregory Nazianzen (330-391 A.D.) "And how shall we preserve the truth that God pervades all things and fills all, as it is written "Do not I fill heaven and earth? saith the Lord," [Jer. 23:24] and "The Spirit of the Lord filleth the world," [Wisdom 1:7] if God partly contains and partly is contained?  For either He will occupy an empty Universe, and so all things will have vanished for us, with this result, that we shall have insulted God by making Him a body, and by robbing Him of all things which He has made; or else He will be a body contained in other bodies, which is impossible; or He will be enfolded in them, or contrasted with them, as liquids are mixed, and one divides and is divided by another;—a view which is more absurd and anile than even the atoms of Epicurus and so this argument concerning the body will fall through, and have no body and no solid basis at all." Letter 28 ch.8 p.&&&

 

G23. God fills heaven and earth

 

From the Council of Nicea I to the Council of Ephesus (325-431 A.D.)

Gregory Nazianzen (330-391 A.D.) "And how shall we preserve the truth that God pervades all things and fills all, as it is written "Do not I fill heaven and earth? saith the Lord," [Jer. 23:24] and "The Spirit of the Lord filleth the world," [Wisdom 1:7] if God partly contains and partly is contained?  For either He will occupy an empty Universe, and so all things will have vanished for us, with this result, that we shall have insulted God by making Him a body, and by robbing Him of all things which He has made; or else He will be a body contained in other bodies, which is impossible; or He will be enfolded in them, or contrasted with them, as liquids are mixed, and one divides and is divided by another;—a view which is more absurd and anile than even the atoms of Epicurus and so this argument concerning the body will fall through, and have no body and no solid basis at all." Letter 28 ch.8 p.&&&

 

God’s Eternal Power

 

Ge1. God is everywhere

 

Psalm 139

 

Alexandrinus (c.450 A.D.) All of the Old Testament except Genesis 14:14-17; 15:1-5, 16-19; 16:6-9; 1 Samuel 12:17-14:9; Psalm 19:20-79:11. All of the New Testament except Matthew 1:1-25:6, John 6:50-8:52; Romans 16:24; and 2 Corinthians 4:13-12:6.

 

From the Council of Nicea I to the Council of Ephesus (325-431 A.D.)

Hegemonius of Sirmium (4th century) says that no one can say God is "not everywhere present" Archelaus Disputation with Manes ch.21 p.194

&&&Hilary of Poitiers (355-367/368 A.D.)

Gregory of Nyssa (c.356-397 A.D.) says that God ‘Is universally present, and yet do not say that He is any of those things…" Against Eunomius book 6 ch.3 p.186

Ambrose of Milan (370-390 A.D.) quotes Wisdom 1:7 "For the Spirit of the Lord filled the whole world." Of the Holy Spirit book 1 ch.7.87 p.104

Augustine of Hippo (388-430 A.D.) mentions the "omnipresent power" in The City of God book 7 ch.30 p.140

 

Ge2. God is almighty (omnipotent)

 

Job 42:2; Luke 1:37; Romans 9:29; Revelation 11:17

 

Vaticanus (B) Most of the Old Testament and all of New Testament up to Hebrews 9:15 (325-350 A.D.) Luke 1:37

Sinaiticus (340-350 A.D.) Luke 1:37

Alexandrinus (c.450 A.D.) All of the Old Testament except Genesis 14:14-17; 15:1-5, 16-19; 16:6-9; 1 Samuel 12:17-14:9; Psalm 19:20-79:11. All of the New Testament except Matthew 1:1-25:6, John 6:50-8:52; Romans 16:24; and 2 Corinthians 4:13-12:6.

 

From the Council of Nicea I to the Council of Ephesus (325-431 A.D.)

Council of Nicea (325 A.D.) Creed p.3 "One God, the Father Almighty, maker of all things…"

Private Creed of Arius (328 A.D.) "We believe in one God, the Father Almighty;"

Hegemonius of Sirmium (4th century) "quotes Galatians 4:4, "May the Omnipotent God preserve you whole in soul and in spirit." Archelaus Disputation with Manes ch.44 p.220

Hegemonius of Sirmium (4th century) "as is the way with this most depraved man, who, in his impiety, refuses to ascribe to the Omnipotent God even equal power with men?" Archelaus Disputation with Manes ch.21 p.194-195

Eusebius’ Ecclesiastical History (323-339/340 A.D.) book 1 ch.2.8 p.82 mentions God Almighty

Hilary of Poitiers (355-367/368 A.D.) mentions God Almighty. On the Trinity book 1 ch.37 p.50

Synod of Antioch in Encaeniis (341 A.D.) (implied by Nicea) Canon 1 p.108 says to excommunicate people who presume to set Nice[a] under Constantine.

Athanasius of Alexandria (328 A.D.) says God is Almighty. Statement of Faith p.84.

Athanasius of Alexandria (356-360 A.D.) says God is Almighty. Four Discourses Against the Arians discourse 2 ch.16.23 p.361

Council of Sirmium (Greek creed) (351 A.D.) One God, Father Almighty. Socrates Ecclesiastical History book 2 ch.30 in Nicene and Post-Nicene Fathers 2nd Series vol.2 p.56-57.

Synod of Seleucia in Isauria (357/358 A.D.) "One God, Father Almighty, made all things," Socrates’ Ecclesiastical History book 2 ch.40 in The Nicene and post-Nicene Fathers Second series vol.2 p.60

Marius Victorinus to the Arian Candidus (359-362 A.D.) speaks of the all-powerful Father. Marius’ Letter to Candidus ch.5 (32) p.83

Creed of Eunomius (Extreme Arian) (c.360-c.377 A.D.) "We believe in One God, the Father Almighty, of Whom are all things…" Nicene and Post-Nicene Fathers Second Series vol.8 p.xxxiv

Constitutions of the Holy Apostles (c.380 A.D.) book 5 ch.7 p.439 "For the Almighty God Himself will raise us up through our Lord Jesus Christ,…"

Gregory of Nyssa (382-383 A.D.) says the Father is Almighty. Against Eunomius book 1 ch.16 p.54

Ambrose of Milan (c.384 A.D.) "O Almighty Lord God of Israel," On the Mysteries ch.9 no.43 p.336

Rufinus (374-406 A.D.) freely translating Origen (225-253/254 A.D.) calls God the Almighty. de Principiis book 1 ch.2.5 p.247; book 1 ch.2.10 p.249

Orosius/Hosius of Braga (414-418 A.D.) speaks of "Almighty God" in Defense Against the Pelagians ch.26 p.152 and ch.27 p.153

 

From the Council of Ephesus to the start of Muslim conquests (431-634 A.D.)

Nestorius (451/452 A.D.) "God is all-powerful … able to effect everything." The Bazaar of Heracleides book 1 ch.1.16 p.14; book 1 ch.1.21 p.17

Leo I of Rome (422-461 A.D.) mentions the Omnipotence of God. Sermon 68.1 p.180

Fulgentius of Ruspe (507-532/533 A.D.) says that God is omnipotent. To Peter on the Faith ch.25 p.75

Gregory I (the Great) (590-605 A.D.) says speaks of Almighty God. Epistles of St. Gregory the Great Epistle 64 p.78

 

Among heretics

Pelagian heretic Theodore of Mopsuestia (392-423/429 A.D.) refers to the Lord Almighty. Commentary on Malachi ch.3 p.419

Ebionite Gospel of pseudo-Matthew (600-625 A.D.) ch.2 p.369 says that God is almighty.

 

Ge3. God is sovereign / God’s sovereignty

 

Genesis 15:2,8; Psalm 68:20; Daniel 4:17,25,32; 5:21; 7:14; 2 Peter 2:1; Jude 4; many others

 

From the Council of Nicea I to the Council of Ephesus (325-431 A.D.)

Athanasius of Alexandria (356-360 A.D.) says that Christ is sovereign of all. Four Discourses Against the Arians discourse 2 ch.15.17 p.357

Athanasius of Alexandria (after 347 A.D.) says that God is sovereign. Defense Against the Arians part 4 ch.61 p.132

Rufinus (c.410 A.D.) translation Origen (225-253/254 A.D.) "to admit that the architect of this world is the Son of God, and that His Father is the first God and Sovereign Ruler over all things." Origen Against Celsus book 6 ch.47 p.595

 

Ge4. The Most High God

 

(El Elyon in Hebrew)

Genesis 14:18,19,20,22; Psalm 9:17; 57:2; 78:56; 91:1; Daniel 3:26; 4:17,24,32,34; 5:18,21; 7:18,22,25,27; Hosea 7:16; 11:7

Mark 5:7; Luke 1:32,35,76; 6:35; 8:28; Acts 7:48

Most high: Numbers 24:16; Deuteronomy 32:8; 2 Samuel 22:14; Psalm 9:2; 21:7; 46:4; 50:14; 56:2; 73:11; 77:10; 78:17; 82:6; 83:18; 91:9; 92:1,8; Lam 3:35,38

Lord Most High Psalm 7:17; 47:2

God most High: Psalm 57:2

(implied) Isaiah 40:18,25

 

Alexandrinus (c.450 A.D.) All of the Old Testament except Genesis 14:14-17; 15:1-5, 16-19; 16:6-9; 1 Samuel 12:17-14:9; Psalm 19:20-79:11. All of the New Testament except Matthew 1:1-25:6, John 6:50-8:52; Romans 16:24; and 2 Corinthians 4:13-12:6.

 

From the Council of Nicea I to the Council of Ephesus (325-431 A.D.)

Philo of Carpasia (4th century) (partial) mentions the "high God".

Athanasius of Alexandria (356 A.D.) mentions the Most High God. To the Bishops of Egypt ch.1.3 p.224

Ephraim/Ephrem, Syrian hymn-writer (350-378 A.D.) in his hymn has Mary calling Jesus "Son of the Most High" Hymns on the Nativity hymn 4 p.235

Cyril of Jerusalem (c.349-386 A.D.) (implied) discusses the end times, Gabriel’s message, the fourth beast will speak blasphemous words against the Most High. In ch.14 he refers to 2 Thessalonians 2:9 as by Paul. These false signs by Satan and the AntiChrist will abhor idols and be seated in the Temple of God. Catechetical Lectures Lecture 15 ch.13-15 p.108

Rufinus (410 A.D.) freely translated Origen (240 A.D.) See also Commentary on the Song of Songs prologue p.44

Palladius (419-420 A.D.) mentions the Most High. Lausiac History in Four Desert Fathers. p.490

Augustine of Hippo (388-430 A.D.) says that Melchizedek was priest of the most high God. On Christian Doctrine book 4 ch.21.45 NPNF first series vol.2 p.590

 

From the Council of Ephesus to the start of Muslim conquests (431-634 A.D.)

Nestorius (451/452 A.D.) talks about the Most High. Bazaar of Heracleides book 1 part 1 ch.63

Fulgentius of Ruspe (507-532/533 A.D.) mentions God as the Most High. To Peter on the Faith ch.17 p.70

 

Among heretics

The Ebionite Gospel of pseudo-Matthew ch.3 p.370 "told in the presence of the Most High; and to you will God give such"

 

Ge5. God is above all

 

^^^

 

Ge6. God or His power is incomparable

 

^^^

 

Ge7. God does not change / is unchangeable

 

Malachi 3:6a

(partial) James 1:17

 

Alexandrinus (c.450 A.D.) All of the Old Testament except Genesis 14:14-17; 15:1-5, 16-19; 16:6-9; 1 Samuel 12:17-14:9; Psalm 19:20-79:11. All of the New Testament except Matthew 1:1-25:6, John 6:50-8:52; Romans 16:24; and 2 Corinthians 4:13-12:6.

 

From the Council of Nicea I to the Council of Ephesus (325-431 A.D.)

Athanasius of Alexandria (356-360 A.D.) says the God does not change. Four Discourses Against the Arians discourse 1 ch.10.36 p.327

Athanasius of Alexandria (326-372/373 A.D.) "as Paul in another place calls him ‘first-born of all creation’ (Colossians 1:15). But by calling him First-born, He shows that He is not a Creature, but Offspring of the Father. For it would be inconsistent with his deity for Him to be called a creature. For all things were created by the Father through the Son, but the Son alone was eternally begotten from the Father, whence God the Word is ‘first-born of all creation,’ unchangeable from unchangeable. However, the body which He wore for our sakes is a creature." Statement of Faith ch.3 p.85

Athanasius of Alexandria (326-372/373 A.D.) says the Father and Son are unchangeable. Letter to the Bishops of Egypt ch.17 p.232

&&&Hilary of Poitiers (355-367/368 A.D.)

Gregory of Nyssa (382-383 A.D.) says that God is unchangeable. Against Eunomius book 1 ch.22 p.61

Cyril of Jerusalem (c.349-386 A.D.) says God is unchanging. Catechical Lectures Lecture 4 ch.4 p.20; Lecture 18 ch.4 p.135; Lecture 10 ch.12 p.60

Augustine of Hippo (388-430 A.D.) says that God is not changed. The City of God book 20 ch.26 p.447. See also On Christian Doctrine ch.7.7 p.524

 

From the Council of Ephesus to the start of Muslim conquests (431-634 A.D.)

Nestorius (451/452 A.D.) Says that God is unchangeable. Bazaar of Heracleides book 1 part 1 ch.37

Nestorius (451/452 A.D.) "God the Word is unchangeable and immortal and He is continuously that where He is in the eternity of the Father. … there was not when he was not." The Bazaar of Heracleides book 2 ch.1 p.82

 

Among heretics

The Arian Candidus’ Letter to Marius Victorinus (359-362 A.D.) says there is One God, who is the first cause of all things and unchangeable. Candidus’ First Letter ch.1,2 p.54

 

Ge8. God is uncreated

 

Genesis 1:1 "In the beginning, God..."

John 1:1 (In the beginning was the word..."

 

(implied) God alone Isaiah 44:8,24

(implied) John 1:3; Colossians 1:16

(implied) Titus 1:2 (before the beginning of time)

 

From the Council of Nicea I to the Council of Ephesus (325-431 A.D.)

Athanasius of Alexandria (326-372/373 A.D.) says God is unoriginate. Opinions of Dionysius ch.16 p.182

Cyril of Jerusalem (c.349-386 A.D.) says the Father alone is unbegotten. Catechical Lectures Lecture 4 ch.4 p.20; Lecture 11 ch.13 p.68

 

Ge9. God is eternal

 

1 Timothy 1:17

 

From the Council of Nicea I to the Council of Ephesus (325-431 A.D.)

Athanasius of Alexandria (356-360 A.D.) "for He [the Son[ is eternal, as is the Father, of whom He is the Eternal Word, - to which subject let us now return again.". Four Discourses Against the Arians discourse 1 ch.18 p.317

Epiphanius of Salamis (360-403 A.D.) "The Father, truly having begotten the Son, and the Son truly having been begotten of the Father, is personally subsisting without beginning and eternal; and the Holy Spirit, as truly of the Father and the Son, being of the same Godhead…" homily Against the Sabellians, as quoted by the Tubingen theologians in Augsburg and Constantinople, p.229

Rufinus (374-406 A.D.) freely translating Origen (225-253/254 A.D.) "And not only so, but because the nature of Father, and Son, and Holy Spirit, whose intellectual light alone all created things have a share, is incorruptible and eternal,..." de Principiis [Latin] book 4 ch.36 p.381

 

From the Council of Ephesus to the start of Muslim conquests (431-634 A.D.)

Nestorius (451/452 A.D.) "God the Word is unchangeable and immortal and He is continuously that where He is in the eternity of the Father. … there was not when he was not." The Bazaar of Heracleides book 2 ch.1 p.82

Nestorius (451/452 A.D.) (implied) "What after all is the nature in this natural union which you predicate? Is it that of the Father and of the Son and of the Holy Spirit, an impassible nature, immortal, eternal, and without needs? Of is it [a nature] mortal and passible and with needs, which came into being yesterday and to-day and which belongs neither to men nor to God nor to any other nature, but is mixed from two natures for the completion fo one nature? Bazaar of Heracleides book 1 part 1 ch.46

 

Ge10. God had no beginning / was unoriginated

 

Hebrews 7:3; John 1:2

 

From the Council of Nicea I to the Council of Ephesus (325-431 A.D.)

Athanasius of Alexandria (346-356 A.D.) says that God is "unoriginate". Defense of the Nicene Definition ch.8 p.155

Athanasius of Alexandria (346-356 A.D.) discusses how the Father and Son are not of things originate. Defense of the Nicene Definition ch.19-20 p.163

 

Ge11. God is incorruptible

 

Romans 1:23; 1 Timothy 1:17 (incorruptible aphthartou)

2 Timothy 1:10 (incorruption aphtharsian)

(implied) Acts 2:27,31

(partial) 1 Corinthians 15:42,50,53,54; 1 Peter 1:4,23

 

Alexandrinus (c.450 A.D.) All of the Old Testament except Genesis 14:14-17; 15:1-5, 16-19; 16:6-9; 1 Samuel 12:17-14:9; Psalm 19:20-79:11. All of the New Testament except Matthew 1:1-25:6, John 6:50-8:52; Romans 16:24; and 2 Corinthians 4:13-12:6.

 

From the Council of Nicea I to the Council of Ephesus (325-431 A.D.)

Gregory of Nyssa (356-397 A.D.) "and yet it is plain to every one who has given any attention to the uses of words, that the word incorruption denotes by the privative particle that neither corruption nor birth appertains to God: just as many other words of like formation denote the absence of what is not inherent rather than the presence of what is; e.g. harmless, painless, guileless, undisturbed, passionless, sleepless, undiseased, impassible, unblamable, and the like. For all these terms are truly applicable to God,…" Against Eunomius book 2 p.264. See also Answer to Eunomius Second Book p.263.

John Chrysostom (died 407 A.D.)

 

Ge12. God is the Ancient of Days

 

Daniel 7:22

Isaiah 43:13 (partial) "Yes, and from ancient days I am he."

 

From the Council of Nicea I to the Council of Ephesus (325-431 A.D.)

Eusebius of Caesarea (318-339-340 A.D.) says that God is the Ancient of Days. Eusebius’ Ecclesiastical History book 1 ch.2.20 p.85

 

Ge13. God / Jesus is immortal

 

1 Timothy 6:16 (immortality athanasian);

... Romans 1:23; 1 Timothy 1:17 and 2 Timothy are actually incorruptible.

 

From the Council of Nicea I to the Council of Ephesus (325-431 A.D.)

Athanasius of Alexandria (356-360 A.D.) says the God and Jesus are immortal. Four Discourses Against the Arians discourse 1 ch.21 p.318

 

Among heretics

Nestorius (451/452 A.D.) "God the Word is unchangeable and immortal and He is continuously that where He is in the eternity of the Father. … there was not when he was not." The Bazaar of Heracleides book 2 ch.1 p.82

Nestorius (451/452 A.D.) (implied) "What after all is the nature in this natural union which you predicate? Is it that of the Father and of the Son and of the Holy Spirit, an impassible nature, immortal, eternal, and without needs? Of is it [a nature] mortal and passible and with needs, which came into being yesterday and to-day and which belongs neither to men nor to God nor to any other nature, but is mixed from two natures for the completion fo one nature? Bazaar of Heracleides book 1 part 1 ch.46

 

Ge14. God is inscrutable/unsearchable

 

Job 5:9; Psalm 145:3; Romans 11:33

(implied, unsearchable riches of Christ) Ephesians 3:8

 

Alexandrinus (c.450 A.D.) All of the Old Testament except Genesis 14:14-17; 15:1-5, 16-19; 16:6-9; 1 Samuel 12:17-14:9; Psalm 19:20-79:11. All of the New Testament except Matthew 1:1-25:6, John 6:50-8:52; Romans 16:24; and 2 Corinthians 4:13-12:6.

 

From the Council of Nicea I to the Council of Ephesus (325-431 A.D.)

Ambrose of Milan (370-390 A.D.) quotes Isaiah 40:12 as by Isaiah. Of the Holy Spirit book 2 ch.9.90 p.126.

 

From the Council of Ephesus to the start of Muslim conquests (431-634 A.D.)

Nestorius (451/452 A.D.) says that God is incomprehensible. Bazaar of Heracleides book 1 part 1 ch.55

 

After the Start of Muslim conquests (634 A.D.-)

Anastasius Bibliothecarius (858-878 A.D.) freely translating Peter of Alexandria (306,285-311 A.D.) "David also, full of prophetic inspiration, when he had heard the words of the deceitful youth, although it was by the inscrutable and just judgment of God, yet acted very differently from what the true nature of the case required." Genuine Acts of Peter of Alexandria p.268

 

Ge15. God knows all / even the secret things

 

Psalm 44:21; 139; John 21:17; 1 Corinthians 14:25

Jeremiah 23:24 "‘Can anyone hide in the secret places so that I cannot see him?’ declares the LORD."

(partial) Isaiah 44:7

(partial) Luke 12:6

 

Vaticanus (B) Most of the Old Testament and all of New Testament up to Hebrews 9:15 (325-350 A.D.) John 21:17

Sinaiticus (340-350 A.D.) John 21:17

Alexandrinus (c.450 A.D.) All of the Old Testament except Genesis 14:14-17; 15:1-5, 16-19; 16:6-9; 1 Samuel 12:17-14:9; Psalm 19:20-79:11. All of the New Testament except Matthew 1:1-25:6, John 6:50-8:52; Romans 16:24; and 2 Corinthians 4:13-12:6.

 

From the Council of Nicea I to the Council of Ephesus (325-431 A.D.)

Eusebius of Caesarea (323-339/340 A.D.) mentions the all-seeing God. Eusebius’ Ecclesiastical History book 1 ch.2 p.84

Athanasius of Alexandria (after 347 A.D.) says that God knows all things. Defense Against the Arians part 5 ch.84 p.145

Hegemonius of Sirmium (4th century) "Not thus is it with the Holy Spirit: God forbid; but He divides to all, and knows all kinds of tongues, and has understanding of all things, and is made all things to all men, so that the very thoughts of the heart cannot escape His cognizance." Archelaus Disputation with Manes ch.36 p.210

Life of Antony (355 A.D.) ch.31 p.204 "For they know none of those things which are not yet in existence; but God only is He who knoweth all things before their birth"

&&&Hilary of Poitiers (355-367/368 A.D.)

Rufinus (374-406 A.D.) freely translating Origen (225-253/254 A.D.) "And this, I think, was the opinion of the Apostle Paul himself, when he said, "Their thoughts mutually accusing or excusing them in the day when God will judge the secrets of men by Jesus Christ, according to my Gospel." de Principiis book 2 ch.10.4 p.295

Augustine of Hippo (388-430 A.D.) says that God knows every future thing, otherwise He would not be God. The City of God book 5 ch.9 p.92

 

Among heretics

The Ebionite Clementine Homilies (uncertain date) homily 14 ch.13 p.315 says that God knows all things. It mentions the all-seeing God in homily 4 ch.14 p.254 and homily 8 ch.19 p.274.

 

Ge16. God is all-seeing

 

Proverbs 15:3; Hebrews 4:13-14

 

From the Council of Nicea I to the Council of Ephesus (325-431 A.D.)

Eusebius of Caesarea (323-339/340 A.D.) mentions the all-seeing God. Eusebius’ Ecclesiastical History book 1 ch.2.20 p.84

 

From the Council of Ephesus to the start of Muslim conquests (431-634 A.D.)

John Wesley (1831) "There is no such thing as either foreknowledge or afterknowledge in God. All time, or rather all eternity (for time is only a small fragment of eternity which is allotted to the children of men), being present to God at once, He does not know one thing before another, or one thing after another; but sees all things in one point of view, from everlasting to everlasting. As all time, with every thing that exists therein, is present with Him at once, so he sees as once whatever was, is or will be to the end of time." Sermons on Several Occasions, 1831, p.39.

 

Ge17. God is invisible

 

Colossians 1:15; 1 Timothy 1:17

(implied) Hebrews 11:27

(partial) Romans 1:20

1 John 4:12

 

Alexandrinus (c.450 A.D.) All of the Old Testament except Genesis 14:14-17; 15:1-5, 16-19; 16:6-9; 1 Samuel 12:17-14:9; Psalm 19:20-79:11. All of the New Testament except Matthew 1:1-25:6, John 6:50-8:52; Romans 16:24; and 2 Corinthians 4:13-12:6.

 

From the Council of Nicea I to the Council of Ephesus (325-431 A.D.)

Eusebius’ Ecclesiastical History (323-339/340 A.D.) book 1 ch.2.1-3 p.82 says that God is invisible.

Hegemonius of Sirmium (4th century) says God is invisible. Archelaus Disputation with Manes ch.32 p.208

Athanasius of Alexandria (346-356 A.D.) says that God is invisible. Defence of the Nicene Definition ch.27 p.168

Hilary of Poitiers (355-367/368 A.D.) discusses the invisibility of God. Of the Synods ch.12,15 p.7

Ambrose of Milan (370-390 A.D.) says "The Son is the Image of the invisible God." Of the Holy Spirit book 2 ch.12 p.132. See also On the Christian Faith (378-381 A.D.) book 1 ch.7.48 p.208

Rufinus (410 A.D.) freely translated Origen (225-253/254 A.D.) says that we should not think that God [the Father] is visible. Commentary on the Song of Songs book 3 ch.12 p.219

 

From the Council of Ephesus to the start of Muslim conquests (431-634 A.D.)

Nestorius (451/452 A.D.) says that God is invisible. Bazaar of Heracleides book 1 part 1 ch.55

 

Ge18. God is Lord of heaven and earth

 

Act 17:24

 

Macarius the Great (392-423/429 A.D.) "If indeed it was necessary to express that other utterance, as Jesus says, "I thank thee, Father, Lord of heaven and earth, because thou hast hid these things from the wise and prudent, and hast revealed them unto babes," and as it is written in Deuteronomy (xxix. 29), "The hidden things for the Lord our God, and the manifest things for us," therefore the things that are written for the babes and the ignorant ought to be clearer and not wrapped in riddles." Apocriticus ch.9

 

Ge19. Calling God "I Am"

 

John 8:58b

 

From the Council of Nicea I to the Council of Ephesus (325-431 A.D.)

Athanasius of Alexandria (357 A.D.) quotes John 8:58-59. In Defense of His Flight ch.12 p.259

Athanasius of Alexandria (346-356 A.D.) calls God "I Am" Defence of the Nicene Definition ch.26 p.165

 

 

God’s IMMINENCE

 

Gi1. God is worthy

 

2 Samuel 22:4; 1 Chronicles 16:25; Psalm 18:3; 48:1; 96:4; 145:3; Hebrews 3:3; Revelation 4:11; 5:9,12

 

From Nicea to Ephesus (325 A.D. to 431 A.D.)

Athanasius of Alexandria (356-360 A.D.) (implied) "Uniting then the two titles, Scripture speaks of ‘Son,’ in order to herald the natural and true offspring of His essence; and, on the other hand, that none may think of the Offspring humanly, while signifying His essence, it also calls Him Word, Wisdom, and Radiance; to teach us that the generation was impassible, and eternal, and worthy of God." Four Discourses Against the Arians Discourse 1 ch.28 p.322-323

Rufinus (374-406 A.D.) freely translating Origen (225-253/254 A.D.) "For the goodness of God, as is worthy of Him, incites and attracts all to that blissful end, where all pain, and sadness, and sorrow fall away and disappear." de Principiis book 1 ch.8.3 p.266

 

Gi2. God needs nothing from us

 

Acts 17:25

Psalm 50:9-13 (implied)

 

From the Council of Nicea I to the Council of Ephesus (325-431 A.D.)

Athanasius of Alexandria (356-360 A.D.) "It was not then the Word, considered as the Word, who advanced; who is perfect from the perfect Father, who needs nothing, nay brings forward others to an advance; but humanly is He here also said to advance, since advance belongs to man." Four Discourses Against the Arians Discourse 3 ch.52 p.422

Palladius (419-420 A.D.) says that God needs nothing from us. Lausiac History in Four Desert Fathers. p.488

 

Gi3. God is just / not unjust

 

Deuteronomy 32:4; 2 Chronicles 12:6; Job 36:3; Psalm 9:6; 33:5; 45:6; 99:4; 101:1; 140:12; 29:26; Isaiah 5:16; 30:18; 42:4; 61:8; Jeremiah 10:24; 30:11; 48:28; Ezekiel 33:19-20

Matthew 12:18; Luke 11:42; 18:7-8; Romans 3:25-26; 2 Thessalonians 1:6; 1 John 1:9; Revelation 15:3; 16:5,7; 19:2,11

partial: Malachi 2:17

 

Vaticanus (B) (325-350 A.D.) contains all of Deuteronomy. It has most of the Old Testament and all of New Testament up to Hebrews 9:15 (325-350 A.D.)

 

From Nicea to Ephesus (325 A.D. to 431 A.D.)

Epiphanius of Salamis (360-403 A.D.) God is good and just. The Panarion section 3 scholion 7 and 15 p.32-

Rufinus (374-406 A.D.) freely translating Origen (225-253/254 A.D.) "For what it behooves every one who maintains the truth of what is recorded in Scripture, and who desires to show that the God of the law and the prophets is just, to render a reason for all these things, and to show how there is in them nothing at all derogatory to the justice of God," de Principiis [Latin] book 3 ch.9 p.309

 

Gi4. God will judge/reward people’s secrets / secret things

 

(Only mentioning that God knows secrets is not counted here)

 

Romans 2:16

1 Corinthians 14:25

 

From the Council of Nicea I to the Council of Ephesus (325-431 A.D.)

Eusebius of Caesarea (318-339-340 A.D.) (partial) "the God and Lord who judges all the earth." Eusebius’ Ecclesiastical History book 1 ch.2.8 p.83

Rufinus (374-406 A.D.) freely translating Origen (225-253/254 A.D.) "And this, I think, was the opinion of the Apostle Paul himself, when he said, "Their thoughts mutually accusing or excusing them in the day when God will judge the secrets of men by Jesus Christ, according to my Gospel." [Latin] de Principiis book 2 ch.10.4 p.295

 

Gi5. God punishes

 

Genesis 3:14-19; 4:13; 15:14; Exodus 32:34; Leviticus 18:25; 26:18,28; Deuteronomy 22:18; 1 Samuel 15:2; 2 Samuel 7:14; Job 21:19; 37:13; Psalm 59:5; 89:32; 94:10; Isaiah 10:12; 13:11; 24:21; 26:21; 27:1; Jeremiah 5:9; 29; 6:15; 9:9,25; 11:22; 14:10; 21:14; 23:34; 27:8; Ezekiel 5:8-10; Zechariah 10:3;

(implied) Zephaniah 3:15

Matthew 25:36; Acts 7:7; 2 Corinthians 10:6; 1 Thessalonians 4:6; 2 Thessalonians 1:8-9; Hebrews 2:2; 4:18; 10:29; 12:6; Jude 7; Revelation 17:1

 

punish Babylon Jeremiah 25:12

 

Vaticanus (B) (325-350 A.D.) contains all of Deuteronomy. It has most of the Old Testament and all of New Testament up to Hebrews 9:15 (325-350 A.D.)

 

From the Council of Nicea I to the Council of Ephesus (325-431 A.D.)

Hegemonius of Sirmium (4th century) "And the law was called a ‘ministration of death’ from the fact that then only transgressors of the law were punished, and not those who kept it, and who obeyed and observed the things which are in the law, as Abel did, whom Cain, who was made a vessel of the wicked one, slew." Archelaus Disputation with Manes ch.30 p.203

 

From the Council of Ephesus to the start of Muslim conquests (431-634 A.D.)

The Didascalia (after 431 A.D.)

 

Among heretics

Pelagian heretic Theodore of Mopsuestia (392-423/429 A.D.) mention retribution at the hand of [God’s] angel. Commentary on Micah ch.5 p.230

 

Gi6. God is not mocked

 

Galatians 6:7

 

From the Council of Nicea I to the Council of Ephesus (325-431 A.D.)

Cyril of Jerusalem (c.349-386 A.D.) says God is not mocked. Catechical Lectures Lecture 8 ch.4 p.48

 

Gi7. God sends evildoers delusion(s)

 

2 Thessalonians 2:11

 

^^^

 

From the Council of Ephesus to the start of Muslim conquests (431-634 A.D.)

Fulgentius of Ruspe (507-532/533 A.D.) says that God send evildoers delusions. Letter 10 Fulgentius to Scarila ch.46 p.465

 

Gi8. God can be offended

 

Ezekiel 8:6-18

 

^^^

 

Gi9. God is merciful

 

Exodus 20:6; Numbers 14:18; 1 Chronicles 16:34; Psalm 115:1; 116:5; 118:1; 119:41; Jonah 4:2; Luke 18:13; Hebrews 4:16, others

 

Vaticanus (325-350 A.D.) contains most of the Old Testament.

 

From the Council of Nicea I to the Council of Ephesus (325-431 A.D.)

Life of Antony (probably by Athanasius of Alexandria) (355 A.D.) ch.89 p.218 speaks of God’s mercy.

Athanasius of Alexandria (356-360 A.D.) "And many now too keep the Savior’s command, being merciful as is their Father which is in heaven," Four Discourses Against the Arians discourse 3 ch.10 p.399

Cyril of Jerusalem (c.349-386 A.D.) says that God is merciful. Catechical Lectures Lecture 10 ch.8 p.59

Palladius (419-420 A.D.) says that God is compassionate. Lausiac History in Four Desert Fathers. p.485

 

From the Council of Ephesus to the start of Muslim conquests (431-634 A.D.)

The Didascalia (after 431 A.D.) "thou art a Lord long-suffering and merciful and very gracious"

Peter Chrysologus of Ravenna (406-450 A.D.) "‘Go’, he [Jesus] says, ‘and baptize all nations in the name of the Father, and of the Son, and of the Holy Spirit’ [Matthew 28:19] in remission of sins. If in the remission of sins the Trinity is united in showing mercy, how is the whole Trinity not one in will in the Passion of the Son?" Sermon 72A ch.4 p.4-5

Fulgentius of Ruspe (507-532/533 A.D.) says that God is merciful. To Peter on the Faith ch.40 p.85

Venantius (lived ca.530-609 A.D.) "O Christ, Thou Saviour of the world, merciful Creator and Redeemer," Poem on Easter p.329

 

Gi10. God wants repentance not sinner’s death

 

Ezekiel 18:23,32; 2 Peter 3:9

 

Alexandrinus (c.450 A.D.) All of the Old Testament except Genesis 14:14-17; 15:1-5, 16-19; 16:6-9; 1 Samuel 12:17-14:9; Psalm 19:20-79:11. All of the New Testament except Matthew 1:1-25:6, John 6:50-8:52; Romans 16:24; and 2 Corinthians 4:13-12:6.

 

From the Council of Nicea I to the Council of Ephesus (325-431 A.D.)

Eusebius’ Ecclesiastical History (323-339/340 A.D.) book 5 ch.7 p.216

Athanasius of Alexandria (332 A.D.) specifically mentions Ezekiel and says that God desires repentance and not the death of a sinner as Ezekiel 18:23 says. Paschal Letter 4 ch.4 p.514

Constitutions of the Holy Apostles (c.380 A.D.) book 8 section 2 ch.9 p.484 refers to Ezekiel 18 and 23.

 

Among heretics

The Ebionite Recognitions of Clement (c.211-250 A.D.) book 10 ch.49 p.205 refers to Ezekiel 18:33. God does not want death, but conversion.

 

Gi11. God / Christ is heals /is healer

 

^^^

 

Gi12. God is our protector

 

Palladius (c.430 A.D.) &&& Four Desert Fathers &&& p.487.

 

Gi13. God is our refuge

 

Deuteronomy 32:27; 2 Samuel 22:3,31; Psalm 2:12; 5:11; 9:9; 16:1; 17:7; 18:2; 31:2; 34:8; 36:7; 46:1; 62:8; 71:1; 91:2; 144:2; Proverbs 30:5

 

Vaticanus (B) (325-350 A.D.) contains all of Deuteronomy. It has most of the Old Testament and all of New Testament up to Hebrews 9:15 (325-350 A.D.)

Alexandrinus (c.450 A.D.) All of the Old Testament except Genesis 14:14-17; 15:1-5, 16-19; 16:6-9; 1 Samuel 12:17-14:9; Psalm 19:20-79:11. All of the New Testament except Matthew 1:1-25:6, John 6:50-8:52; Romans 16:24; and 2 Corinthians 4:13-12:6.

 

^^^

 

Gi14. God is our deliverer

 

Palladius (c.430 A.D.) &&& Four Desert Fathers &&& p.487.

 

Gi15. God/Christ rejoices over us

 

Zephaniah 3:17

 

Alexandrinus (c.450 A.D.) All of the Old Testament except Genesis 14:14-17; 15:1-5, 16-19; 16:6-9; 1 Samuel 12:17-14:9; Psalm 19:20-79:11. All of the New Testament except Matthew 1:1-25:6, John 6:50-8:52; Romans 16:24; and 2 Corinthians 4:13-12:6.

 

From the Council of Nicea I to the Council of Ephesus (325-431 A.D.)

Aphrahat/Aphraates (337-344 A.D.) Select Demonstrations

Ambrose of Milan (370-390 A.D.)

 

Gi16. Calling God Abba, Father

 

Galatians 4:6

 

Alexandrinus (c.450 A.D.) All of the Old Testament except Genesis 14:14-17; 15:1-5, 16-19; 16:6-9; 1 Samuel 12:17-14:9; Psalm 19:20-79:11. All of the New Testament except Matthew 1:1-25:6, John 6:50-8:52; Romans 16:24; and 2 Corinthians 4:13-12:6.

 

From the Council of Nicea I to the Council of Ephesus (325-431 A.D.)

Athanasius of Alexandria (326-372/373 A.D.) calls God Abba, Father. Defense of the Nicene Definition ch.4.31 p.172

Athanasius of Alexandria (356-360 A.D.) calls God Abba, Father. Four Discourses Against the Arians discourse 4 ch.22 p.441

 

Gi17. God of Abraham

 

Exodus 3:6; Matthew 23:32; Acts 7:32

 

Vaticanus (325-350 A.D.) contains most of the Old Testament.

 

From the Council of Nicea I to the Council of Ephesus (325-431 A.D.)

Eusebius of Caesarea (323-339/340 A.D.) mentions the God of Abraham, Isaac, and Jacob. Eusebius’ Ecclesiastical History book 1 ch.2.13 p.83

Athanasius of Alexandria (356-360 A.D.) says that God is the God of Abraham, Isaac, and Jacob. Four Discourses Against the Arians discourse 3 ch.25.14 p.401-402

Constitutions of the Holy Apostles (c.380 A.D.) book 6 section 6 p.464 says that God is the God of Abraham, Isaac, and Jacob.

Rufinus (374-406 A.D.) freely translating Origen (225-253/254 A.D.) "Have you not read what was spoken by God to Moses: I am the God of Abraham, and the God of Isaac, and the God of Jacob; He is not a God of the dead, but of the living.’" de Principiis book 2 ch.4.1 p.276

 

From the Council of Ephesus to the start of Muslim conquests (431-634 A.D.)

The Didascalia (after 431 A.D.)

Fulgentius of Ruspe (507-532/533 A.D.) mentions the God of Abraham. To Monimus book 2 ch.3.1 p.235

 

Gi18. God of Isaac

 

Exodus 3:6; Matthew 23:32; Acts 7:32

 

From the Council of Nicea I to the Council of Ephesus (325-431 A.D.)

Constitutions of the Holy Apostles (c.380 A.D.) book 6 section 6 p.464 says that God is the God of Abraham, Isaac, and Jacob.

Athanasius of Alexandria (356-360 A.D.) says that God is the God of Abraham, Isaac, and Jacob. Four Discourses Against the Arians discourse 3 ch.25.14 p.401-402

Rufinus (374-406 A.D.) freely translating Origen (225-253/254 A.D.) "Have you not read what was spoken by God to Moses: I am the God of Abraham, and the God of Isaac, and the God of Jacob; He is not a God of the dead, but of the living.’" de Principiis book 2 ch.4.1 p.276

 

From the Council of Ephesus to the start of Muslim conquests (431-634 A.D.)

The Didascalia (after 431 A.D.)

 

Gi19. The God of Jacob

 

Exodus 3:6; Matthew 23:32; Acts 7:32

 

From the Council of Nicea I to the Council of Ephesus (325-431 A.D.)

Athanasius of Alexandria (356-360 A.D.) says that God is the God of Abraham, Isaac, and Jacob. Four Discourses Against the Arians discourse 3 ch.25.14 p.401-402

Athanasius of Alexandria (346-356 A.D.) "and there are others also, heavenly ones, for Scripture says, ‘The Lord of powers is with us, the God of Jacob is our refuge.’" [Exodus 12:41] Defence of the Nicene Definition ch.20 p.163

Constitutions of the Holy Apostles (c.380 A.D.) book 6 section 6 p.464 says that God is the God of Abraham, Isaac, and Jacob.

Rufinus (374-406 A.D.) freely translating Origen (225-253/254 A.D.) "Have you not read what was spoken by God to Moses: I am the God of Abraham, and the God of Isaac, and the God of Jacob; He is not a God of the dead, but of the living.’" de Principiis book 2 ch.4.1 p.276

 

From the Council of Ephesus to the start of Muslim conquests (431-634 A.D.)

The Didascalia (after 431 A.D.)

Fulgentius of Ruspe (507-532/533 A.D.) mentions the God of Jacob. To Peter on the Faith ch.51 p.92

 

Gi20. God of Israel

 

Exodus 24:10; Numbers 16:9; Joshua 7:19; Judges 5:3; 1 Samuel 5:8; 2 Samuel 7:26; 1 Kings 11:31; 2 Kings 10:31; 1 Chronicles 4:10; 2 Chronicles 2:12; Ezra 1:3; Psalm 41:13; Isaiah 17:6; 45:3; Jeremiah 7:3; Ezekiel 8:4; Zephaniah 2:9; Malachi 2:16

Matthew 15:31; Luke 1:68

(implied) Deuteronomy 6:4

(implied) Amos 4:12 "prepare to meet your God, O Israel"

Genesis 49:24 (partial, rock of Israel)

 

From the Council of Nicea I to the Council of Ephesus (325-431 A.D.)

Ambrose of Milan (c.384 A.D.) "LORD God of Israel" Concerning Repentance book 1 ch.9 no.43 p.336

 

Among heretics

Ebionite Gospel of pseudo-Matthew (600-625 A.D.) ch.12 p.369 speaks of the "God of Israel".

 

Gi21. God is patient or long-suffering

 

From the Council of Nicea I to the Council of Ephesus (325-431 A.D.)

Rufinus (374-406 A.D.) freely translating Origen (225-253/254 A.D.) "They do not read what is written respecting the hope of those who were destroyed in the deluge; of which hope Peter himself thus speaks in his first Epistle: ‘That Christ, indeed, was put to death in the flesh, but quickened by the Spirit, by which He went and preached to the spirits who were kept in prison, who once were unbelievers, when they awaited the long-suffering of God in the days of Noah, when the ark was preparing, in which a few, i.e., eight souls, were saved by water. Whereunto also baptism by a like figure now saves you.’" de Principiis book 2 ch.5.3 p.279

 

From the Council of Ephesus to the start of Muslim conquests (431-634 A.D.)

The Didascalia (after 431 A.D.) "thou art a Lord long-suffering and merciful and very gracious"

 

Gi22. God is compassionate

 

^^^

 

Gi23. God loves us or is kind

 

John 3:16; Ephesians 1:4

Isa 54:10 (God has compassion)

(implied) Exodus 2:25

 

Vaticanus (B) Most of the Old Testament and all of New Testament up to Hebrews 9:15 (325-350 A.D.) John 3:16

Sinaiticus (340-350 A.D.) John 3:16

Alexandrinus (c.450 A.D.) All of the Old Testament except Genesis 14:14-17; 15:1-5, 16-19; 16:6-9; 1 Samuel 12:17-14:9; Psalm 19:20-79:11. All of the New Testament except Matthew 1:1-25:6, John 6:50-8:52; Romans 16:24; and 2 Corinthians 4:13-12:6.

 

From the Council of Nicea I to the Council of Ephesus (325-431 A.D.)

Athanasius of Alexandria (335 A.D.) discusses the Father’s lovingkindness and goodness. Easter Letter 9 ch.10 p.527. See also Easter Letter 10 (338 A.D.) ch.9 p.531

Ephraim the Syrian (350-378 A.D.) says that lovingkindness prevailed. Nisibine Hymns hymn 2 no.18 p.170

John Chrysostom (before 407 A.D.) teaches on the lovingkindness of God. Commentary on Philippians homily 1 verse 5 p.185 He also says that God created everything through goodness and love for men. homily 4 verse 30 p.202

Augustine of Hippo (388-430 A.D.) says at how great a price God rated us, and how God loved us by Christ dying for us. On the Trinity book 13 ch.13 p.175

John Cassian (410-430 A.D.) write of Paphnutius speaking of the loving kindness of the Lord. Conference of the Bishop Paphnutius ch.5 p.321

 

From the Council of Ephesus to the start of Muslim conquests (431-634 A.D.)

Fulgentius of Ruspe (507-532/533 A.D.) says that God is kind. To Peter on the Faith ch.32 p.80

 

Among heretics

Mandaeans (>350?) said that the highest deity is kind. Ginza p.548

Pelagian heretic Theodore of Mopsuestia (392-423/429 A.D.) God has grace and lovingkindness towards Israel. Commentary on Zechariah ch.13 p.386

 

Gi24. God avenges

 

Deuteronomy 32:35,43; 1 Samuel 24:12; 2 Kings 9:7; Isaiah 1:24; Isaiah 65:6; 66:6; Jeremiah 5:9,29; 9:9; 15:15; 51:6b,36; Romans 12:19; 2 Thessalonians 1:6; Hebrews 10:30; Revelation 6:10

Implied Psalm 79:12; 94:2; Lamentations 3:64

 

Athanasius of Alexandria (334 A.D.) prays that God avenge the martyrs of the curch. Circular Latter ch.6 p.96

 

Among spurious works

Apostolic Constitutions (3rd-5th century, compiled c.390 A.D.) book 7 section 1 ch.3 p.466 "You shall not slay your child by causing abortion, nor kill the baby that is born. For ‘everything that is shaped and has received a soul from God, if it is slain, shall be avenged, as being unjustly destroyed’" (quoted form Ezek 21:23 Septuagint) (quoted from A Dictionary of Early Christian Beliefs. David W. Bercot, ed. p.3)

 

Gi25. Christians and Jews/Israel/Moses worship the same God

 

From the Council of Nicea I to the Council of Ephesus (325-431 A.D.)

Hegemonius of Sirmium (4th century) "Him, again, who spake with Moses, and the Jews, and the priests, he declares to be the prince of the darkness; so that the Christians, and the Jews, and the Gentiles are one and the same body, worshipping the same God: for He seduces them in His own passions, being no God of truth." Archelaus Disputation with Manes ch.11 p.185. See also ibid ch.40 p.214.

Hegemonius of Sirmium (4th century) (implied) "I understand, then, that his [Manes’] chief effort was directed to prove that the law of Moses is not consonant with the law of Christ; and this position he attempted to found on the authority of our Scriptures. Well, on the other hand, not only did we establish the law of Moses, and all things which are written in it, by the same Scripture; but we also proved that the whole Old Testament agrees with the New Testament, and is in perfect harmony with the same, and that they form really one texture, just as a person may see one and the same robe made up of weft and warp together. For the truth is simply this, that just as we trace the purple in a robe, so, if we may thus express it, we can discern the New Testament in the texture of the Old Testament; for we see the glory of the Lord mirrored in the same." (Archelaus is speaking) Archelaus Disputation with Manes ch.41 p.215

Athanasius of Alexandria (356 A.D.) "And again, what is the Old Testament to the Jews, unless they acknowledge the Lord whose coming was expected according to it? For had they believed the writings of Moses, they would have believed the words of the Lord; for He said, ‘He wrote of Me.’" To the Bishops of Egypt ch.1.4 p.224

 

Gi26. Abraham’s [Three] Visitors

 

Genesis 18:1-16

 

From the Council of Nicea I to the Council of Ephesus (325-431 A.D.)

Eusebius of Caesarea (323-339/340 A.D.) (partial) says the Son of God was in Genesis 18:1. Eusebius’ Ecclesiastical History book 1 ch.3 p.83

Ambrose of Milan (370-390 A.D.) mentions Abraham receiving the strangers, seeing the Trinity in a type,, "when beholding Three he worshipped One and preserving the distinction of the Person, yet addressed on eLord, he offered to Three th honour of his gift, while acknowledging one Power." Book 2 On Belief in the Resurrection ch.96 p.189-190

 

Gi27. The Lord/God is faithful / trustworthy

 

1 John 1:9

 

Jesus Christ being the faithful witness is not counted here.

 

From the Council of Nicea I to the Council of Ephesus (325-431 A.D.)

Athanasius of Alexandria (356-360 A.D.) says that God is faithful. Four Discourses Against the Arians Discourse 2 ch.6 p.357

Rufinus (374-406 A.D.) freely translating Origen (225-253/254 A.D.) "since it is said of us, ‘There hath no temptation taken you, but such as is common to man: but God is faithful, who will not suffer you to be tempted above that ye are able.’" de Principiis book 3 ch.2.3 p.&&&

 

Gi28. The Creator is our / the True God

 

From the Council of Nicea I to the Council of Ephesus (325-431 A.D.)

Hegemonius of Sirmium (4th century) says, "God is the artificer of all things." Archelaus Disputation with Manes ch.19 p.193

Hegemonius of Sirmium (4th century) "God made all Creation good." Archelaus Disputation with Manes ch.32 p.204

 

Gi29. God is the Lawgiver

 

Athanasius of Alexandria (after 347 A.D.) calls God "the author of the Law" Defence Against the Arians part 4 ch.61 p.132

Athanasius of Alexandria (356 A.D.) said that God gave the Law. To the Bishops of Egypt ch.1.3 p.224

 

Gi30. God has numbered the hairs on your head

 

Matthew 10:30

 

^^^

 

Gi31. The Holy One of Israel

 

^^^

 

Gi32. God of the living

 

Exodus 3:6; Matthew 22:29

 

From the Council of Nicea I to the Council of Ephesus (325-431 A.D.)

Constitutions of the Holy Apostles (c.380 A.D.) book 6 section 6 p.464 says that all are alive to God.

Rufinus (374-406 A.D.) freely translating Origen (225-253/254 A.D.) "He is not God of the dead but of the living." Origen’s de Principiis book 2 ch.4 p.276

 

Gi33. God resists the proud

 

James 4:6; 1 Peter 5:5

 

From the Council of Nicea I to the Council of Ephesus (325-431 A.D.)

Constitutions of the Holy Apostles (c.380 A.D.) book 7 section 1.5 p.466 says that "God resisteth the proud."

 

Gi34. God is generous

 

^^^

 

Timeless Truths of Jesus Christ

 

T1. Jesus is the Son of God

 

Matthew 3:17; Luke 9:35; John 3:16; 10:36; Hebrews 1:2; 4:16; 10:29; 1 John 4:15; 2 John 3

 

Vaticanus (B) Most of the Old Testament and all of New Testament up to Hebrews 9:15 (325-350 A.D.) Luke 9:35; John 3:16; 10:36

Sinaiticus (340-350 A.D.) Luke 9:35; John 3:16; 10:36

 

From the Council of Nicea I to the Council of Ephesus (325-431 A.D.)

Council of Nicea (325 A.D.) Creed p.3 "one Lord Jesus Christ, the Son of God, the only-begotten of his Father"

Eusebius’ Ecclesiastical History (323-339/340 A.D.) book 1 ch.2 p.82 discusses the divinity and humanity of Christ, the only-begotten of God, the Creator of all things. Nicene and Post-Nicene Fathers Second Series vol.1 p.82

Synod of Antioch in Encaeniis (341 A.D.) (implied by Nicea) Canon 1 p.108 says to excommunicate people who presume to set Nice[a] under Constantine.

Hegemonius of Sirmium (4th century) "No man hath seen God at any time, save the only begotten Son, which is in the bosom of the Father." Archelaus Disputation with Manes ch.32 p.205

Council of Sirmium (Greek creed) 351 A.D. only begotten Son, before all ages, God of God, word made flesh [incarnation], man, virgin, crucified, died, rose on the third day, received up into heaven, first and last, all things made through Christ. Socrates Ecclesiastical History book 2 ch.30 in Nicene and Post-Nicene Fathers 2nd Series vol.2 p.56-57.

Life of Antony (probably by Athanasius of Alexandria) (355 A.D.) ch.26 p.203 says Jesus is the Son of God.

Synod of Seleucia in Isauria (357/358 A.D.) , mentions the Son our Lord, begotten without passion before all ages, God the Word, only begotten Son, Jesus made all things, flesh through the Virgin Mary, suffered for our sins, rose again, ascended. In Socrates’ Ecclesiastical History book 2 ch.40 in The Nicene and post-Nicene Fathers Second series vol.2 p.60

Marius Victorinus to the Arian Candidus (359-362 A.D.) says that Jesus is the only Begotten Son of God. Marius’ Letter to Candidus ch.2 p.60

Marius Victorinus to the Arian Candidus (359-362 A.D.) says that Jesus was begotten before all things. Marius’ Letter to Candidus ch.3 (14) p.71

Hilary of Poitiers (355-367/368 A.D.) says that Jesus is the Only Begotten Son. Of the Synods ch.15 p.7. He also says that there is one Lord, Jesus Christ, who is "true God". On the Trinity book 1 ch.38 p.51

Synopsis Scripturae Sacrae (350-370 A.D. or 5th century) quotes Mark 1:1.

Athanasius of Alexandria (356-360 A.D.) says the centurion called Jesus the "Son of God" Four Discourses Against the Arians discourse 3 ch.29 p.424

Athanasius of Alexandria (335-342 A.D.) says that Jesus is the Only-begotten Son of God in On Luke 10:22 (Matthew 11:27) ch.5 p.89

Cyril of Jerusalem (c.349-386 A.D.) "Believe also in the Son of God, the one and only, our Lord Jesus Christ, who is God begotten of God, who is life begotten of life, who is light begotten of light, who is in all things like unto the begetter, and who did not come to exist in time but was before all the ages, eternally and incomprehensibly begotten of the Father. He is the Wisdom of God" First Catechetical Lectures lecture 4 ch.7 p.20. See also lecture 11 ch.14 p.17.

Ambrose of Milan (378-381 A.D.) calls Jesus the Son of God in numerous places, including On the Christian Faith book 1 ch.7.53 p.208

Gregory Nazianzen (330-391 A.D.) says God, the Word was in the Beginning. He says the Son is Only-Begotten. He is the way, truth, life, and light. On the Son - Third Theological Oration ch.17 p.307

Gregory of Nyssa (382-383 A.D.) often emphasizes Jesus as the "Only-Begotten". For example, he speaks of "the Only-begotten God, the Maker of all the creation, whether He always was, or whether He came into being afterwards as an addition to His Father?" Against Eunomius book 8 ch.5 p.208

Gregory of Nyssa (382-383 A.D.) calls Christ the Son of God. Against Eunomius book 1 ch.23 p.63

Epiphanius of Salamis (360-403 A.D.) "The Father, truly having begotten the Son, and the Son truly having been begotten of the Father, is personally subsisting without beginning and eternal; and the Holy Spirit, as truly of the Father and the Son, being of the same Godhead…" homily Against the Sabellians, as quoted by the Tubingen theologians in Augsburg and Constantinople, p.229

Rufinus (374-406 A.D.) freely translating Origen (225-253/254 A.D.) "His Only-begotten Son the Word" de Principiis book 8 ch.1 p.640

Rufinus (374-406 A.D.) freely translating Origen (225-253/254 A.D.) mentions the Only-begotten of God, through whom all things were made." in Origen’s de Principiis book 2 ch.6.3 p.282

John Chrysostom (before 407 A.D.) speaks of Jesus as the Only-Begotten in vol.14 Commentary on John homily 3 p.13.

Orosius/Hosius of Braga (414-418 A.D.) says the Word was God and all things were made through Him. He is the only Son of the Father He had no sin, was the lamb of God, crucified, died, the only-begotten, and the first born. Defense Against the Pelagians ch.25 p.151-152

Palladius (c.420 A.D.) says that Christ is the "Son of God" Four Desert Fathers &&& p.491.

Sozomen’s Ecclesiastical History book 2 ch.10 p.266 (370/380-425 A.D.) a Christian slave woman taught the barbarians that they should worship the Son of God.

Augustine of Hippo (388-430 A.D.) calls Jesus the Son of God, the word, and quotes John 1:12-14. On the Trinity book 13 ch.9 p.174

Council of Ephesus (431 A.D.) "and in one Lord Jesus Christ, the Only-begotten Son of God" Letter from Cyril of Nestorius p.202

 

From the Council of Ephesus to the start of Muslim conquests (431-634 A.D.)

Nestorius (451/452 A.D.) calls Jesus the Son of God. Bazaar of Heracleides ch.76 p.69

Nestorius (451/452 A.D.) Father, Son, and Holy Spirit. The Bazaar of Heracleides book 1 ch.1.34 p.25-26

Nestorius (451/452 A.D.) Father, Son, and Spirit are distinct. The Bazaar of Heracleides book 1 ch.1.71 p.64-65

Nestorius (451/452 A.D.) God is Father and God is Son and God is Holy Spirit. The Bazaar of Heracleides book 2 ch.1(b) p.309

Nestorius (451/452 A.D.) Jesus was born of God the Father. The Bazaar of Heracleides book 2 ch.1(b) p.295

Leo I of Rome (422-461 A.D.) in discussing the Trinity calls Jesus the only begotten Son of God. Sermon 68.1 p.180

Council of Constantinople II (May 553 A.D.) (implied, does not say Son of God.) says Christ is the Son. The Capitula of the Council ch.4 p.312.

 

Among corrupt or spurious works

Arabic Gospel of the Infancy of the Saviour p.405 begins with "In the name of the Father, and the Son, and the Holy Spirit, one God."

 

Among heretics

The Arian Candidus’ Letter to Marius Victorinus (359-362 A.D.) says that Jesus is the Son of God. Candidus’ First Letter ch.4 p.55

Eunomius (Extreme Arian) (c.360-c.377 A.D.) "We believe … one only-begotten Son of God, God the Word, our Lord Jesus Christ, through whom are all things…" Nicene and Post-Nicene Fathers Second Series vol.8 p.xxxiv

Pelagian heretic Theodore of Mopsuestia (392-423/429 A.D.) "The Son is the Son of God" Commentary on Zechariah ch.1 p.328

 

T2. Jesus is the Only Begotten Son of God

 

John 3:16,18

 

Vaticanus (B) Most of the Old Testament and all of New Testament up to Hebrews 9:15 (325-350 A.D.) John 3:16,18

Sinaiticus (340-350 A.D.) John 3:16,18

 

From the Council of Nicea I to the Council of Ephesus (325-431 A.D.)

Council of Nicea (325 A.D.) Creed p.3 "one Lord Jesus Christ, the Son of God, the only-begotten of his Father… very God of Very God"

Eusebius’ Ecclesiastical History (323-339/340 A.D.) book 1 ch.2 p.82 discusses the divinity and humanity of Christ, the only-begotten of God, the Creator of all things. Nicene and Post-Nicene Fathers Second Series vol.1 p.82

Synod of Antioch in Encaeniis (341 A.D.) (implied by Nicea) Canon 1 p.108 says to excommunicate people who presume to set Nice[a] under Constantine.

Hegemonius of Sirmium (4th century) "No man hath seen God at any time, save the only begotten Son, which is in the bosom of the Father." Archelaus Disputation with Manes ch.32 p.205

Council of Sirmium (Greek creed) 351 A.D. (implied, does not say "of God") only begotten Son, before all ages, God of God, word made flesh [incarnation], man, virgin, crucified, died, rose on the third day, received up into heaven, first and last, all things made through Christ. Socrates Ecclesiastical History book 2 ch.30 in Nicene and Post-Nicene Fathers 2nd Series vol.2 p.56-57.

Synod of Seleucia in Isauria (357/358 A.D.) mentions Christ as only begotten Son. In Socrates’ Ecclesiastical History book 2 ch.40 in The Nicene and post-Nicene Fathers Second series vol.2 p.60

Hilary of Poitiers (355-367/368 A.D.) says that Jesus is the Only Begotten Son. Of the Synods ch.15 p.7. He also says that there is one Lord, Jesus Christ, who is "true God". On the Trinity book 1 ch.38 p.51

Marius Victorinus to the Arian Candidus (359-362 A.D.) says that Jesus is the only Begotten Son of God. Marius’ Letter to Candidus ch.2 p.60

Athanasius of Alexandria (335-342 A.D.) says that Jesus is the Only-begotten Son of God in On Luke 10:22 (Matthew 11:27) ch.5 p.89

Athanasius of Alexandria (356-360 A.D.) (partial) "to His [Christ] being the Only-begotten Word." Four Discourses Against the Arians discourse 2 ch.19.47 374

Cyril of Jerusalem (c.349-386 A.D.) "Believe also in the Son of God, the one and only, our Lord Jesus Christ, who is God begotten of God, who is life begotten of life, who is light begotten of light, who is in all things like unto the begetter, and who did not come to exist in time but was before all the ages, eternally and incomprehensibly begotten of the Father. He is the Wisdom of God" First Catechetical Lectures lecture 4 ch.7 p.20. See also lecture 1 ch.1 p.6.

Cyril of Jerusalem (349-386 A.D.) discusses Christ as the Only Begotten. First Catechetical Lecture 4 ch.16 Nicene & Post-Nicene Fathers p.23

Ambrose of Milan (378-381 A.D.) discusses how Jesus is the only-begotten of God. On the Christian Faith book 1 ch.14.89 p.216. See also Letter 22 no.6 p.437

Gregory Nazianzen (330-391) says God, the Word was in the Beginning. He says the Son is Only-Begotten. He is the way, truth, life, and light. On the Son - Third Theological Oration ch.17 p.307

Gregory of Nyssa (382-383 A.D.) often emphasizes Jesus as the "Only-Begotten". For example, he speaks of "the Only-begotten God, the Maker of all the creation, whether He always was, or whether He came into being afterwards as an addition to His Father?" Against Eunomius book 8 ch.5 p.208. See also Against Eunomius book 1 ch.22 p.61

Epiphanius of Salamis (360-403 A.D.) (partial) "The Father, truly having begotten the Son, and the Son truly having been begotten of the Father, is personally subsisting without beginning and eternal; and the Holy Spirit, as truly of the Father and the Son, being of the same Godhead…" homily Against the Sabellians, as quoted by the Tubingen theologians in Augsburg and Constantinople, p.229

Epiphanius of Salamis (360-403 A.D.) (implied) Divine Word, the only-begotten Son, begotten of him without beginning and not in time. The Panarion section 44 p.243

John Chrysostom (before 407 A.D.) speaks of Jesus as the Only-Begotten in vol.14 Commentary on John homily 3 p.13.. See also Homilies on John homily 27 p.95

Rufinus (374-410 A.D.) translating Origen (225-253/254 A.D.) "His Only-begotten Son the Word" Origen’s de Principiis book 8 ch.1 p.640

Rufinus (374-406 A.D.) freely translating Origen (225-253/254 A.D.) mentions the Only-begotten of God, through whom all things were made." in Origen’s de Principiis book 2 ch.6.3 p.282

Rufinus (410 A.D.) freely translated Origen (240 A.D.) (partial) calls Jesus the only-begotten Son. Commentary on the Song of Songs ch.1 p.70

Orosius/Hosius of Braga (414-418 A.D.) (partial) says the Word was God and all things were made through Him. He is the only Son of the Father He had no sin, was the lamb of God, crucified, died, the only-begotten, and the first born. Defense Against the Pelagians ch.25 p.151

Augustine of Hippo (388-430 A.D.) says that Christ Jesus is the "only-begotten Son, God co-eternal with Himself, to become man". He says that Jesus is the Mediator of God and men. On the Trinity book 13 ch.10.13 p.174. See also On the Gospel of John Tractate 124 ch.21.5 vol.7 p.449.

Council of Ephesus (431 A.D.) "and in one Lord Jesus Christ, the Only-begotten Son of God" Letter from Cyril of Nestorius p.202

 

From the Council of Ephesus to the start of Muslim conquests (431-634 A.D.)

Nestorius (451/452 A.D.) Only begotten Son. The Bazaar of Heracleides book 1 part 1 ch.53 p.46-47. He also says that in The Bazaar of Heracleides book 1 part 1 ch.55.

Leo I of Rome (422-461 A.D.) in discussing the Trinity calls Jesus the only begotten Son of God. Sermon 68.1 p.180

Council of Constantinople II (May 553 A.D.) calls Jesus Christ the Only-begotten Word of God. The Capitula of the Council ch.8 p.313

Venantius (lived ca.530-609 A.D.) (partial) says that Jesus is the Sacred King. Poem on Easter p.330.

 

Among heretics

The Arian Candidus’ Letter to Marius Victorinus (359-362 A.D.) (partial) Jesus is the Son of God. Jesus is the first and original effect of God. Candidus’ First Letter ch.4 p.55

Creed of Eunomius (Extreme Arian) (c.360-c.377 A.D.) "We believe … one only-begotten Son of God, God the Word, our Lord Jesus Christ, through whom are all things…" Nicene and Post-Nicene Fathers Second Series vol.8 p.xxxiv

 

T3. The Deity of Jesus our Lord

 

Son is God. Hebrews 1:8-9; John 1:1,18; 20:28; Hos 1:7; Isa 7:14; 1 John 5:11,12,21; Colossians 2:9; Matthew 1:23

[Only one Lord Isaiah 26:13-14]

 

Vaticanus (B) Most of the Old Testament and all of New Testament up to Hebrews 9:15 (325-350 A.D.) John 1:1,18; 20:28

Sinaiticus (340-350 A.D.) John 1:1,18; 20:28

 

From the Council of Nicea I to the Council of Ephesus (325-431 A.D.)

Council of Nicea (325 A.D.) Creed p.3 "one Lord Jesus Christ, the Son of God, the only-begotten of his Father… very God of Very God"

Private Creed of Arius (328 A.D.) "We believe in one God, the Father Almighty; And in the Lord Jesus Christ, his Son, who was begotten of him before all ages, the Divine Logos, through whom all things were made"

Eusebius’ Ecclesiastical History (323-339/340 A.D.) book 1 ch.2 p.82 discusses the divinity and humanity of Christ, the only-begotten of God, the Creator of all things. Nicene and Post-Nicene Fathers Second Series vol.1 p.82.

Synod of Antioch in Encaeniis (341 A.D.) (implied by Nicea) Canon 1 p.108 says to excommunicate people who presume to set Nice[a] under Constantine.

Hegemonius of Sirmium (4th century) writes "…Christ. For in Him dwelleth all the fullness of the Godhead." He is quoting Colossians 2:6-9 in Archelaus Disputation with Manes ch.35 p.209

Council of Sirmium (Greek creed) 351 A.D. only begotten Son, before all ages, God of God, word made flesh [incarnation], man, virgin, crucified, died, rose on the third day, received up into heaven, first and last, all things made through Christ. Socrates Ecclesiastical History book 2 ch.30 in Nicene and Post-Nicene Fathers 2nd Series vol.2 p.56-57.

Life of Antony (probably by Athanasius of Alexandria) (355 A.D.) ch.78 p.216 "We, teaching the faith of Christ, expose your superstition, since all recognize that Christ is God and the Son of God."

Synod of Seleucia in Isauria (357/358 A.D.) , mentions the Son our Lord, begotten without passion before all ages, God the Word, only begotten Son, Jesus made all things, flesh through the Virgin Mary, suffered for our sins, rose again, ascended. In Socrates’ Ecclesiastical History book 2 ch.40 in The Nicene and post-Nicene Fathers Second series vol.2 p.60

Hilary of Poitiers (355-367/368 A.D.) says there is one Lord, Jesus Christ, who is "true God". On the Trinity book 1 ch.38 p.51

Athanasius of Alexandria (335-342 A.D.) says that Jesus is mighty God and ruler. On Luke 10:22 (Matthew 11:27) ch.5 p.89

Athanasius of Alexandria (326-372/373 A.D.) says Jesus is Mighty God and ruler. On Luke 10:22 (Matthew 11:27) ch.5 p.89

Marius Victorinus to the Arian Candidus (359-362 A.D.) says that Jesus was God, and He did not lie. Marius’ Letter to Candidus ch.2 p.61

Ephraim the Syrian (350-378 A.D.) says that Jesus is fully God and fully man. Nisibine Hymns hymn 36 no.16 p.197

Gregory of Nyssa (382-383 A.D.) discusses the Son’s Deity. Against Eunomius book 4 ch.1 p.153

Ambrose of Milan (378-381 A.D.) quotes and discusses John 1:1 On the Christian Faith book 1 ch.8.56 p.209

Gregory Nazianzen (330-391) discusses how Jesus is God. On the Son ch.14-17 p.306-307

Cyril of Jerusalem (c.349-386 A.D.) said that Jesus is God and man. Catechetical Lecture 13 ch.3 p.82

Epiphanius of Salamis (360-403 A.D.) "First, that we might be led to one union with the Deity, Father, Son, and Holy Ghost, in contradistinction to a multitude of gods. And second, that we might also be led to the transfiguration, to the glory of the incarnation, and to the union with the Deity. For in the transfiguration His face, even in the flesh, since His deity was still present, shone like the sun, that is, the flesh which came from Mary and from our human race was transfigured to heavenly glory, so that it acquired, in addition to its own natural powers, the glory, honor, and perfection of the Godhead, the flesh receiving the heavenly glory here in communion with the divine Logos, which it did not have from the beginning. We must also understand in this sense the passage, He has given all judgment to the Son [John 5:22], and also the passage, He gave Him power, so that He gives life to whom He wishes [John 5:21], that in the first place ... the one deity of the Trinity is indicated ... and in the second place, that by the incarnation of the deity He assumed the gift of dignity, power, and perfection which have been given by the Father to the Son for the one spiritual union of the deity." Panarion 2.2 as quoted in The Two Natures in Christ, p.357

Epiphanius of Salamis (360-403 A.D.) "The Father, truly having begotten the Son, and the Son truly having been begotten of the Father, is personally subsisting without beginning and eternal; and the Holy Spirit, as truly of the Father and the Son, being of the same Godhead…" homily Against the Sabellians, as quoted by the Tubingen theologians in Augsburg and Constantinople, p.229

John Chrysostom (before 407 A.D.) says the Jesus’ miracles declared Him God in vol.10 Commentary on Matthew homily 28 p.191. He also says that Jesus remained God in Commentary on Philippians homily 7 p.214.

Orosius/Hosius of Braga (414-418 A.D.) says the Word was God and all things were made through Him. He is the only Son of the Father He had no sin, was the lamb of God, crucified, died, the only-begotten, and the first born. Defense Against the Pelagians ch.25 p.151

Orosius/Hosius of Braga (414-418 A.D.) refers to the fullness of divinity in Christ Jesus. Defense Against the Pelagians ch.17 p.138

Augustine of Hippo (388-430 A.D.) says that Christ Jesus is the "only-begotten Son, God co-eternal with Himself, to become man". He says that Jesus is the Mediator of God and men. On the Trinity book 13 ch.10.13 p.174

Augustine of Hippo (380-430 A.D.) teaches on Thomas seeing Jesus after Jesus’ resurrection and saying to Jesus, "My Lord and My God." On the Gospel of John Tractate 121 ch.20.5 vol.7 p.438.

Council of Ephesus (431 A.D.) calls Jesus "Light of Light, Very God of very God" Cyril of Nestorius p.202

 

From the Council of Ephesus to the start of Muslim conquests (431-634 A.D.)

Nestorius (451/452 A.D.) speaks of God the Word. The Bazaar of Heracleides book 1 part 1 ch.23

Nestorius (451/452 A.D.) Christ was man while remaining God. The Bazaar of Heracleides book 1 ch.1.29 p.23

Leo I of Rome (422-461 A.D.) says that in Jesus divine power joined itself to human frailty. Sermon 68.1 p.180

Council of Constantinople II (May 553 A.D.) starts out as "Our Great God and Saviour Jesus Christ" Sentence of the Synod p.306

Pope Vigilius’ Letter to the Council of Constantinople II p.322 (553 A.D.) calls Christ God the Word. On p.321 he refers to "Christ our God"

 

Among heretics

Creed of Eunomius (Extreme Arian) (c.360-c.377 A.D.) "We believe … one only-begotten Son of God, God the Word, our Lord Jesus Christ, through whom are all things…" Nicene and Post-Nicene Fathers Second Series vol.8 p.xxxiv

Pelagian heretic Theodore of Mopsuestia (392-423/429 A.D.) "divinity of Christ the Lord." Commentary on Zechariah ch.1 p.329

 

T4. Jesus is the Word of God

 

John 1:1-2; Revelation 19:13

 

Vaticanus (B) Most of the Old Testament and all of New Testament up to Hebrews 9:15 (325-350 A.D.) John 1:1-2

Sinaiticus (340-350 A.D.) John 1:1-2

 

From the Council of Nicea I to the Council of Ephesus (325-431 A.D.)

Private Creed of Arius (328 A.D.) "We believe in one God, the Father Almighty; And in the Lord Jesus Christ, his Son, who was begotten of him before all ages, the Divine Logos,"

Eusebius’ Ecclesiastical History (323-339/340 A.D.) book 1 ch.2 p.82 "The living Word which was in the beginning with the Father and which was God, the first and only begotten of God, which was before every creature and creation visible and invisible,…" Nicene and Post-Nicene Fathers Second Series vol.1 p.82 Also ch.2 2.26 p.85

Council of Sirmium (Greek creed) 351 A.D. only begotten Son, before all ages, God of God, word made flesh [incarnation], man, virgin, crucified, died, rose on the third day, received up into heaven, first and last, all things made through Christ. Socrates Ecclesiastical History book 2 ch.30 in Nicene and Post-Nicene Fathers 2nd Series vol.2 p.56-57.

Synod of Seleucia in Isauria (357/358 A.D.) , mentions the Son our Lord, begotten without passion before all ages, God the Word, only begotten Son, Jesus made all things, flesh through the Virgin Mary, suffered for our sins, rose again, ascended. In Socrates’ Ecclesiastical History book 2 ch.40 in The Nicene and post-Nicene Fathers Second series vol.2 p.60

Athanasius of Alexandria (346-356 A.D.) (implied) says Jesus is God’s Word. Defence of the Nicene Definition ch.11 p.157

Athanasius of Alexandria (335-342 A.D.) (partial) says that Jesus was the Word. On Luke 10:22 (Matthew 11:27) ch.2 p.87

Athanasius of Alexandria (356-360 A.D.) "to His [Christ] being the Only-begotten Word." Four Discourses Against the Arians discourse 2 ch.19.47 374

Marius Victorinus to the Arian Candidus (359-362 A.D.) speaks of the Word of God. Marius’ Letter to Candidus ch.4 (27) p.79

` (349-386 A.D.) speaks of Jesus as the Word. First Catechetical Lecture 4 ch.8 Nicene & Post-Nicene Fathers p.21

Ambrose of Milan (378-381 A.D.) quotes John 1:1. On the Christian Faith book 1 ch.8.56 p.209

Gregory Nazianzen (330-391) says God, the Word was in the Beginning. He says the Son is Only-Begotten. He is the way, truth, life, and light. On the Son - Third Theological Oration ch.17 p.307

Cyril of Jerusalem (c.349-386 A.D.) "There is One Only Holy Ghost, the Comforter; and as there is One God the Father, and no second Father;—and as there is One Only-begotten Son and Word of God, who hath no brother;—so is there One Only Holy Ghost, and no second spirit equal in-honour to Him." Catechetical Lecture 16 ch.3 p.115

Epiphanius of Salamis (360-403 A.D.) mentions Peter saying that Jesus was crucified (Acts 2:36) and that Jesus was the uncreated Word. (Panarion 69, as quoted in Concordia Triglotta, p.1125)

John Chrysostom (before 407 A.D.) discusses John 1:1 and Jesus being the Word of God. vol.14 Commentary on John homily 2 p.7. See also Commentary on Philippians homily 7 p.214

Orosius/Hosius of Braga (414-418 A.D.) (partial) says the Word was God and all things were made through Him. He is the only Son of the Father He had no sin, was the lamb of God, crucified, died, the only-begotten, and the first born. Defense Against the Pelagians ch.25 p.151

Augustine of Hippo (388-430 A.D.) calls Jesus the Son of God, the word, and quotes John 1:12-14. On the Trinity book 13 ch.9 p.174

 

From the Council of Ephesus to the start of Muslim conquests (431-634 A.D.)

Nestorius (451/452 A.D.) Jesus is "God the Word" The Bazaar of Heracleides book 1 part 1 ch.39 p.37 and book 1 part 1 ch.23.

Nestorius (451/452 A.D.) God’s Word is the conqueror for all time. The Bazaar of Heracleides book 1 part 1 ch.93 p.84

Leo I of Rome (422-461 A.D.) (implied) quotes that "The Word became flesh". Sermon 34.3 p.148

Council of Constantinople II (May 553 A.D.) says that the Word of God had two nativities: one from all eternity of the Father, without time and body, and the other in the flesh from Mary, Mother of God. The Capitula of the Council canon 2 p.312

Pope Vigilius’ Letter to the Council of Constantinople II p.322 (553 A.D.) refers to Christ as God the Word

 

Among heretics

Creed of Eunomius (Extreme Arian) (c.360-c.377 A.D.) "We believe … one only-begotten Son of God, God the Word, our Lord Jesus Christ, through whom are all things…" Nicene and Post-Nicene Fathers Second Series vol.8 p.xxxiv

 

T5. The Son existed from ages past

 

John 1:1; 17:5; Hebrews 7:3

 

Vaticanus (B) Most of the Old Testament and all of New Testament up to Hebrews 9:15 (325-350 A.D.) John 1:1; 17:5

Sinaiticus (340-350 A.D.) John 1:1; 17:5

 

From the Council of Nicea I to the Council of Ephesus (325-431 A.D.)

Council of Nicea (325 A.D.) Creed p.3 "one Lord Jesus Christ, the Son of God, the only-begotten of his Father… very God of Very God… By whom all things were made…"

Private Creed of Arius (328 A.D.) "We believe in one God, the Father Almighty; And in the Lord Jesus Christ, his Son, who was begotten of him before all ages,"

Eusebius’ Ecclesiastical History (323-339/340 A.D.) book 1 ch.2 p.82 "The living Word which was in the beginning with the Father and which was God, the first and only begotten of God, which was before every creature and creation visible and invisible,…" Nicene and Post-Nicene Fathers Second Series vol.1 p.82. Also book 2 ch.2.28 p.85

Synod of Antioch in Encaeniis (341 A.D.) (implied by Nicea) Canon 1 p.108 says to excommunicate people who presume to set Nice[a] under Constantine.

Macrostich Creed (344/345 A.D.) says that Christ is the Son of God, the Mediator, and the Image of God from eternity past Socrates Ecclesiastical History book 2 ch.19 in Nicene and Post-Nicene Fathers 2nd Series vol.2 p.45

Council of Sirmium (Greek creed) 351 A.D. only begotten Son, before all ages, God of God, word made flesh [incarnation], man, virgin, crucified, died, rose on the third day, received up into heaven, first and last, all things made through Christ. Socrates Ecclesiastical History book 2 ch.30 in Nicene and Post-Nicene Fathers 2nd Series vol.2 p.56-57.

Life of Antony (probably by Athanasius of Alexandria) (355 A.D.) ch.69 p.214 "the Son of God was not a created being, neither had He come into being from non-existence, but that He was the Eternal Word and Wisdom of the Essence with the Father."

Athanasius of Alexandria (356-360 A.D.) The Son did not have a beginning of being. Four Discourses Against the Arians discourse 2 ch.57 p.379

Athanasius of Alexandria (346-356 A.D.) says that Jesus was unoriginate. Defence of the Nicene Definition ch.8 p.155

Athanasius of Alexandria (326-372/373 A.D.) "as Paul in another place calls him ‘first-born of all creation’ (Colossians 1:15). But by calling him First-born, He shews that He is not a Creature, but Offspring of the Father. For it would be inconsistent with his deity for Him to be called a creature. For all things were created by the Father through the Son, but the Son alone was eternally begotten from the Father, whence God the Word is ‘first-born of all creation,’ unchangeable from unchangeable. However, the body which He wore for our sakes is a creature." Statement of Faith ch.3 p.85. See also Four Discourses Against the Arians (356-360 A.D.) discourse 1 ch.39 p.329

Athanasius of Alexandria (326-372/373 A.D.) (implied) says that there was never a time when God was not a Father. On the Opinion of Dionysius ch.15 p.182

Cyril of Jerusalem (349-386 A.D.) says that God the Word was before all ages. First Catechetical Lecture 4 ch.7 Nicene & Post-Nicene Fathers p.20

Ambrose of Milan (378-381 A.D.) has a long discussion on "the Son’s eternity" in On the Christian Faith book 1 ch.8.54-56 p.209

Gregory Nazianzen (330-391) says "There never was a time when He [the Father] was not. And the same thing is true of the Son and the Holy Ghost." On the Son - Third Theological Oration ch.13 p.301

Epiphanius of Salamis (360-403 A.D.) "The Father, truly having begotten the Son, and the Son truly having been begotten of the Father, is personally subsisting without beginning and eternal; and the Holy Spirit, as truly of the Father and the Son, being of the same Godhead…" homily Against the Sabellians, as quoted by the Tubingen theologians in Augsburg and Constantinople, p.229

Rufinus (374-406 A.D.) &&&

Jerome (373-420 A.D.) &&&

Augustine of Hippo (388-430 A.D.) says that Christ Jesus is the "only-begotten Son, God co-eternal with Himself, to become man". He says that Jesus is the Mediator of God and men. On the Trinity book 13 ch.10.13 p.174

Council of Ephesus (431 A.D.) "But those that say, ‘There was a time when he was not, and before he was begotten he was not,… those the Catholic and Apostolic Church anathematizes." Letter from Cyril to Nestorius p.202

 

From the Council of Ephesus to the start of Muslim conquests (431-634 A.D.)

Nestorius (451/452 A.D.) Christ "existed of old and exists eternally." The Bazaar of Heracleides book 2 ch.1(b) p.192

Nestorius (451/452 A.D.) Jesus was prior to Abraham, Isaac, and Jacob. The Bazaar of Heracleides book 1 ch.1.12 p.11; book 1 ch.1.25 p.19

Patrick of Ireland (420-461 A.D.) "[T]here is no other God, nor has there been heretofore, nor will there be hereafter, except God the Father unbegotten, without beginning, from whom is all beginning, upholding all things, as we say, and his Son Jesus Christ, whom we likewise to confess to have always been with the Father--before the world’s beginning . . . Jesus Christ is the Lord and God in whom we believe . . . and who has poured out on us abundantly the Holy Spirit . . . whom we confess and adore as one God in the Trinity of the Sacred Name" Confession of St. Patrick 4

Council of Constantinople II (May 553 A.D.) "If anyone does not confess that there are two nativities [generations] of the Word of God, one from the Father before all ages, without time and incorporeally, the other in the last days when the same came down from heaven and was incarnate . . . let such a one be anathema" The Capitula of the Council canon 2 p.312

 

Among corrupt or spurious books

Constitutions of the Holy Apostles (3rd-5th century, compiled c.390 A.D.) book 5 section 1 p.441 "the divine Scripture testifies that God said to Christ, His only-begotten, ‘Let us make man after our image, and after our likeness. And God made man: after the image of God made He him; male and female made He them.’"

 

Among heretics

Eunomius and extreme Arians (c.360-c.377 A.D.) (implied) believed Jesus was from ages past, but there was a time when Jesus did not exist. Nicene and Post-Nicene Fathers Second Series vol.8 p.xxxiv

 

T6. All things were created through Christ / the Son of God

 

John 1:3,10; Colossians 1:16; Hebrews 1:2

 

Vaticanus (B) Most of the Old Testament and all of New Testament up to Hebrews 9:15 (325-350 A.D.) John 1:3,10

Sinaiticus (340-350 A.D.) John 1:3,10

 

From the Council of Nicea I to the Council of Ephesus (325-431 A.D.)

Council of Nicea (325 A.D.) Creed p.3 "one Lord Jesus Christ, the Son of God, the only-begotten of his Father… very God of Very God… By whom all things were made…"

Private Creed of Arius (328 A.D.) "We believe in one God, the Father Almighty; And in the Lord Jesus Christ, his Son, who was begotten of him before all ages, the Divine Logos, through whom all things were made, both those in the heavens and those on the earth;"

Eusebius’ Ecclesiastical History (323-339/340 A.D.) book 1 ch.2.3 p.82 quotes John 1:3 as cripture, saying that all things were created through Christ. He says that the first cause of all was the pre-existent Word.

Synod of Antioch in Encaeniis (341 A.D.) (implied by Nicea) Canon 1 p.108 says to excommunicate people who presume to set Nice[a] under Constantine.

Council of Sirmium (Greek creed) 351 A.D. says that all things were made through Christ. Socrates Ecclesiastical History book 2 ch.30 in Nicene and Post-Nicene Fathers 2nd Series vol.2 p.56-57.

Synod of Seleucia in Isauria (357/358 A.D.) mentions the Son our Lord, begotten without passion before all ages, God the Word, only begotten Son, Jesus made all things. In Socrates’ Ecclesiastical History book 2 ch.40 in The Nicene and post-Nicene Fathers Second series vol.2 p.60

Hilary of Poitiers (355-367/368 A.D.) says that all things were created through the Son. On the Trinity book 5 ch.9 p.87

Athanasius of Alexandria (335-342 A.D.) says that all things were made through Christ. On Luke 10:22 (Matthew 11:27) ch.2 p.88

Athanasius of Alexandria (326-372/373 A.D.) "as Paul in another place calls him ‘first-born of all creation’ (Colossians 1:15). But by calling him First-born, He shews that He is not a Creature, but Offspring of the Father. For it would be inconsistent with his deity for Him to be called a creature. For all things were created by the Father through the Son, but the Son alone was eternally begotten from the Father, whence God the Word is ‘first-born of all creation,’ unchangeable from unchangeable. However, the body which He wore for our sakes is a creature." Statement of Faith ch.3 p.85

Cyril of Jerusalem (349-386 A.D.) says that Jesus created all things for the Father. First Catechetical Lecture 4 ch.7 Nicene & Post-Nicene Fathers p.21

Gregory of Nyssa (382-383 A.D.) speaks of "the Only-begotten God, the Maker of all the creation, whether He always was, or whether He came into being afterwards as an addition to His Father?" Against Eunomius book 8 ch.5 p.208

Ambrose of Milan (378-381 A.D.) says the Father made all things through Christ. On the Christian Faith book 1 ch.7.48 p.208

Rufinus (374-406 A.D.) freely translating Origen (225-253/254 A.D.) mentions the Only-begotten of God, through whom all things were made." in Origen’s de Principiis book 2 ch.6.3 p.282

Orosius/Hosius of Braga (414-418 A.D.) says the Word was God and all things were made through Him. He is the only Son of the Father He had no sin, was the lamb of God, crucified, died, the only-begotten, and the first born. Defense Against the Pelagians ch.25 p.151

Augustine of Hippo (388-430 A.D.) quotes John 1:1,14 and 2:3 and says all things were made through Christ. On the Trinity book 1 ch.6.9 p.21

 

From the Council of Ephesus to the start of Muslim conquests (431-634 A.D.)

Nestorius (451/452 A.D.) Everything came into being by the Father through the Son. The Bazaar of Heracleides book 1 part 1 ch.53

Leo I of Rome (422-461 A.D.) says all things were made through Christ in Letter 31.2 p.45

Venantius (lived ca.530-609 A.D.) (partial) "O Christ, Thou Saviour of the world, merciful Creator and Redeemer," Poem on Easter p.329

 

Among heretics

Creed of Eunomius (Extreme Arian) (c.360-c.377 A.D.) "We believe … one only-begotten Son of God, God the Word, our Lord Jesus Christ, through whom are all things…" Nicene and Post-Nicene Fathers Second Series vol.8 p.xxxiv

 

T7. Jesus obedient or subject to the Father

 

Philippians 2:8

(implied) 1 Corinthians 11:3; 1 Corinthians 15:28

 

From the Council of Nicea I to the Council of Ephesus (325-431 A.D.)

Athanasius of Alexandria (356-360 A.D.) (implied) says Jesus was obedient. Four Discourses Against the Arians discourse 3 ch.29 p.409

Hilary of Poitiers (355-367/368 A.D.)

X Ambrose of Milan (370-390 A.D.)

Rufinus (374-406 A.D.) freely translating Origen (225-253/254 A.D.) says that Jesus is obedient not only on the cross, but also at the end of the word, referring to 1 Corinthians 15:28. "He became obedient to the Father, not only to the death of the cross, but also, in the end of the world, embracing in Himself all whom He subjects to the Father, and who by Him come to salvation, He Himself, along with them, and in them, is said also to be subject to the Father; all things subsisting in Him, and He Himself being the Head of all things, and in Him being the salvation and the fullness of those who obtain salvation. And this consequently is what the apostle says of Him: "And when all things shall be subjected to Him, then shall the Son also Himself be subject to Him that put all things under Him, that God may be all in all." de Principiis book 3 ch.5.6 p.343

John Chrysostom (martyred 407 A.D.) says that Jesus emptied Himself, was obedient to the Father, and subject to the Father. Commentary on Philippians homily 7 p.213

 

Nestorius (451/452 A.D.) says that Christ obeyed the Father. Bazaar of Heracleides ch.75 p.68

 

T8. Worship, praise, or glorify Jesus

 

Matthew 21:15-16; Hebrews 13:21; 2 Peter 3:18

 

Mathew 2:2,11 (The Magi worshipped Jesus)

(partial) Matthew 8:2 (A leper knelt before Jesus)

(partial) Matthew 9:18 (A ruler knelt before Jesus)

Matthew 14:33 (the disciples worshipped Jesus)

(partial) Matthew 15:25 (A woman knelt before Jesus)

John 9:38 (formerly blind man worshipped Jesus)

Matthew 28:9 (women at the tomb clasped Jesus’ feet and worshiped Him)

Matthew 28:17 (the eleven disciples worshipped Jesus)

Hebrews 1:6 (Angels worship Jesus)

Revelation 5:12 (in heaven they give praise, glory, and honor to Jesus)

 

Vaticanus (B) Most of the Old Testament and all of New Testament up to Hebrews 9:15 (325-350 A.D.) Matthew 2:11-12; 21:15-16; John 9:38

Sinaiticus (340-350 A.D.) Matthew 2:11-12; 21:15-16; John 9:38

 

From the Council of Nicea I to the Council of Ephesus (325-431 A.D.)

Eusebius’ Ecclesiastical History (323-339/340 A.D.) book 1 ch.2 p.83 says that we worship the Son of God.

Eusebius’ Ecclesiastical History (323-339/340 A.D.) book 1 ch.8.1 p.94 mentions the Magi from the east who came to worship Christ.

Life of Antony (probably by Athanasius of Alexandria) (355 A.D.) ch.94 p.221 says to glorify Jesus.

Athanasius of Alexandria (after 347 A.D.) says we "worship" Christ. Defense Against the Arians ch.5 p.102.

Athanasius of Alexandria (326-372/373 A.D.) says that we worship "the Lord of Creation, Incarnate, the Word of God." And that the leper "worshipped God in the Body". Letter 60 ch.3 p.575

Athanasius of Alexandria (356-360 A.D.) says that even the angels worship Jesus and quotes Hebrews 1:6. Four Discourses Against the Arians discourse 2 ch.16.23 p.361. See also discourse 1 ch.42 p.330

Athanasius of Alexandria (346-356 A.D.) says that we "adore" Jesus. Defence of the Nicene Definition ch.11 p.157

Athanasius of Alexandria (356-360 A.D.) says to worship the Father and the Son. Four Discourses Against the Arians discourse 3 ch.6 p.397

Ephraim the Syrian (350-378 A.D.) discusses worshipping Jesus Nisibine Hymns hymn 38 no.5 p.199. See also Nativity Hymns hymn 2 p.228

Ambrose of Milan (381 A.D.) "without doubt the Holy Spirit also is to be adored, since He Who according to the flesh was born of the Holy Spirit is adored. (80) And let no one divert this to the Virgin Mary; Mary was the temple of God, not the God of the temple. And therefore He alone is to be worshipped Who was working in His temple." Of the Holy Spirit book 3 ch.11 no.79f-80. See also On the Christian Faith book 5 ch.4 p.291 where he discusses that Mary worshipped Jesus and we should worship Him as God too. See also On the Christian Faith book 1 ch.9.61 p.211

Cyril of Jerusalem (349-386 A.D.) says that Christ crucified is worshipped. First Catechetical Lecture 4 ch.13 Nicene & Post-Nicene Fathers p.22

Gregory of Nyssa (382-383 A.D.) says we are to worship Jesus. Against Eunomius book 3 ch.6 p.147. All should worship Jesus in Against Eunomius book 4 ch.9 p.171 and book 5 ch.1 p.172

Gregory of Nyssa says that angels worship Jesus in Hebrews. Against Eunomius book 4 ch.3 p.157.

Gregory of Nyssa (382-383 A.D.) quotes Hebrews 1:6 "Let all God’s angels worship him." referring to Jesus. Against Eunomius book 2 ch.8 p.112

Gregory Nazianzen (330-391) says that we are to honor and worship the Son, but not in a secondary sense. On the Son - Third Theological Oration ch.14 p.306

Gregory Nazianzen (330-391) says the Magi worshipped Jesus. On the Son - Third Theological Oration ch.19 p.308

Gregory of Nazianzen (330-391 A.D.) mentions angels glorifying Jesus. Oration on Pentecost ch.5 p.381

Gregory Nazianzen (380/381 A.D.) "of Christ. Who does not worship Him that is from the beginning? Who doth not glory in Him that is the Last?" Oration 38 On the Theophany ch.1 p.345

John Chrysostom (before 407 A.D.) the father, Son, and Holy spirit to have glory, power, and honor. Commentary on Philippians homily 1 verse 7 p.188

Sozomen’s Ecclesiastical History book 2 ch.10 p.266 (370/380-425 A.D.) a Christian slave woman taught the barbarians that they should worship the Son of God.

Augustine of Hippo (388-430 A.D.) says that they should not suppose that three gods are worshipped by Christians because there is only One God. On Faith and the Creed ch.9.16 p.327

 

From the Council of Ephesus to the start of Muslim conquests (431-634 A.D.)

Nestorius (451/452 A.D.) Christ is adored. The Bazaar of Heracleides book 1 ch.1.29 p.23

Leo I of Rome (422-461 A.D.) says that the wise men came "and falling down they worshipped Him". Sermon 34.3 p.148

Council of Constantinople II (May 553 A.D.) says that unlike Nestorians we do not worship two Christs. – We and the angels adore one Lord Jesus Christ. The Sentence of the Synod p.309

 

Among heretics

Ebionite Gospel of pseudo-Matthew (600-625 A.D.) ch.15 p.375 mentions Anna and Symeon adored Christ at Jesus’ dedication.

 

T9. Inseparable/Father in Son or Son in Father

 

John 10:38; 14:10

 

Vaticanus (B) Most of the Old Testament and all of New Testament up to Hebrews 9:15 (325-350 A.D.) John 10:38; 14:10

Sinaiticus (340-350 A.D.) John 10:38; 14:10

 

From the Council of Nicea I to the Council of Ephesus (325-431 A.D.)

Hilary of Poitiers (355-367/368 A.D.) says the Father in the Son and the Son in the Father. On the Trinity book 8 ch.10 p.140; book 8 ch.15 p.141; book 8 ch.41 p.149

Hilary of Poitiers (355-367/368 A.D.) (partial) says that Jesus and the Father are one. On the Trinity book 8 ch.36 p.145

Athanasius of Alexandria (335-342 A.D.) says Jesus is in the Father and the Father in Jesus. On Luke 10:22 (Matthew 11:27) ch.5 p.89. See also To the Bishops of Egypt ch.2.13 p.230

Athanasius of Alexandria (335-342 A.D.) discusses "the inseparable union" between the Father and the Son. On Luke 10:22 (Matthew 11:27) ch.4 p.89. He says Jesus and the Father are as indivisible as the brightness from the light. On the Opinion of Dionysius ch.8 p.179. See also Four Discourses Against the Arians (356-360 A.D.) discourse 2 ch.15.12 p.355. See also Four Discourses Against the Arians (356-360 A.D.) discourse 2 ch.15.22 p.360, discourse 2 ch.18.33 p.366 and discourse 4 ch.15 p.438.

Marius Victorinus to the Arian Candidus (359-362 A.D.) says that Jesus said, "I and the Father are one" [John 10:30] Marius’ Letter to Candidus ch.2 p.60

Marius Victorinus to the Arian Candidus (359-362 A.D.) says that Jesus said, "I am in the Father and the Father is in me. Marius’ Letter to Candidus ch.2 p.61

Gregory of Nyssa (382-383 A.D.) The Father is in the Son and the Son is in the Father. Against Eunomius book 8 ch.1 p.208

Rufinus (374-406 A.D.) freely translating Origen (225-253/254 A.D.) "The Father is in Me, and I in the Father." de Principiis book 1 ch.2.8 vol.4 p.249

Rufinus (410 A.D.) freely translated Origen (c.240 A.D.) speaks of the Father in Jesus and Jesus in the Father. Commentary on the Song of Songs book 1 ch.4 p.77

John Chrysostom (before 407 A.D.) discusses John 10 and how Jesus is in the Father and the Father is in Jesus. vol.14 Commentary on John homily 61 p.224.

Augustine of Hippo (388-430 A.D.) mentions the Trinity, only one God, distinction between the three but the same substance in indivisible equality. Christ was born of the Virgin Mary, crucified under Pontius Pilate, and buried, rose again the third day, and ascended into heaven. On the Trinity book 1 ch.4.7 p.20

 

From the Council of Ephesus to the start of Muslim conquests (431-634 A.D.)

Nestorius (451/452 A.D.) Jesus said that "I and the Father are One (John 10:30). The Bazaar of Heracleides book 1 part 1 ch.74 p.68 and book 1 part 1 ch.55.

Nestorius (451/452 A.D.) The Son in the Father and the Father in the Son like the fire in the bush. The Bazaar of Heracleides book 3 ch.1 p.160

Nestorius (451/452 A.D.) "God the Word is unchangeable and immortal and He is continuously that where He is in the eternity of the Father. … there was not when he was not." The Bazaar of Heracleides book 2 ch.1 p.82

Leo I of Rome (422-461 A.D.) says that the Father and Son are not separated. Sermon 68.1 p.180

 

Among heretics

The Arian Candidus’ Letter to Marius Victorinus (359-362 A.D.) Jesus is in the Father and the Father is in Jesus. Candidus’ First Letter ch.4 p.55-56

 

T10. Christ at right hand of God/the Father

 

Matthew 22:44; 26:64; Mark 13:26; 14:62; 16:19; Luke 20:42; 22:69; Acts 2:34; 7:56; Romans 8:34; Ephesians 1:20; Hebrews 1:3; 10:12; 1 Peter 3:22

 

From the Council of Nicea I to the Council of Ephesus (325-431 A.D.)

Synod of Antioch in Encaeniis (341 A.D.) see note 1 p.163-164.

Aphrahat the Syrian (337-345 A.D.) "Moses ascended the mountain and died there; and Jesus ascended into heaven and took his seat at the right hand of His Father." Select Demonstrations ch.21.10

Athanasius of Alexandria (326-372/373 A.D.) mentions that the blessed Stephen saw the Lord standing on [God’s] right hand. Letters of Athanasius of Alexandria Letter 60 ch.5 p.576

Second Council of Constantinople (381 A.D.) says that Jesus now sits at the right hand of the Father. Holy Creed p.163

 

From the Council of Ephesus to the start of Muslim conquests (431-634 A.D.)

Nestorius (451/452 A.D.) (implied) Sophronius [Zephaniah] says, "speaking of him who has ben taken up and sits on the right hand of the Father, who is the Son in the image and glory of the Son," The Bazaar of Heracleides book 1 ch.1.55

 

T11. No one knows the Father except the Son and those revealed

 

Matthew 11:27b; Luke 10:22b

 

From the Council of Nicea I to the Council of Ephesus (325-431 A.D.)

Eusebius’ Ecclesiastical History (323-339/340 A.D.) book 1 ch.2.3 p.82 says that no one knows the Father except the Son and those He has revealed Him to.

Hegemonius of Sirmium (4th century) "we are to look for our Lord Jesus Christ as the perfect one, who is the only one that knows the Father, with the sole exception of him to whom He has chosen also to reveal Him, as I am able to demonstrate from His own words." Archelaus Disputation with Manes ch.37 p.211

Athanasius of Alexandria (335-342 A.D.) quotes Matthew 11:27b in On Luke 10:22 (Matthew 11:27) ch.1 p.87. See also Four Discourses Against the Arians (356-360 A.D.) discourse 2 ch.16.22 p.360 and discourse 4 ch.23 p.442. See also To the Bishops of Egypt ch.16 p.231

Athanasius of Alexandria (346-356 A.D.) quotes Matthew 11:27b. Defence of the Nicene Definition ch.12 p.158

Rufinus (374-406 A.D.) freely translating Origen (225-253/254 A.D.) "We must understand, therefore, that as the Son, who alone knows the Father, reveals Him to whom He will, so the Holy Spirit, who alone searches the deep things of God, reveals God to whom He will: "For the Spirit bloweth where He listeth." de Principiis book 1 ch.3.3 p.252

 

T12. Father and Son are distinct

 

From the Council of Nicea I to the Council of Ephesus (325-431 A.D.)

Hegemonius of Sirmium (4th century) (implied) quotes Philippians 2:9 Archelaus Disputation with Manes ch.48 p.224

Athanasius of Alexandria (356-360 A.D.) discusses how the Father and Son are distinct. If not, then God would be His own Father and Son. Four Discourses Against the Arians discourse 4 ch.6 p.434-435

Gregory of Nyssa (382-383 A.D.) tells how the Only-Begotten is distinct from the Father. Against Eunomius book 1 ch.22 p.61

Augustine of Hippo (388-430 A.D.) mentions the Trinity, only one God, distinction between the three but the same substance in indivisible equality. Christ was born of the Virgin Mary, crucified under Pontius Pilate, and buried, rose again the third day, and ascended into heaven. On the Trinity book 1 ch.4.7 p.20

 

Nestorius (451/452 A.D.) Father, Son, and Spirit are distinct. The Bazaar of Heracleides book 1 ch.1.71 p.64-65

 

T13. The Word was distinct from the Father at Creation

 

John 1:1; Hebrews 11:3

 

Athanasius of Alexandria (356-360 A.D.) says the son was distinct in speaking against the Arians. Four Discourses Against the Arians Discourse 1 ch.5 p.308

 

T14. Son in the bosom of the Father

 

John 1:23

 

From the Council of Nicea I to the Council of Ephesus (325-431 A.D.)

Hegemonius of Sirmium (4th century) "Furthermore, there is but one only inconvertible substance, the divine substance, eternal and invisible, as is known to all, and as is also borne out by this scripture: ‘No man hath seen God at any time, save the only begotten Son, which is in the bosom of the Father.’" (Archelaus is speaking) Archelaus Disputation with Manes ch.32 p.205

Athanasius of Alexandria (346-356 A.D.) says Jesus was in the bosom of the Father. Defence of the Nicene Definition ch.11 p.157

 

T15. An Equality of the Father and Son

 

Athanasius of Alexandria (356-360 A.D.) quotes John 5:16,18. Four Discourses Against the Arians Discourse 2 ch.12 p.354-355

 

T16. God the Son

 

Athanasius of Alexandria (346-356 A.D.) "In truth, dead men were raised, lame walked, blind saw afresh, lepers were cleansed, and the water became wine, and five loaves satisfied five thousand, and all wondered and worshipped the Lord, confessing that in Him were fulfilled the prophecies, and that He was God the Son of God;" Defense of the Nicene Definition ch.1 p.150

 

T17. Specifically "Jesus" is the Only-Begotten / Son / Word / son of man

 

From the Council of Nicea I to the Council of Ephesus (325-431 A.D.)

Marius Victorinus to the Arian Candidus (359-362 A.D.) says that Jesus is the only Begotten Son of God. Marius’ Letter to Candidus ch.2 p.60

Athanasius of Alexandria (335-342 A.D.) says that Jesus is the Only-begotten Son of God in On Luke 10:22 (Matthew 11:27) ch.5 p.89

Athanasius of Alexandria (356-360 A.D.) (partial) "to His [Christ] being the Only-begotten Word." Four Discourses Against the Arians discourse 2 ch.19.47 374

Gregory of Nyssa (382-383 A.D.) often emphasizes Jesus as the "Only-Begotten". For example, he speaks of "the Only-begotten God, the Maker of all the creation, whether He always was, or whether He came into being afterwards as an addition to His Father?" Against Eunomius book 8 ch.5 p.208. See also Against Eunomius book 1 ch.22 p.61

Ambrose of Milan (378-381 A.D.) discusses how Jesus is the only-begotten of God. On the Christian Faith book 1 ch.14.89 p.216. See also Letter 22 no.6 p.437

Cyril of Jerusalem (c.349-386 A.D.) "Believe also in the Son of God, the one and only, our Lord Jesus Christ, who is God begotten of God, who is life begotten of life, who is light begotten of light, who is in all things like unto the begetter, and who did not come to exist in time but was before all the ages, eternally and incomprehensibly begotten of the Father. He is the Wisdom of God" First Catechetical Lectures lecture 4 ch.7 p.20.

 

T18. Specifically "Jesus Christ" is the Only-Begotten / Son

 

From the Council of Nicea I to the Council of Ephesus (325-431 A.D.)

Council of Nicea (325 A.D.) Creed p.3 "One God, the Father Almighty, maker of all things… one Lord Jesus Christ, the Son of God, the only-begotten of his Father…"

Athanasius of Alexandria (357 A.D.) calls Jesus Christ" the only begotten Son. Address to Constantius ch.11 p.242

 

Among corrupt or spurious books

Constitutions of the Holy Apostles (c.380 A.D.) book 5 section 1 p.441 "the divine Scripture testifies that God said to Christ, His only-begotten, ‘Let us make man after our image, and after our likeness. And God made man: after the image of God made He him; male and female made He them.’"

 

T19. Specifically "Christ" is the Only-Begotten / Son / Son of man

 

You are the Christ, the Son of the Living God

 

From the Council of Nicea I to the Council of Ephesus (325-431 A.D.)

Athanasius of Alexandria (&&& A.D.) says that Christ Son is the only-begotten Son of God. Address to Constantine ch.17 p.244

 

T20. Specifically the Son is God

 

"Jesus is God" and "the Son of God" are not included here

 

Hebrews 1:8-9 "But to the Son He says: Your throne, O God, is forever and ever;... Therefore God, Your God, has anointed You" (NKJV)

 

From the Council of Nicea I to the Council of Ephesus (325-431 A.D.)

Athanasius of Alexandria (356-360 A.D.) (implied) says that Jesus is God. Four Discourses Against the Arians discourse 1 ch.5 p.309

 

T21. The head of Christ is God

 

1 Corinthians 11:3

 

From the Council of Nicea I to the Council of Ephesus (325-431 A.D.)

Athanasius of Alexandria (359-361 A.D.) (partial, recording a creed) "But we acknowledge that the Father who alone is unbegun and Ingenerate, hath generated inconceivably and incomprehensibly to all: and that the Son hath been generated before ages, and in no wise to be ingenerate Himself like the Father, but to have the Father who generated Him as His beginning; for ‘the Head of Christ is God.’" [1 Corinthians 11:3] Of the Synods ch.26 p.463

Rufinus translating Origen (225-253/254 A.D.) "‘The head of Christ is God; ‘" de Principiis (Latin) book 2 ch.6 1 p.281

 

T22. Christ had the Spirit of wisdom and understanding

 

^^^

 

T23. Jesus and the Father are One

 

Just the phrase "One Lord" is not included here.

 

From the Council of Nicea I to the Council of Ephesus (325-431 A.D.)

&&&Athanasius of Alexandria (&&& A.D.) says the the Father and Jesus are One. Mt Sep&&& ch.17 p.182

Cyril of Jerusalem (c.349-386 A.D.) says Jesus and the Father are One. Catechical Lectures Lecture 11 ch.16 p.68

 

T24. Jesus [Ad]ministered His Father’s will

 

^^^

 

T25. Jesus anointed with the oil of gladness/joy

 

Hebrews 1:9b

 

From the Council of Nicea I to the Council of Ephesus (325-431 A.D.)

Athanasius of Alexandria (356-360 A.D.) mentions Jesus having the oil of gladness. Four Discourses Against the Arians ch.7.47 p.334

Rufinus (374-406 A.D.) loosely translation Origen (225-253/254 A.D.) &&& de Principiis book 4 ch.30 p.&&&

 

From the Council of Ephesus to the start of Muslim conquests (431-634 A.D.)

The Didascalia (after 431 A.D.) ch.21 (partial, not referring to Jesus) "and again He saith: To comfort all them that mourn over Zion: instead of ashes, the oil of gladness; and instead of a spirit afflicted with pain, a vesture of glory’ [Isa 61.2-3]. [v. 15] We ought then to take pity on them, and to have faith and to fast and to pray for them."

 

Jesus Before ministry

 

Jb1. Virgin birth of Christ

 

Isaiah 7:14; Matthew 1:18,23; Luke 1:34-35

 

Vaticanus (B) Most of the Old Testament and all of New Testament up to Hebrews 9:15 (325-350 A.D.) Matthew 1:18; Luke 1:34-35

Sinaiticus (340-350 A.D.) Matthew 1:18; Luke 1:34-35

Alexandrinus (c.450 A.D.) All of the Old Testament except Genesis 14:14-17; 15:1-5, 16-19; 16:6-9; 1 Samuel 12:17-14:9; Psalm 19:20-79:11. All of the New Testament except Matthew 1:1-25:6, John 6:50-8:52; Romans 16:24; and 2 Corinthians 4:13-12:6. It has Isaiah 7:14; Luke 1:34-35.

 

From the Council of Nicea I to the Council of Ephesus (325-431 A.D.)

Hegemonius of Sirmium (4th century) says that Christ was born of the Virgin Mary. Archelaus Disputation with Manes ch.47 p.223. See also Archelaus Disputation with Manes ch.34 p.207.

Synod of Antioch in Encaeniis (341 A.D.) (implied by Nicea) Canon 1 p.108 says to excommunicate people who presume to set Nice[a] under Constantine.

Aphrahat (337-344 A.D.) mentions Christ body came from the virgin’s. Select Demonstrations book 21 ch.9 p.396

A Poem on the Passion of the Lord (315-350 A.D.) refers to the virgin birth, Christ’s death on a dreadful cross, pretended kisses of a client/disciple, Pilate p.327

Athanasius of Alexandria (328 A.D.) mentions the Virgin birth. Statement of Faith p.84.

Athanasius of Alexandria (326-372/373 A.D.) mentions the virgin conceived and the Lord became man. On the Opinion of Dionysius ch.9 p.179

Council of Sirmium (Greek creed) 351 A.D. only begotten Son, before all ages, God of God, word made flesh [incarnation], man, virgin, crucified, died, rose on the third day, received up into heaven, first and last, all things made through Christ. Socrates Ecclesiastical History book 2 ch.30 in Nicene and Post-Nicene Fathers 2nd Series vol.2 p.56-57.

Synod of Seleucia in Isauria (357/358 A.D.) , mentions the Son our Lord, begotten without passion before all ages, God the Word, only begotten Son, Jesus made all things, flesh through the Virgin Mary, suffered for our sins, rose again, ascended. Socrates’ Ecclesiastical History book 2 ch.40 in The Nicene and post-Nicene Fathers Second series vol.2 p.60

Ephraim/Ephrem, Syrian hymn-writer (350-378 A.D.) mentions the Virgin Mary in many places, including Hymns on the Nativity hymn 6 p.239

Gregory of Nyssa (382-383 A.D.) says Jesus was born of a virgin. Against Eunomius book 3 ch.4 p.145

Cyril of Jerusalem (349-386 A.D.) discusses the virgin birth of Christ. First Catechetical Lecture 4 ch.7 Nicene & Post-Nicene Fathers p.21

Ambrose of Milan (381 A.D.) "without doubt the Holy Spirit also is to be adored, since He Who according to the flesh was born of the Holy Spirit is adored. (80) And let no one divert this to the Virgin Mary; Mary was the temple of God, not the God of the temple. And therefore He alone is to be worshipped Who was working in His temple." Of the Holy Spirit book 3 ch.11 no.79f-80

Gregory Nazianzen (330-391) mentions the virgin birth of Christ. On the Son - Third Theological Oration ch.19 p.308. See also On Pentecost ch.5 p.381

Pacian of Barcelona (343/377-379/392 A.D.) quotes Isaiah 7:14-15 as referring to Christ and His virgin birth. On Baptism ch.3(2) p.87

John Chrysostom (before 407 A.D.) discusses Mary and the virgin birth of Christ in vol.10 Commentary on Matthew homily 5.3-5 p.32-33.

Augustine of Hippo (388-430 A.D.) says that Christ was born of a virgin. City of God book 2 ch.18 p.33

Augustine of Hippo (388-430 A.D.) mentions the Trinity, only one God, distinction between the three but the same substance in indivisible equality. Christ was born of the Virgin Mary, crucified under Pontius Pilate, and buried, rose again the third day, and ascended into heaven. On the Trinity book 1 ch.4.7 p.20

John Cassian (410-430 A.D.) speaks of Jesus being born of a virgin. 12 Books book 3.4 p.214

 

From the Council of Ephesus to the start of Muslim conquests (431-634 A.D.)

Nestorius (451/452 A.D.) Mary is the Holy Virgin, but not the mother of God. The Bazaar of Heracleides book 2 ch.1 p.149; Virgin Mary. The Bazaar of Heracleides book 2 ch.1 p.171

A Poem on the Passion of the Lord (315-350 A.D.) refers to the virgin birth, Christ’s death on a dreadful cross, pretended kisses of a client/disciple, Pilate p.327

Council of Constantinople II (May 553 A.D.) says Jesus Christ had His nativity of flesh from the holy and glorious Mary, always a virgin. The Capitula of the Council canon 2 p.312

Pope Vigilius’ Letter to the Council of Constantinople II p.322 (553 A.D.) says that Christ was born of the ever-virgin Mary.

 

Among corrupt or spurious works

The Vision of Paul (c.388 A.D. – after Nicea) ch.46 p.164 Mary was a Virgin

 

Among heretics

Mandaeans (>350?) said that Christ was born of a Virgin. It also said He was a Nazorean. Ginza p.549

Ebionite Gospel of pseudo-Matthew (600-625 A.D.) preface speaks of the virgin Mary.

Ebionite Gospel of pseudo-Matthew (600-625 A.D.) ch.14 p.375 is the first known refrence to an ox and donkey at Jesus’ birth.

 

Jb2. Incarnation of the Word/Jesus

 

John 1:14; Philippians 2:7; Hebrews 2:17; Revelation 19:13

 

Vaticanus (B) Most of the Old Testament and all of New Testament up to Hebrews 9:15 (325-350 A.D.) John 1:14

Sinaiticus (340-350 A.D.) John 1:14

Alexandrinus (c.450 A.D.) All of the Old Testament except Genesis 14:14-17; 15:1-5, 16-19; 16:6-9; 1 Samuel 12:17-14:9; Psalm 19:20-79:11. All of the New Testament except Matthew 1:1-25:6, John 6:50-8:52; Romans 16:24; and 2 Corinthians 4:13-12:6. It has John 1:14; Philippians 2:7; Hebrews 2:17; Revelation 19:13.

 

From the Council of Nicea I to the Council of Ephesus (325-431 A.D.)

Council of Sirmium (Greek creed) 351 A.D. only begotten Son, before all ages, God of God, word made flesh [incarnation], man, virgin, crucified, died, rose on the third day, received up into heaven, first and last, all things made through Christ. Socrates Ecclesiastical History book 2 ch.30 in Nicene and Post-Nicene Fathers 2nd Series vol.2 p.56-57.

Synod of Seleucia in Isauria (357/358 A.D.) , mentions the Son our Lord, begotten without passion before all ages, God the Word, only begotten Son, Jesus made all things, flesh through the Virgin Mary, suffered for our sins, rose again, ascended. In Socrates’ Ecclesiastical History book 2 ch.40 in The Nicene and post-Nicene Fathers Second series vol.2 p.60

Athanasius of Alexandria (335-342 A.D.) discusses how the Word was made flesh in On Luke 10:22 (Matthew 11:27) ch.2 p.87.

Athanasius of Alexandria (326-372/373 A.D.) mentions the incarnation On the Opinion of Dionysius ch.9 p.179

Ambrose of Milan (378-381 A.D.) says many passages are prophecies of the Incarnation. On the Christian Faith book 1 ch.15.99 p.217

Epiphanius of Salamis (360-403 A.D.) Excerpts "[Peter said] This same Jesus whom ye crucified [Acts 2:36], in order that the holy incarnate dispensation might not be left by the impassible and uncreated Word, but might be united above to the uncreated Word. On this account God made that which was conceived of Mary and united to deity both Lord and Christ." (Panarion 69, as quoted in Concordia Triglotta, p.1125)

Epiphanius of Salamis (360-403 A.D.) Excerpts "The Father gives to the Son, and the Son, who is not inferior to the Father, receives from the Father, particularly in two ways. First, that we might be led to one union with the Deity, Father, Son, and Holy Ghost, in contradistinction to a multitude of gods. And second, that we might also be led to the transfiguration, to the glory of the incarnation, and to the union with the Deity. For in the transfiguration His face, even in the flesh, since His deity was still present, shone like the sun, that is, the flesh which came from Mary and from our human race was transfigured to heavenly glory, so that it acquired, in addition to its own natural powers, the glory, honor, and perfection of the Godhead, the flesh receiving the heavenly glory here in communion with the divine Logos, which it did not have from the beginning. We must also understand in this sense the passage, He has given all judgment to the Son [John 5:22], and also the passage, He gave Him power, so that He gives life to whom He wishes [John 5:21], that in the first place ... the one deity of the Trinity is indicated ... and in the second place, that by the incarnation of the deity He assumed the gift of dignity, power, and perfection which have been given by the Father to the Son for the one spiritual union of the deity." Panarion 2.2 as quoted in The Two Natures in Christ, p.357

John Chrysostom (martyred 407 A.D.) says that Jesus took Flesh. Commentary on Philippians homily 7 p.214. He says the Word became flesh in Commentary on Philippians homily 7 p.213

Rufinus (374-406 A.D.) freely translating Origen (225-253/254 A.D.) says that Jesus was incarnated through God. de Principiis book 1 ch.4 p.240

 

From the Council of Ephesus to the start of Muslim conquests (431-634 A.D.)

Nestorius (451/452 A.D.) discusses the incarnation in many places, including The Bazaar of Heracleides book 1 part 1 ch.27; book 1 part 1 ch.77.

Leo I of Rome (422-461 A.D.) mentions the incarnation of the only-begotten son. Sermon 68.1 p.180

Council of Constantinople II (May 553 A.D.) says that it is the same Jesus Christ who is the Word of God, suffered, was incarnate and made man, and worked miracles. the flesh from Mary, Mother of God. The Capitula of the Council ch.3 p.312

Nestorius (451/452 A.D.) says that "God became incarnate in the man" Bazaar of Heracleides ch.76 p.69

Pope Vigilius’ Letter to the Council of Constantinople II p.322 (553 A.D.) says that Christ the Word was incarnate.

Venantius (lived ca.530-609 A.D.) says that Christ became a man. He also says that Christ became flesh and became the ransom of the world. Poem on Easter p.330. He also says that Jesus was crucified. p.329.

 

Among heretics

Pelagian heretic Theodore of Mopsuestia (392-423/429 A.D.) "the Incarnation of Christ the Lord" Commentary on Jonah preface p.185

 

Jb3. Christ emptied Himself

 

Philippians 2:7

 

Vaticanus (B) Most of the Old Testament and all of New Testament up to Hebrews 9:15 (325-350 A.D.) Philippians 2:7

Alexandrinus (c.450 A.D.) All of the Old Testament except Genesis 14:14-17; 15:1-5, 16-19; 16:6-9; 1 Samuel 12:17-14:9; Psalm 19:20-79:11. All of the New Testament except Matthew 1:1-25:6, John 6:50-8:52; Romans 16:24; and 2 Corinthians 4:13-12:6. It has Philippians 2:7.

 

From the Council of Nicea I to the Council of Ephesus (325-431 A.D.)

Eusebius of Caesarea (323-339/340 A.D.) quotes all of Philippians 2:6-8 as referring to our Lord Jesus Christ. Eusebius’ Ecclesiastical History book 9 ch.10 p.330-331

Aphrates the Syrian (337-345) Select Demonstrations Demonstration &&&

Hilary of Poitiers (355-367/368)

Athanasius of Alexandria (356-360 A.D.) discusses Philippians 2:5-11 in detail. Four Discourses Against the Arians Discourse 1 ch.11.37-39 p.327-329

Ambrose of Milan (370-390 A.D.)

Gregory Nanzianzen (330-391 A.D.)

Rufinus (410 A.D.) freely translated Origen (225-253/254 A.D.) says that Christ emptied himself. Commentary on the Song of Songs book 1 ch.4 p.83

 

From the Council of Ephesus to the start of Muslim conquests (431-634 A.D.)

Nestorius (451/452 A.D.) says that Christ emptied Himself. The Bazaar of Heracleides book 1 part 1 ch.61.

Fulgentius of Ruspe (507-532/533)

 

No Juvencus, Synod of Antioch Encaiensis, p25, p62, p120, p8, p10, p71, Apostoloic canons, 1st Council of Sirmium, Synod of Seleucia in Isauria, Life of Antony, Ephraim Syrus, Basil of Cappadocia, Synod of Laodicia, Council of Gangra, Council of Constantinople, Cyril of Jerusalem, Council of Constantinople II, Vigilius’ Letter to the Council of Constantinople,

 

Jb4. Jesus took the form of a servant

 

Philippians 2:7

 

Alexandrinus (c.450 A.D.) All of the Old Testament except Genesis 14:14-17; 15:1-5, 16-19; 16:6-9; 1 Samuel 12:17-14:9; Psalm 19:20-79:11. All of the New Testament except Matthew 1:1-25:6, John 6:50-8:52; Romans 16:24; and 2 Corinthians 4:13-12:6. It has Philippians 2:7.

 

From the Council of Nicea I to the Council of Ephesus (325-431 A.D.)

Hegemonius of Sirmium (3rd century) "But it is not thus that ‘He humbled Himself, and took the form of a servant;’ and I say this of Him who was made man of Mary. For what? Might not we, too, have set forth things like those with which you have been dealing, and that, too, all the more easily and the more broadly? But far be it from us to swerve one jot or one tittle from the truth." (Archelaus is speaking) Archelaus’ Disputation with Manes ch.50 p.&&&

Athanasius of Alexandria (356-360 A.D.) said that Jesus took a servant’s form. Four Discourses Against the Arians discourse 1 ch.47 p.334

Athanasius of Alexandria (356-360 A.D.) quotes Philippians 2:5-11. Four Discourses Against the Arians discourse 1 ch.40 p.329.

 

Jb5. Word was made/became flesh

 

John 1:14

 

Alexandrinus (c.450 A.D.) All of the Old Testament except Genesis 14:14-17; 15:1-5, 16-19; 16:6-9; 1 Samuel 12:17-14:9; Psalm 19:20-79:11. All of the New Testament except Matthew 1:1-25:6, John 6:50-8:52; Romans 16:24; and 2 Corinthians 4:13-12:6. It has John 1:14.

 

From the Council of Nicea I to the Council of Ephesus (325-431 A.D.)

Athanasius of Alexandria (356-360 A.D.) says that the Word became flesh. On the Opinion of Dionysius ch.8 p.179

Athanasius of Alexandria (356-360 A.D.) quotes Philippians 2:5-11. Four Discourses Against the Arians discourse 1 ch.40 p.329.

 

Among heretics

Private Creed of Arius (328 A.D.) "We believe in one God, the Father Almighty; And in the Lord Jesus Christ, his Son, who was begotten of him before all ages, the Divine Logos, through whom all things were made, both those in the heavens and those on the earth; who came down and was made flesh; and suffered;"

 

Jb6. Jesus humbled Himself

 

Philippians 2:8

 

Alexandrinus (c.450 A.D.) All of the Old Testament except Genesis 14:14-17; 15:1-5, 16-19; 16:6-9; 1 Samuel 12:17-14:9; Psalm 19:20-79:11. All of the New Testament except Matthew 1:1-25:6, John 6:50-8:52; Romans 16:24; and 2 Corinthians 4:13-12:6. It has Philippians 2:8.

 

From the Council of Nicea I to the Council of Ephesus (325-431 A.D.)

Hegemonius of Sirmium (4th century) says that Christ was born of the Virgin Mary. Archelaus Disputation with Manes ch.47 p.223. See also Archelaus Disputation with Manes ch.34 p.207. See also ch.50 p.228

Athanasius of Alexandria (356-360 A.D.) discusses Philippians 2:5-11 in detail. Four Discourses Against the Arians Discourse 1 ch.11.37-39 p.327-329

Athanasius of Alexandria (356-360 A.D.) quotes Philippians 2:5-11. Four Discourses Against the Arians discourse 1 ch.40 p.329.

 

Jb7. Jesus Christ was a real, sinless man

 

John 8:46 "Which or you convicts me of sin?" (Jesus is speaking) NKJV

2 Corinthians 5:21a "He made Him who knew no sin to be sin for us,…" NKJV

Hebrews 2:14,17 shows Jesus’ humanity

Hebrews 4:15 "But [our High Priest] was in all points tempted as we are, yet without sin." NKJV

1 Peter 1:19 (implied) "But with the precious blood of Christ, as of a lamb without blemish and without spot." NKJV

1 Peter 2:22 "Who committed no sin, nor was deceit found in His mouth" NKJV

1 John 3:5 "…and in Him there is no sin." NKJV

 

Vaticanus (B) Most of the Old Testament and all of New Testament up to Hebrews 9:15 (325-350 A.D.) John 8:36

Sinaiticus (340-350 A.D.) John 8:46

Alexandrinus (c.450 A.D.) All of the Old Testament except Genesis 14:14-17; 15:1-5, 16-19; 16:6-9; 1 Samuel 12:17-14:9; Psalm 19:20-79:11. All of the New Testament except Matthew 1:1-25:6, John 6:50-8:52; Romans 16:24; and 2 Corinthians 4:13-12:6. It has Hebrews 2:14,17; 4:15; 1 Peter 1:19; 2:22; 1 John 3:5

 

From the Council of Nicea I to the Council of Ephesus (325-431 A.D.)

Council of Nicea (325 A.D.) Creed p.3 "one Lord Jesus Christ, the Son of God, the only-begotten of his Father… very God of Very God… By whom all things were made… was made man He suffered … rose again, and ascended into heaven. And he shall come again to judge both the quick and the dead. … Holy Ghost."

Eusebius’ Ecclesiastical History (323-339/340 A.D.) book 1 ch.2 p.82 discusses the divinity and humanity of Christ

Synod of Antioch in Encaeniis (341 A.D.) (implied by Nicea) Canon 1 p.108 says to excommunicate people who presume to set Nice[a] under Constantine.

Athanasius of Alexandria (326-372/373 A.D.) says that Jesus was made man. On the Opinion of Dionysius ch.8-9 p.179

Athanasius of Alexandria (356-360 A.D.) quotes Philippians 2:5-11. Four Discourses Against the Arians discourse 1 ch.40 p.329.

Council of Sirmium (Greek creed) 351 A.D. (partial, does not say sinless) says the Jesus, the only begotten Son, was a man, the word made flesh. Socrates Ecclesiastical History book 2 ch.30 in Nicene and Post-Nicene Fathers 2nd Series vol.2 p.56-57.

Ephraim the Syrian (350-378 A.D.) says that Jesus was fully God and fully man. Nisibine Hymns hymn 36 no.16 p.197; See also Nisibine Hymns hymn 38 no.10 p.200.

Gregory of Nyssa (382-383 A.D.) says that Jesus was fully human, but without sin in Against Eunomius book 2 ch.1 p.101. See also Against Eunomius book 6 ch.1 p.183

Cyril of Jerusalem (349-386 A.D.) says that Jesus was made man, not in appearance only but in truth. First Catechetical Lecture 4 ch.9 Nicene & Post-Nicene Fathers p.20

Ambrose of Milan (378-381 A.D.) (partial) discusses Jesus’ manhood and says that Jesus suffered as a man for us. On the Christian Faith book 1 ch.14.91 p.216

Gregory Nazianzen (330-391) says that Jesus was sinless. In Defense of His Flight to Pontus ch.23 p.210

Gregory Nazianzen (330-391) discusses Jesus’ manhood. On the Son - Third Theological Oration ch.19-20 p.308-309

Pacian of Barcelona (343/377-379/392 A.D.) says Christ took on the nature of man. On Baptism ch.3(4) p.89

Pacian of Barcelona (343/377-379/392 A.D.) says Christ committed no sin, no guile found in his mouth. On Baptism ch.4(1) p.90

Epiphanius of Salamis (360-403 A.D.) says that Jesus "received a true and complete human nature," and that Jesus was without sin. (Panarion, as quoted in The Two Natures in Christ, p.358)

John Chrysostom (martyred 407 A.D.) says that Jesus in taking the form of man actually was a man. Commentary on Philippians homily 7 p.213

Augustine of Hippo (388-430 A.D.) says that Christ Jesus became man, putting on a human soul and flesh. On the Trinity book 13 ch.10.13 p.174. See also On the Gospel of John Tractate 124 ch.21.5 vol.7 p.449.

 

From the Council of Ephesus to the start of Muslim conquests (431-634 A.D.)

Nestorius (451/452 A.D.) "God the Word, who truly became man in nature" The Bazaar of Heracleides book 1 part 1 ch.23 p.18. See also ibid book 1 part 1 ch.27

+ Nestorius (451/452 A.D.) Jesus was sinless. The Bazaar of Heracleides book 1 part 1 ch.68 p.63; part 1 ch.91 p.81-82

Nestorius (451/452 A.D.) Christ was man while remaining God. The Bazaar of Heracleides book 1 part 1 ch.29 p.23

Nestorius (451/452 A.D.) Christ was free from sin. The Bazaar of Heracleides book 2 ch.1(b) p.251

Nestorius (451/452 A.D.) Jesus of the seed of the House of David. The Bazaar of Heracleides book 2 ch.1(b) p.261

Leo I of Rome (422-461 A.D.) (partial) says that divinity joined itself to human frailty. 68.1 p.180

Venantius (lived ca.530-609 A.D.) (partial, does not say sinless) says that Christ became a man. He also says that Christ became flesh and became the ransom of the world. Poem on Easter p.330. He also says that Jesus was crucified. p.329.

 

Among heretics

The Vision of Paul (c.388 A.D. – after Nicea) ch.41 p.162 "Who are these, Sir, who are put into this well? And he said to me: They are whoever shall not confess that Christ has come in the flesh and that the Virgin Mary brought him forth, and whoever says that the bread and cup of the Eucharist of blessing are not this body and blood of Christ."

 

Jb8. Jesus of the tribe of Judah

 

Luke 3:33

 

Alexandrinus (c.450 A.D.) All of the Old Testament except Genesis 14:14-17; 15:1-5, 16-19; 16:6-9; 1 Samuel 12:17-14:9; Psalm 19:20-79:11. All of the New Testament except Matthew 1:1-25:6, John 6:50-8:52; Romans 16:24; and 2 Corinthians 4:13-12:6. It has Luke 3:33.

 

^^^

 

Among heretics

The Ebionite Gospel of pseudo-Matthew (600-625 A.D.) ch.13 p.374 says that Jesus is of the tribe of Judah.

 

Jb9. Jesus was born in Bethlehem

 

Matthew 2:1,5; Luke 2:4-6,15

Implied Micah 5:2

 

Alexandrinus (c.450 A.D.) All of the Old Testament except Genesis 14:14-17; 15:1-5, 16-19; 16:6-9; 1 Samuel 12:17-14:9; Psalm 19:20-79:11. All of the New Testament except Matthew 1:1-25:6, John 6:50-8:52; Romans 16:24; and 2 Corinthians 4:13-12:6. It has Luke 2:15.

 

From the Council of Nicea I to the Council of Ephesus (325-431 A.D.)

Eusebius of Caesarea (323-339/340 A.D.) says that Jesus was born in Bethlehem. Eusebius’ Ecclesiastical History book 1 ch.5.2 p.88

Ephraim the Syrian (350-378 A.D.) says the Jesus was born in Bethlehem. Nativity Hymns hymn 5 p.237

Cyril of Jerusalem (c.349-386 A.D.) says Jesus was born in Bethlehem. Catechical Lectures Lecture 11 ch.20 p.69

 

Jb10. Jesus brought up by Joseph

 

Matthew 2:13-14,19-23; Luke 2:39-40

 

Alexandrinus (c.450 A.D.) All of the Old Testament except Genesis 14:14-17; 15:1-5, 16-19; 16:6-9; 1 Samuel 12:17-14:9; Psalm 19:20-79:11. All of the New Testament except Matthew 1:1-25:6, John 6:50-8:52; Romans 16:24; and 2 Corinthians 4:13-12:6. It has Luke 2:39-40.

 

From the Council of Nicea I to the Council of Ephesus (325-431 A.D.)

Eusebius of Caesarea (323-339/340 A.D.) (implied) discusses the genealogy of Jesus’ earthly [adopted] father, Joseph. Eusebius’ Ecclesiastical History book 1 ch.7.6-10 p.91-92

Hegemonius of Sirmium (4th century) "Hence our Lord Jesus Christ Himself is said to have a variety of fathers: for David was called His father, and Joseph was reckoned to be His father, while neither of these two was His father in respect of the actuality of nature. For David is called His father as touching the prerogative of time and age, and Joseph is designated His father as concerning the law of upbringing; but God Himself is His only Father by nature, who was pleased to make all things manifest in short space to us by His word." Archelaus Disputation with Manes ch.34 p.207

Athanasius of Alexandria (356-360 A.D.) said that Jesus was raised by Joseph. Four Discourses Against the Arians discourse 3 ch.27 p.408

 

Jb11. Jesus’ earthly father was a carpenter

 

Matthew 13:53-57

 

From the Council of Nicea I to the Council of Ephesus (325-431 A.D.)

Athanasius of Alexandria (356-360 A.D.) said that Joseph was a carpenter. Four Discourses Against the Arians discourse 1 ch.1.50 p.335-336

 

Among heretics

The Ebionite Gospel of pseudo-Matthew (600-625 A.D.) ch.37 p.381 says that Joseph was a carpenter.

 

Jb12. Jesus [and His family] went to Egypt

 

Matthew 2:13-15

 

From the Council of Nicea I to the Council of Ephesus (325-431 A.D.)

Hegemonius of Sirmium (4th century) "our Lord Jesus Christ, after His birth by Mary His mother, was sent off in flight into Egypt through the instrumentality of an angel." Archelaus Disputation with Manes ch.44 p.220

Athanasius of Alexandria (356-360 A.D.) said that Mary and Joseph took Jesus to Egypt. In Defence of His Fight ch.12 p.259

 

Jb13. Jesus from Galilee

 

Matthew 2:22-23; 4:12-13; Luke 2:39; 4:14-16

 

Jesus preaching in Galilee, passing through Galilee, or going to Galilee after his resurrection are not included here.

 

Alexandrinus (c.450 A.D.) All of the Old Testament except Genesis 14:14-17; 15:1-5, 16-19; 16:6-9; 1 Samuel 12:17-14:9; Psalm 19:20-79:11. All of the New Testament except Matthew 1:1-25:6, John 6:50-8:52; Romans 16:24; and 2 Corinthians 4:13-12:6. It has Luke 2:39; 4:14-16.

 

From the Council of Nicea I to the Council of Ephesus (325-431 A.D.)

John Chrysostom (died 407 A.D.) "He had wrought so many miracles, and never were they thus amazed at Him; but when they saw a multitude running together, then they marvel. "For all the city was moved, saying, Who is this? But the multitudes said, This is Jesus the prophet of Nazareth of Galilee." [Mt 21:10,11]." Commentary on Matthew Homily 66 ch.3 p.40

 

Among heretics

The Ebionite Gospel of pseudo-Matthew (600-625 A.D.) ch.26 p.&&& "And it came to pass, after Jesus had returned out of Egypt, when He was in Galilee, and entering on the fourth year of His age, that on a Sabbath-day He was playing with some children at the bed of the Jordan."

 

Jb14. Jesus on earth was plain-looking

 

Isaiah 53:2a

 

Alexandrinus (c.450 A.D.) All of the Old Testament except Genesis 14:14-17; 15:1-5, 16-19; 16:6-9; 1 Samuel 12:17-14:9; Psalm 19:20-79:11. All of the New Testament except Matthew 1:1-25:6, John 6:50-8:52; Romans 16:24; and 2 Corinthians 4:13-12:6. It has Isaiah 53:2a.

 

^^^

 

Jb15. Christ, the Logos, the Son was obedient or learned obedience

 

Hebrews 5:5,7-8 "So also Christ ... 7 who, in the days of His flesh, when He had offered up prayers and supplications, with vehement cries and tears to Him who was able to save Him from death, was heard because of His godly fear, though He was a Son, yet he learned obedience by the things which He suffered."

 

Alexandrinus (c.450 A.D.) All of the Old Testament except Genesis 14:14-17; 15:1-5, 16-19; 16:6-9; 1 Samuel 12:17-14:9; Psalm 19:20-79:11. All of the New Testament except Matthew 1:1-25:6, John 6:50-8:52; Romans 16:24; and 2 Corinthians 4:13-12:6. It has Hebrews 5:5,7-8.

 

From the Council of Nicea I to the Council of Ephesus (325-431 A.D.)

Athanasius of Alexandria (356-360 A.D.) says Jesus was obedient unto death. Four Discourses Against the Arians discourse 1 ch.38 p.328

 

From the Council of Ephesus to the start of Muslim conquests (431-634 A.D.)

Nestorius (451/452 A.D.) Christ or the Word having obedience in The Bazaar of Heracleides book 1 part 1 ch.67.

 

Jb16. Jesus was baptized

 

Matthew 3:13-16; Mark 1:9-11; Luke 3:21-22;

(partial, Jesus came to John, but did not say baptized) John 1:29

 

Alexandrinus (c.450 A.D.) All of the Old Testament except Genesis 14:14-17; 15:1-5, 16-19; 16:6-9; 1 Samuel 12:17-14:9; Psalm 19:20-79:11. All of the New Testament except Matthew 1:1-25:6, John 6:50-8:52; Romans 16:24; and 2 Corinthians 4:13-12:6. It has Mark 1:9-11; Luke 3:21-22.

 

From the Council of Nicea I to the Council of Ephesus (325-431 A.D.)

Hegemonius of Sirmium (4th century) "Wherefore tell me this too, O Manichaeus: If you say that Christ was not born of Mary, but that He only appeared like a man, while yet He was not really a man, the appearance being effected and produced by the power that is in Him, tell me, I repeat, on whom then was it that the Spirit descended like a dove? Who is this that was baptized by John? If He was perfect, if He was the Son," Archelaus Disputation with Manes ch.49 p.226

Eusebius’ Ecclesiastical History (323-339/340 A.D.) book 1 ch.10.1 p.96 (implied) says that Jesus came to John to be baptized.

Gregory Nazianzen (330-391 A.D.) mentions Jesus being from the virgin, the angels glorifying Jesus, and calls Jesus the Lamb and the Shepherd. The star led the Magi to worship and offer gifts. Jesus was baptized, and fasted, and was tempted. Devils were cast out and diseases healed. In Defense of His Flight to Pontus ch.24 p.210

 

From the Council of Ephesus to the start of Muslim conquests (431-634 A.D.)

Nestorius (451/452 A.D.) Jesus was baptized by John. The Bazaar of Heracleides book 1 ch.1.71

 

Among corrupt or spurious works

pseudo-Alexander of Alexandria (after 326 A.D.) "Who compelled God to come down to earth, to take flesh of the holy Virgin, to be wrapped in swaddling clothes and laid in a manger, to be nourished with milk, to be baptized in the Jordan, to be mocked of the people, to be nailed to the tree, to be buried in the bosom of the earth, and the third day to rise again from the dead; in the cause of redemption to give life for life, blood for blood, to undergo death for death? For Christ, by dying, hath discharged the debt of death to which man was obnoxious." Appendix to the Codex

 

Jb17. Jesus fasted for 40 days

 

Matthew 4:3; Mark 1:12-13; Luke 4:1-2

 

Alexandrinus (c.450 A.D.) All of the Old Testament except Genesis 14:14-17; 15:1-5, 16-19; 16:6-9; 1 Samuel 12:17-14:9; Psalm 19:20-79:11. All of the New Testament except Matthew 1:1-25:6, John 6:50-8:52; Romans 16:24; and 2 Corinthians 4:13-12:6. It has Mark 1:12-13; Luke 4:1-2.

 

From the Council of Nicea I to the Council of Ephesus (325-431 A.D.)

Hegemonius of Sirmium (4th century) "There, Moses when he was tried was set upon the mountain and fasted forty days; and here, my Lord Jesus was led by the Spirit into the wilderness when He was tempted of the devil, and fasted in like manner forty days." (Archelaus is speakig) Archelaus Disputation with Manes ch.44 p.220

 

Jb18. Jesus hungered

 

Matthew 4:2; Luke 4:2

 

Jesus being hungry in the parable of the sheep and the goats is not included here.

 

Alexandrinus (c.450 A.D.) All of the Old Testament except Genesis 14:14-17; 15:1-5, 16-19; 16:6-9; 1 Samuel 12:17-14:9; Psalm 19:20-79:11. All of the New Testament except Matthew 1:1-25:6, John 6:50-8:52; Romans 16:24; and 2 Corinthians 4:13-12:6. It has Luke 4:2.

 

From the Council of Nicea I to the Council of Ephesus (325-431 A.D.)

John Chrysostom (died 407 A.D.) "For this reason, just as He [Jesus] hungered, as He slept, as He felt fatigue, as He ate and drank, so also did He deprecate death, thereby manifesting his humanity, and that infirmity of human nature which does not submit without pain to be torn from this present life." Commentary on Matthew homily 26 ch.38 p.&&&

 

Jesus’ ministry

 

Jm1. Jesus went to Capernaum

 

Mark 1:21-27; 2:1; Luke 4:31-37; John 2:12

 

^^^

 

Alexandrinus (c.450 A.D.) All of the Old Testament except Genesis 14:14-17; 15:1-5, 16-19; 16:6-9; 1 Samuel 12:17-14:9; Psalm 19:20-79:11. All of the New Testament except Matthew 1:1-25:6, John 6:50-8:52; Romans 16:24; and 2 Corinthians 4:13-12:6. It has Mark 1:21-27; 2:1; Luke 4:31-37; John 2:12.

 

Among heretics

The Ebionite Gospel of pseudo-Matthew (600-650 A.D.) ch.40 p.382 says Jesus went to Capernaum.

 

Jm2. Jesus found/called Nathanael

 

John 1:43-50

 

^^^

 

Jm3. Jesus ministered in Galilee

 

Jesus being from Galilee, and going to Galilee after His resurrection, are not included here. Jesus specifically ministering in the Galileen towns of Capernaum, Nazareth, or Cana are not included here either.

 

Luke 4:14; John 4:23

 

^^^

 

Jm4. Jesus called/chose the Twelve

 

Matthew 4:18-22; Mark 3:13-19; Luke 6:12-19

 

^^^

 

Jm5. Jesus went through Samaria/Samaritan woman

 

Mentioning a parable of a Samaritan is not counted here.

 

John 4:7-39

 

^^^

 

Jm6. Jesus said destroy the temple in 3 days…

 

John 2:19-21

 

^^^

 

&&&Nicetas translating Clement of Alexandria (193-217/220 A.D.) "And with reference to the body, which by circumscription He consecrated as a hallowed place for Himself upon earth, He said,’ Destroy this temple, and in three days I will raise it up again." Fragment 12.3 p.585

 

Jm7. Jesus’ answer to John

 

Matthew 11:1-6; Luke 7:22-23

 

^^^

 

Jm6. The Transfiguration

 

Matthew 17:1-9

 

^^^

 

Jm9. Jesus rode into Jerusalem on a donkey

 

Matthew 21:2-7; Mark 11:2-10; Luke 19:30-36; John 12:14

 

^^^

 

Jm10. Christ drove out the money-changers

 

Matthew 21:12-13; Mark 11:15-17; Luke 19:45-46; John 2:14-17

 

^^^

 

Jm11. Jesus was questioned

 

Matthew 11:27-33; Luke 20:1-8

 

^^^

 

Jm12. The Last Supper

 

Matthew 26:20-46; Mark 14:12-31; Luke 22:14-23; John 13

 

^^^

 

Jm13. Christ prayed that this cup would pass

 

Matthew 26:36-46; Mark 14:32-43; Luke 22:19-43

 

^^^

 

Jm14. Jesus arrested / seized

 

Matthew 26:47-56; Mark 14:43-52; Luke 22:54-65; John 18:1-12

 

^^^

 

Jm15. Jesus washed His disciples’ feet

 

Athanasius of Alexandria (371 A.D.) says that Jesus washed His disciples’ feet. Festal Letter 61 ch.2 p.578

 

 

Jesus’ Passion and Beyond

 

Jp1. Some despised Christ

 

From the Council of Nicea I to the Council of Ephesus (325-431 A.D.)

Cyril of Jerusalem (c.349-386 A.D.) says that Jesus was despised. Catechical Lectures Lecture 4 ch.10 p.21

 

Jp2. Jesus was mocked

 

Matthew 26:68; 27:27-29; Mark 15:20; Luke 22:63; John 19:1-3

 

From the Council of Nicea I to the Council of Ephesus (325-431 A.D.)

Poem on the Passion of the Lord (315-350 A.D.) p.327 (partial) "and moreover, the blows, and tongues prepared for accusations."

Cyril of Jerusalem (c.349-386 A.D.) says that Jesus was mocked. Catechical Lectures Lecture 13 ch.30 p.90

 

Jp3. Jesus was crucified or died on the cross

 

Matthew 27:32-56; Mark 15:21-41; Luke 23:26-49; John 19:16-30; 1 Corinthians 15:3; Philippians 2:8

(partial) Philippians 3:10 (death of Christ)

 

Vaticanus (B) Most of the Old Testament and all of New Testament up to Hebrews 9:15 (325-350 A.D.) Matthew 27:32-56; Mark 15:21-41; Luke 23:26-49; John 19:16-30

Sinaiticus (340-350 A.D.) Matthew 27:32-56; Mark 15:21-41; Luke 23:26-49; John 19:16-30

 

From the Council of Nicea I to the Council of Ephesus (325-431 A.D.)

Eusebius’ Ecclesiastical History (323-339/340 A.D.) book 1 ch.13.19 p.102 says that Jesus was crucified.

Synod of Antioch in Encaeniis (341 A.D.) (implied by Nicea) Canon 1 p.108 says to excommunicate people who presume to set Nice[a] under Constantine.

Hegemonius of Sirmium (4th century) quotes Galatians 4:4, "…before whose eyes Jesus Christ was evidently set forth, crucified" Archelaus Disputation with Manes ch.49 p.226. See also ibid ch.34 p.208.

Poem on the Passion of the Lord (315-350 A.D.) p.327 says that Jesus carred His cross and then died.

Life of Antony (probably by Athanasius of Alexandria) (355 A.D.) ch.78 p.216 says that Jesus was crucified.

Athanasius of Alexandria (328 A.D.) mentions that Jesus was crucified, died, rose from the dead, and taken up into heaven. Statement of Faith p.84.

Athanasius of Alexandria (326-372/373 A.D.) says the Crucified was God. The Son of God was in the body, while it suffered. Letter 59 ch.10 p.574

Council of Sirmium (Greek creed) 351 A.D. only begotten Son, before all ages, God of God, word made flesh [incarnation], man, virgin, crucified, died, rose on the third day, received up into heaven, first and last, all things made through Christ. Socrates Ecclesiastical History book 2 ch.30 in Nicene and Post-Nicene Fathers 2nd Series vol.2 p.56-57.

Ephraim the Syrian (350-378 A.D.) Nisibine Hymns hymn 14 no.6 p.182

Gregory of Nyssa (382-383 A.D.) said that Jesus was crucified in Against Eunomius book 5 ch.2 p.174. Jesus bored the cross in Against Eunomius book 2 ch.3 p.176.

Gregory of Nyssa says that Peter said the Christ was crucified. Against Eunomius book 6 ch.4 p.187

Cyril of Jerusalem (349-386 A.D.) says that Christ crucified is worshipped. First Catechetical Lecture 4 ch.13 Nicene & Post-Nicene Fathers p.22

Gregory Nazianzen (330-391) says that Jesus was nailed to the tree and the robber was crucified with Him. On the Son - Third Theological Oration ch.20 p.309.

Epiphanius of Salamis (360-403 A.D.) says that Christ was crucified. (Panarion 2.2:69, as quoted in Loci Theologici, p.106)

Epiphanius of Salamis (360-403 A.D.) "Strange about Tatian, when he knows – as I too have found in the literature – that our Lord Jesus Christ was crucified on Golgotha, the very place where Adam’s body lay buried. For after leaving Paradise, living opposite it for a long while and growing old, Adam later came and died in this place, I mean Jerusalem, and was buried there, on the site of Golgotha. This is likely how the place, which translates, ‘place of the Skull,’ got the name – since the shape of the place shows no likeness to the name." The Panarion section 3 ch.46 p.351

Orosius/Hosius of Braga (414-418 A.D.) mentions Jesus’ death on the cross Defense Against the Pelagians ch.16 p.135

Orosius/Hosius of Braga (414-418 A.D.) (partial) says the Word was God and all things were made through Him. He is the only Son of the Father He had no sin, was the lamb of God, crucified, died, the only-begotten, and the first born. Defense Against the Pelagians ch.25 p.151

Augustine of Hippo (388-430 A.D.) mentions the Trinity, only one God, distinction between the three but the same substance in indivisible equality. Christ was born of the virgin Mary, crucified under Pontius Pilate, and buried, rose again the third day, and ascended into heaven. On the Trinity book 1 ch.4.7 p.21

Augustine of Hippo (388-430 A.D.) mentions the darkness that occurred when Jesus was crucified. City of God book 3 ch.15 p.51

 

From the Council of Ephesus to the start of Muslim conquests (431-634 A.D.)

Nestorius (451/452 A.D.) Jesus died and was crucified. The Bazaar of Heracleides book 1 part 1 ch.61 p.58. See also ibid book 1 part 1 ch.29.

Nestorius (451/452 A.D.) Christ suffered and died and rose and is ready to come to judge the quick and the dead. The Bazaar of Heracleides book 2 ch.1 p.177

Leo I of Rome (422-461 A.D.) says some heretics try to deny that Jesus truly came as a man, was truly crucified, or buried and rose on the third day. Sermon 34.4 p.149

A Poem on the Passion of the Lord (315-350 A.D.) refers to the virgin birth, Christ’s death on a dreadful cross, pretended kisses of a client/disciple, Pilate p.327

Council of Constantinople II (May 553 A.D.) says that Jesus Christ was crucified in the flesh. The Capitula of the Council ch.10 p.314

Venantius (lived ca.530-609 A.D.) says that Christ became a man. He also says that Christ became flesh and became the ransom of the world. Poem on Easter p.330. He also says that Jesus was crucified. Poem on Easter p.329.

 

After the Start of Muslim conquests (634 A.D.-)

John of Damascus (706-749 A.D.) says that Christ was crucified. Exposition of the Orthodox Faith ch.11 p.80

 

Among heretics

Mandaeans (>350?) said that Christ of Rome was crucified. Ginza p.551

Pelagian heretic Theodore of Mopsuestia (392-423/429 A.D.) mentions the crucifixion. Commentary on Joel ch.2 p.120

 

Jp4. Cross’s shape or outstretched arms

 

From the Council of Nicea I to the Council of Ephesus (325-431 A.D.)

Hegemonius of Sirmium (4th century) "There, Moses, when he was assailed, stretched forth his hands and fought against Amalek; and here, the Lord Jesus, … stretched forth His hands upon the cross, and gave us salvation." Archelaus Disputation with Manes ch.44 p.220

Athanasius of Alexandria (310-311 A.D.) mentions the shape. Festal Letter 22 p.549.

Athanasius of Alexandria (326-372/373 A.D.) "…and once again, stretching out His hands upon the Cross, He overthrew the prince of the power of the air, that now works in the sons of disobedience, and made the way clear for us into the heavens." Letter 60 ch.7 p.577

Ephraim the Syrian (350-378 A.D.) discusses in detail the two beams of the cross Nisibine Hymns hymn 58 no.17-19 p.212.

 

Jp5. Jesus was hung on a tree [the cross]

 

Acts 5:30; Galatians 3:13; 1 Peter 2:24

(partial) Deuteronomy 21:23

 

From the Council of Nicea I to the Council of Ephesus (325-431 A.D.)

Eusebius of Emesa (c.359 A.D.) "Jesus went forth out of the city, bearing Himself the Tree of His own Cross; like another Isaac carrying the wood for the sacrifice." On the Sufferings and Death of our Lord

Ephraim the Syrian (350-378 A.D.) (implied) says the first tree, of the knowledge of good and evil, brought death, but the second tree, the cross, brought life. Nisibine Hymns hymn 14 no.6 p.182

Athanasius of Alexandria (356-360 A.D.) said that Jesus was hung on a tree. Four Discourses Against the Arians discourse 3 ch.31 p.411. See also Letter 61 ch.1 p.578.

 

After the Start of Muslim conquests (634 A.D.-)

John of Damascus (706-749 A.D.) "Moreover we worship [venerate] even the image of the precious and life-giving Cross, although made of another tree, not honouring the tree (God forbid) the but image as a symbol of Christ." Exposition of the Orthodox Faith ch.11 p.80

 

Jp6. The wood of the cross

 

From the Council of Nicea I to the Council of Ephesus (325-431 A.D.)

Poem on the Passion of the Lord (315-350 A.D.) p.327 "adore the venerable wood of the cross"

Athanasius of Alexandria (356-360 A.D.) "and as Peter has written, ‘has borne them in the body on the wood’" Four Discourses Against the Arians discourse 2 ch.19.47 374

Ephraim the Syrian (350-378 A.D.) mentions the wood upon which Jesus was killed. Nativity Hymns hymn 2 p.227

A Poem on the Passion of the Lord (315-350 A.D.) p.327 "Bend your knee, and with lamentation adore the venerable wood of the cross, and with lowly countenance stooping to the earth, which is wet with innocent blood, sprinkle it with rising tears, and at times bear me and my admonitions in your devoted heart."

 

Jp7. Sign of the cross

 

From the Council of Nicea I to the Council of Ephesus (325-431 A.D.)

Life of Antony (probably by Athanasius of Alexandria) (355 A.D.) ch.13 p.199 and ch.35 p.205 mention the sign of the cross.

Palladius (c.430 A.D.) mentions the sign of the cross. Four Desert Fathers &&& p.489.

 

After the Start of Muslim conquests (634 A.D.-)

John of Damascus (706-749 A.D.) "This [the cross] was given to us a sign on our forehead, ust as the circumcision was given to Israel: for by it we beievers are separaeted and distinguished from unbelievers." (It is interesting that Jon of Damascus was the sign of our salvation is the cross. Most other writers would say it is baptism.) Exposition of the Orthodox Faith ch.11 p.80

Anastasius Bibliothecarius (858-878 A.D.) translating Peter of Alexandria (306,285-311 A.D.) "And when they had been spread out, this most constant martyr, mounting upon them, extended both his hands to heaven, and bending his knees on the ground, and fixing his mind upon heaven, returned his thanks to the Almighty Judge of the contest, and fortifying himself with the sign of the cross, said, Amen." Genuine Acts of Peter of Alexandria p.266

 

Jp8. Calling the crucifixion the Passion

 

From the Council of Nicea I to the Council of Ephesus (325-431 A.D.)

Athanasius of Alexandria (326-372 A.D.) "that the Lord through His betrayal entered on His Passion, by which He should redeem us and by the which He triumphed gloriously." Athanasius on Psalms

Anastasius Bibliothecarius (858-878 A.D.) translating Genuine Acts of Peter of Alexandria p.261 mentions "the Lord’s Passion"

Augustine of Hippo (388-430 A.D.) mentions Noah getting drunk. On Christian Doctrine book 4 ch.21.45 NPNF first series vol.2 p.590

 

Jp9. Christ’s crown of thorns

 

Matthew 27:29; Mark 15:17; John 19:2

 

From the Council of Nicea I to the Council of Ephesus (325-431 A.D.)

Poem on the Passion of the Lord (315-350 A.D.) p.327 (partial) "and my head drained with cruel thorns"

Hilary of Poitiers (355-367/368 A.D.) &&&

 

Jp10. Jesus was beaten/scourged/whipped

 

Matthew 26:67; 27:30; Mark 15:17-19; Luke 22:63-64; John 19:2

 

From the Council of Nicea I to the Council of Ephesus (325-431 A.D.)

Poem on the Passion of the Lord (315-350 A.D.) p.327 "and moreover, the blows, and tongues prepared for accusations."

Athanasius of Alexandria (338 A.D.) "says that Jesus was smitten [beaten]. Letter 10 ch.7 p.530

 

Jp11. They cast lots for Jesus’ clothes

 

Matthew 27:35; Mark 15:24; John 19:23-24

 

John Chrysostom (died 407 A.D.) "He did not say they ‘shall pierce’ but ‘they pierced’ ‘they counted all my bones.’ And not only does he say this, but he also describes the things which were done by the soldiers. ‘They parted my garments among themselves, and upon my vesture did they cast lots.’ And not only this but he also relates they gave Him gall to eat, and vinegar to drink. For he says ‘they gave me gall for my food, and for my thirst they gave me vinegar to drink.’ And again another one says that they smote him with a spear, for ‘they shall look on Him whom they pierced.’" Homily on Matthew 26:19 ch.1 p.&&&

 

Jp12. Jesus given vinegar and gall to drink

 

Matthew 27:48; Mark 15:36; Luke 23:36; John 19:29

 

From the Council of Nicea I to the Council of Ephesus (325-431 A.D.)

Poem on the Passion of the Lord (315-350 A.D.) p.327 "see my parched tongue poisoned with gall, and my countenance pale with death."

John Chrysostom (died 407 A.D.) "‘They parted my garments among themselves, and upon my vesture did they cast lots.’ And not only this but he also relates they gave Him gall to eat, and vinegar to drink. For he says ‘they gave me gall for my food, and for my thirst they gave me vinegar to drink.’ And again another one says that they smote him with a spear, for ‘they shall look on Him whom they pierced.’ Esaias again in another fashion predicting the cross said ‘He was led as a sheep to the slaughter, and as a lamb before his shearer is dumb, so openeth he not his mouth.’ ‘In his humiliation his judgment was taken away.’" Homily on Matthew 26:19 ch.1 p.&&&

 

Jp13. Thief/robber on the cross in Paradise

 

Luke 23:39-43

 

From the Council of Nicea I to the Council of Ephesus (325-431 A.D.)

Athanasius of Alexandria (335-342 A.D.) says that Paradise was opened to the robber. On Luke 10:22 (Matthew 11:27) ch.2 p.88

John Chrysostom (died 407 A.D.) mentions the two robbers on the cross, and that Simon of Cyrene carried Jesus’ cross On the Paralytic ch.3 p.214

 

Jp14. Jesus asked God why God had forsaken Him

 

Matthew 27:46; Mark 15:34

 

From the Council of Nicea I to the Council of Ephesus (325-431 A.D.)

Hilary of Poitiers (355-367/368 A.D.)

Athanasius of Alexandria (356-360 A.D.) tells of Jesus asking why God forsook Him. Four Discourses Against the Arians discourse 3 ch.26 p.408

 

Jp15. Darkness or earthquake at Jesus’ death

 

Matthew 27:45-51; Mark 15:33; Luke 23:44-45

 

Vaticanus (B) Most of the Old Testament and all of New Testament up to Hebrews 9:15 (325-350 A.D.) Matthew 27:45-51; Mark 15:33; Luke 23:44-45

Sinaiticus (340-350 A.D.) Matthew 27:35-51; Mark 15:33; Luke 23:44-45

 

From the Council of Nicea I to the Council of Ephesus (325-431 A.D.)

Hilary of Poitiers (355-367/368 A.D.) (partial) "Creation is set free by the mediation of this Sin-offering; the very rocks lose their solidity and strength." On the Trinity book 3 ch.11 p.65

Athanasius of Alexandria (c.371 A.D.) says "the sun withdrew his beams and the earth trembled and the rocks were rent,…" Personal Letter 61 (To Maximus) ch.2 p.578

Athanasius of Alexandria (356-360 A.D.) mentions that the veil was rent, the sun was hidden, the rocks torn asunder, and the dead in graves rose. Four Discourses Against the Arians discourse 3 ch.29 p.424

Ephraim the Syrian (350-378 A.D.) says there was darkness and earthquake when Jesus’ died. Nativity Hymns hymn 3 p.273

Cyril of Jerusalem (349-386 A.D.) mentioned that the sun ran backward in Hezekiah’s time, and the sun was eclipsed for Christ. (First Catechetical Lecture 2 Nicene & Post-Nicene Fathers p.12)

Cyril of Jerusalem (349-386 A.D.) says the sun grew dark during the crucifixion. First Catechetical Lecture 4 ch.10 Nicene & Post-Nicene Fathers p.21 and the rocks were asunder. Lecture 4 ch.11 p.22

Gregory Nazianzen (330-391) in discussing Jesus’ crucifixion says "He wrapped the visible world in darkness" and "…for the mysterious doors of Heaven are opened; the rocks are cleft, the dead arise. He dies, but He gives life, and by His death destroys death." On the Son - Third Theological Oration ch.20 p.309

John Chrysostom (died 407 A.D.) "The darkness took possession of the earth, and night appeared at midday, then death was brought to nought, and his tyranny was destroyed: many bodies at least of the saints which slept arose. These things the patriarch declaring beforehand, and demonstrating that, even when crucified, Christ would be terrible, said ‘thou didst lie down and slumber as a lion.’ He did not say thou shalt slumber but thou didst slumber, because it would certainly come to pass. For it is the custom of the prophets in many places to predict things to come as if they were already past. For just as it is impossible that things which have happened should not have happened, so is it impossible that this should not happen, although it be future. On this account they predict things to come under the semblance of past time, indicating by this means the impossibility of their failure, the certainty of their coming to pass. So also spake David, signifying the cross; ‘They pierced my hands and my feet.’ He did not say they ‘shall pierce’ but ‘they pierced’ ‘they counted all my bones.’" Homily on Matthew 26:19 ch.1 p.&&&

Augustine of Hippo (388-430 A.D.) mentions the darkness that occurred when Jesus was crucified. City of God book 3 ch.15 p.51

 

Among heretics

Pelagian heretic Theodore of Mopsuestia (392-423/429 A.D.) Says the sun and moon were actually darkened in Christ’s time. He also mentions "the saving blood of Christ the Lord" Commentary on Joel ch.2 p.119

 

Jp16. Temple veil torn when Jesus died

 

Matthew 27:51; Mark 15:38; Luke 23:45

 

From the Council of Nicea I to the Council of Ephesus (325-431 A.D.)

Athanasius of Alexandria (356-360 A.D.) says the veil was torn when Jesus died. Four Discourses Against the Arians discourse 3 ch.56 p.424

John Chrysostom (died 407 A.D.) "For as the lion is terrible not only when he is awake but even when he is sleeping, so Christ also not only before the cross but also on the cross itself and in the very moment of death was terrible, and wrought at that time great miracles, turning back the light of the sun, cleaving the rocks, shaking the earth, rending the veil, alarming the wife of Pilate, convicting Judas of sin, for then he said ‘I have sinned in that I have betrayed the innocent blood;’ and the wife of Pilate declared ‘Have nothing to do with that just man, for I have suffered many things in a dream because of Him.’" Homily on Matthew 26:19 ch.1 p.&&&

 

Jp17. Jesus’ bones were not broken

 

John 19:33-37

 

^^^

 

Jp18. Jesus rose from the dead

 

Matthew 28; Mark 16:1-6; Luke 9:22; 24:1-8; John 20; 1 Corinthians 15:3,4,14,17,18

 

Vaticanus (B) Most of the Old Testament and all of New Testament up to Hebrews 9:15 (325-350 A.D.) Matthew 28, Mark 16:1-6; Luke 9:22; 24:1-8; John 20

Sinaiticus (340-350 A.D.) Matthew 28, Mark 16:1-6; Luke 9:22; 24:1-8, John 20

 

From the Council of Nicea I to the Council of Ephesus (325-431 A.D.)

Council of Nicea (325 A.D.) Creed p.3 "one Lord Jesus Christ, the Son of God, the only-begotten of his Father… very God of Very God… By whom all things were made… was made man He suffered … rose again, and ascended into heaven. And he shall come again to judge both the quick and the dead."

Private Creed of Arius (328 A.D.) "And in the Lord Jesus Christ, his Son, who was begotten of him before all ages, the Divine Logos, through whom all things were made, both those in the heavens and those on the earth; who came down and was made flesh; and suffered; and rose again; and ascended to the heavens;"

Eusebius’ Ecclesiastical History (323-339/340 A.D.) book 1 ch.2 p.85 says the Jesus suffered, was resurrected, and ascended to heaven.

Hegemonius of Sirmium (4th century) "But if your allegation is true, that He was not born, then it will follow undoubtedly that He did not suffer; for it is not possible for one to suffer who was not also born. But if He did not suffer, then the name of the cross is done away with. And if the cross was not endured, then Jesus did not rise from the dead. And if Jesus rose not from the dead, then no other person will rise again." Archelaus Disputation with Manes ch.49 p.225. See also ibid ch.34 p.208

Athanasius of Alexandria (356-360 A.D.) "He [Jesus] was the first to rise, as man, for our sakes raising His own Body." Four Discourses Against the Arians discourse 2 ch.61 p.381

Athanasius of Alexandria (328 A.D.) mentions that Jesus was crucified, died, rose from the dead, and taken up into heaven. Statement of Faith p.84.

Athanasius of Alexandria (330 A.D.) says that Jesus rose from the dead. Easter Letter 2 ch.7 p.512. See also Four Discourses Against the Arians (356-360 A.D.) discourse 1 ch.44 p.332 and discourse 4 ch.33 p.441 form Him rising bodily.

Synod of Antioch in Encaeniis (341 A.D.) (implied by Nicea) Canon 1 p.108 says to excommunicate people who presume to set Nice[a] under Constantine.

Council of Sirmium (Greek creed) 351 A.D. only begotten Son, before all ages, God of God, word made flesh [incarnation], man, virgin, crucified, died, rose on the third day, received up into heaven, first and last, all things made through Christ. Socrates Ecclesiastical History book 2 ch.30 in Nicene and Post-Nicene Fathers 2nd Series vol.2 p.56-57.

Synod of Seleucia in Isauria (357/358 A.D.) says that Christ suffered for our sins, rose again, ascended. In Socrates’ Ecclesiastical History book 2 ch.40 in The Nicene and post-Nicene Fathers Second series vol.2 p.60

Ephraim the Syrian (350-378 A.D.) mentions the resurrection of Jesus. Nisibine Hymns hymn 3 no.6 p.171

Gregory of Nyssa (382-383 A.D.) said that Jesus was resurrected. Against Eunomius book 6 ch.4 p.189

Cyril of Jerusalem (349-386 A.D.) teaches that Jesus rose from the dead. First Catechetical Lecture 4 ch.9 Nicene & Post-Nicene Fathers p.20

Gregory Nazianzen (330-391) that Jesus is buried but rises again. On the Son - Third Theological Oration ch.20 p.309. See also On Pentecost ch.5 p.381

Pacian of Barcelona (343/377-379/392 A.D.) says that Christ rose again on the third day. On Baptism ch.4 p.91

Pacian of Barcelona (342-379/392 A.D.) Christ rose from the dead. Letter 3 ch.9.3 p.49

Epiphanius of Salamis (360-403 A.D.) says that Jesus rose from the dead and assumed into heaven in the same body. Jesus sits on the right hand of God the Father. (Panarion 1.1, as quoted in The Two Natures in Christ, p.356)

Epiphanius of Salamis (360-403 A.D.) The savior rose from the dead and ate broiled fish. The virgin shall conceive. The Panarion section 2 ch.30,19,4 p.135

Augustine of Hippo (388-430 A.D.) says that Jesus rose on the third day. City of God book 1 ch.13 p.10

John Cassian (410-430 A.D.) mentions the Lord’s resurrection First Conference of the Abbot Moses ch.14 p.218

 

From the Council of Ephesus to the start of Muslim conquests (431-634 A.D.)

Nestorius (451/452 A.D.) Christ suffered and died and rose and is ready to come to judge the quick and the dead. The Bazaar of Heracleides book 2 ch.1 p.177.

Nestorius (451/452 A.D.) Christ’s resurrection. The Bazaar of Heracleides book 1 part 1 ch.83 p.75 and book 1 part 1 ch.49.

Nestorius (451/452 A.D.) Christ suffered and died and rose and is ready to come to judge the quick and the dead. The Bazaar of Heracleides book 2 ch.1 p.177

Leo I of Rome (422-461 A.D.) mentions our Savior’s resurrection. Sermon 71.2 p.182

Council of Constantinople II (May 553 A.D.) says that Jesus Christ rose from the dead. The Capitula of the Council ch.12 p.315

 

Among heretics

The Vision of Paul (c.388 A.D. – after Nicea) ch.41 p.162 punishments for those who said Christ did not rise from the dead and that the flesh will not rise again.

Pelagian heretic Theodore of Mopsuestia (392-423/429 A.D.) Discusses Christ’s resurrection. Commentary on Jonah preface p.187

There are probably more besides these too, though Gnostics generally believed Christ only rose spiritually.

 

Jp19. Jesus rose on/after three days

 

&&&Council of Nicea (325 A.D.)

Epiphanius of Salamis (360-403 A.D.) Christ died and rose on the third day. The Panarion section 3 scholion 15 and 23 p.327

 

Jp20. Jesus ascended to heaven

 

Matthew 28:16-20; Mark 16:19-20; Luke 24:44-53; Ephesians 4:8; (partial) 1 Peter 3:22; (partial, return only) 2 Thessalonians 4:16

 

Ascended: Luke 24:50-51; Mark 16:19; 1 Peter 3:22; 1 Timothy 3:16b

Visible return in power and glory: Revelation 1:7; Matthew 24:26-27, 30; Luke 21:27

Ascended and will return: Acts 1:9-11

 

Vaticanus (B) Most of the Old Testament and all of New Testament up to Hebrews 9:15 (325-350 A.D.) Matthew 28:16-20; Luke 24:44-53

Sinaiticus (340-350 A.D.) Matthew 28:16-20; Luke 24:44-53

 

From the Council of Nicea I to the Council of Ephesus (325-431 A.D.)

Council of Nicea (325 A.D.) Creed p.3 "one Lord Jesus Christ, the Son of God, the only-begotten of his Father… very God of Very God… By whom all things were made… was made man He suffered … rose again, and ascended into heaven. And he shall come again to judge both the quick and the dead."

Private Creed of Arius (328 A.D.) "We believe in one God, the Father Almighty; And in the Lord Jesus Christ, his Son, who was begotten of him before all ages, the Divine Logos, through whom all things were made, both those in the heavens and those on the earth; who came down and was made flesh; and suffered; and rose again; and ascended to the heavens;"

Eusebius’ Ecclesiastical History (323-339/340 A.D.) book 1 ch.2 p.85 says the Jesus suffered, was resurrected, and ascended to heaven.

Athanasius of Alexandria (328 A.D.) mentions that Jesus was crucified, died, rose from the dead, and taken up into heaven. Statement of Faith p.84.

Synod of Antioch in Encaeniis (341 A.D.) (implied by Nicea) Canon 1 p.108 says to excommunicate people who presume to set Nice[a] under Constantine.

Council of Sirmium (Greek creed) 351 A.D. only begotten Son, before all ages, God of God, word made flesh [incarnation], man, virgin, crucified, died, rose on the third day, received up into heaven, first and last, all things made through Christ. Socrates Ecclesiastical History book 2 ch.30 in Nicene and Post-Nicene Fathers 2nd Series vol.2 p.56-57.

Synod of Seleucia in Isauria (357/358 A.D.) says that Christ suffered for our sins, rose again, ascended. In Socrates’ Ecclesiastical History book 2 ch.40 in The Nicene and post-Nicene Fathers Second series vol.2 p.60

Gregory of Nyssa (382-383 A.D.) Jesus ascended to heaven. Against Eunomius book 12 ch.1 p.242

Gregory of Nazianzen (330-391 A.D.) mentions Jesus’ resurrection and ascension. Oration on Pentecost ch.5 p.381

Cyril of Jerusalem (349-386 A.D.) says that Jesus ascended into heaven. First Catechetical Lecture 4 ch.13 Nicene & Post-Nicene Fathers p.22

Gregory Nazianzen (330-391) says that Jesus ascends to Heaven and will return to judge the quick and the dead. On the Son - Third Theological Oration ch.20 p.309

Epiphanius of Salamis (360-403 A.D.) says that Jesus rose from the dead and assumed into heaven in the same body. Jesus sits on the right hand of God the Father. (Panarion 1.1, as quoted in The Two Natures in Christ, p.356)

Epiphanius of Salamis (360-403 A.D.) Savior’s ascension The Panarion section 3 ch.44 p.345

Orosius/Hosius of Braga (414-418 A.D.) says that the Lord will come. Defense Against the Pelagians ch.13 p.132

Augustine of Hippo (388-430 A.D.) mentions the Trinity, only one God, distinction between the three but the same substance in indivisible equality. Christ was born of the Virgin Mary, crucified under Pontius Pilate, and buried, rose again the third day, and ascended into heaven. On the Trinity book 1 ch.4.7 p.20

 

From the Council of Ephesus to the start of Muslim conquests (431-634 A.D.)

Nestorius (451/452 A.D.) (partial) Sophronius says, "speaking of him who has ben taken up and sits on the right hand of the Father, who is the Son in the image and glory of the Son," The Bazaar of Heracleides book 1 ch.1.55

Leo I of Rome (422-461 A.D.) says quotes Acts and Jesus ascending to heaven in Sermon 75.4 p.189

 

TIMELESS TitleS of Jesus

 

t1. Jesus is the/our Lord

 

Romans 1:4b; 1 Corinthians 8:6; 12:3b; 2 Corinthians 1:2b; Galatians 1:3; Ephesians 1:2; Philippians 1:2; Colossians 1:3; 1 Thessalonians 1:3; 2 Thessalonians 1:1b; 1 Timothy 1:2b; 2 Timothy 1:2; Philemon 3; James 1:1; 1 Peter 1:3; 2 Peter 1:8; and others

(partial) 1 Corinthians 7:22 (Lord’s freedman and Christ’s slave)

 

From the Council of Nicea I to the Council of Ephesus (325-431 A.D.)

Private Creed of Arius (328 A.D.) "We believe in one God, the Father Almighty; And in the Lord Jesus Christ, his Son,"

Eusebius of Caesarea (323-339/340 A.D.) "dispensation of our Saviour and Lord Jesus Christ." Eusebius’ Ecclesiastical History book 1 ch.1.3 p.81

Hegemonius of Sirmium (4th century) mentions Jesus as our Lord in his Archelaus Disputation with Manes ch.27 p.200.

Hilary of Poitiers (355-367/368 A.D.) says that there is one Lord, Jesus Christ, who is "true God". On the Trinity book 1 ch.38 p.51

Athanasius of Alexandria (337 A.D.) says that Christ is our Lord and Savior. Circular Letter ch3 p.92

Constitutions of the Holy Apostles (380 A.D._ book 5 ch.7 p.439 "For the Almighty God Himself will raise us up through our Lord Jesus Christ,…"

Gregory of Nyssa (382-383 A.D.) talks of our "Lord Jesus Christ". Against Eunomius book 10 ch.4 p.226

Rufinus (374-406 A.D.) quotes 2 Thessalonians 2:8,9 "…whom the Lord Jesus…" as by the Apostle. Commentary on the Apostles’ Creed ch.34 p.556

John Chrysostom (before 407 A.D.) mentions the father, and Holy ghost along with Jesus our Lord. Commentary on Philippians Introductory discourse p.183

John Chrysostom (martyred 407 A.D.) "For as the master of the Church has many names: being called the Father, and the way, and the life, and the light, and the arm, and the propitiation, and the foundation, and the door, and the sinless one, and the treasure, and Lord, and God, and Son, and the only begotten, and the form of God, and the image of God…" Eutropius, and the Vanity of Riches vol.9 ch.6 p.256

Augustine of Hippo (380-430 A.D.) teaches on Thomas seeing Jesus after Jesus’ resurrection and saying to Jesus, "My Lord and My God." On the Gospel of John Tractate 121 ch.20.5 vol.7 p.438.

 

From the Council of Ephesus to the start of Muslim conquests (431-634 A.D.)

Patrick of Ireland (420-461 A.D.) "[T]here is no other God, nor has there been heretofore, nor will there be hereafter, except God the Father unbegotten, without beginning, from whom is all beginning, upholding all things, as we say, and his Son Jesus Christ, whom we likewise to confess to have always been with the Father--before the world’s beginning . . . Jesus Christ is the Lord and God in whom we believe . . . and who has poured out on us abundantly the Holy Spirit . . . whom we confess and adore as one God in the Trinity of the Sacred Name" Confession of St. Patrick 4

 

Among heretics

Pelagian heretic Theodore of Mopsuestia (392-423/429 A.D.) calls "Christ the Lord" Commentary on Amos ch.9 p.170

The Ebionite Gospel of pseudo-Matthew (600-625 A.D.) ch.13 p.375 "And some shepherds also affirmed that they had seen angels singing a hymn at midnight, praising and blessing the God of heaven, and saying: There has been born the Saviour of all, who is Christ the Lord, in whom salvation shall be brought back to Israel."

The Ebionite Gospel of pseudo-Matthew (600-625 A.D.) preface p.368 speaks of the "Lord Jesus Christ"

 

t2. King of Kings and/or Lord of Lords

 

Revelation 19:16

 

From the Council of Nicea I to the Council of Ephesus (325-431 A.D.)

Ephraim the Syrian (350-378 A.D.) calls Jesus the King of Kings. Nisibine Hymns hymn 58 no.10 p.211

Athanasius of Alexandria (357 A.D.) "O Christ, Lord and true King of kings, Only-begotten Son of God, Word and Wisdom of the Father," Defense before Constantius ch.17 p.244

Rufinus (410 A.D.) freely translated Origen (240 A.D.) mentions that Jesus is the King of Kings. Commentary on the Song of Songs prologue p.51

Pope Celestine to the Synod of Ephesus (432 A.D.) p.221 (partial) mentions the King of Kings, but does not explicitly say it is Jesus.

 

From the Council of Ephesus to the start of Muslim conquests (431-634 A.D.)

Nestorius (451/452 A.D.) King of Kings and Lord of Lords. The Bazaar of Heracleides book 2 ch.1(b) p.221

 

t3. Jesus is the Alpha and Omega

 

Revelation 1:8

 

From the Council of Nicea I to the Council of Ephesus (325-431 A.D.)

Athanasius of Alexandria (356-360 A.D.) quotes "John in the Apocalypse" saying Jesus is the Alpha and Omega. Four Discourses Against the Arians discourse 4 ch.28 p.444

Council of Sirmium (Greek creed) 351 A.D. (partial) calls Jesus the first and last. Socrates Ecclesiastical History book 2 ch.30 in Nicene and Post-Nicene Fathers 2nd Series vol.2 p.56-57.

 

t4. Jesus is the Door or Gate

 

John 10:7

 

From the Council of Nicea I to the Council of Ephesus (325-431 A.D.)

Athanasius of Alexandria (356-360 A.D.) "For in It the Lord becomes our guide to the Kingdom of Heaven and to His own Father, saying, ‘I am the way’ and ‘the door,’ and ‘through me all must enter.’" Four Discourses Against the Arians discourse 2 ch.61 p.381

Cyril of Jerusalem (349-386 A.D.) says that Jesus is the Door and the Shepherd. First Catechetical Lecture 10 ch.3 Nicene & Post-Nicene Fathers p.57

Gregory of Nyssa (382-383 A.D.) calls Jesus the door. Against Eunomius book 10 ch.1 p.220

Gregory Nanzianzen (330-391 A.D.) says that Jesus is word, door, lamb, shepherd, high priest, first born. In Defense of His Flight to Pontus ch.98 p.224

Gregory Nanzianzen (330-391 A.D.) (partial) says that the mysterious doors of Heaven are opened; the rocks are cleft, the dead arise." (Jesus opens the door, but does not say Jesus is the door though.) On the Son - Third Theological Oration ch.20 p.309

John Chrysostom (martyred 407 A.D.) "For as the master of the Church has many names: being called the Father, and the way, and the life, and the light, and the arm, and the propitiation, and the foundation, and the door, and the sinless one, and the treasure, and Lord, and God, and Son, and the only begotten, and the form of God, and the image of God…" Eutropius, and the Vanity of Riches vol.9 ch.6 p.256

Augustine of Hippo (388-430 A.D.) says that no doors bring escape except the One that says "I am the door" [John 10:9]. The City of God book 7 ch.8 p.127

 

t5. Christ is the Image of God

 

Colossians 1:15, (implied) Colossians 2:9; Hebrews 1:3

 

From the Council of Nicea I to the Council of Ephesus (325-431 A.D.)

Macrostich Creed (344/345 A.D.) says that Christ is the Son of God, the Mediator, and the Image of God from eternity past Socrates Ecclesiastical History book 2 ch.19 in Nicene and Post-Nicene Fathers 2nd Series vol.2 p.45

Hilary of Poitiers (355-367/368 A.D.) says that the Son is the image of the Father. Of the Synods ch.18 p.8

Athanasius of Alexandria (356-360 A.D.) says that Jesus is in the image of God. Four Discourses Against the Arians discourse 2 ch.18.49 p.375

Ambrose of Milan (378-381 A.D.) says Jesus is the image of God On the Christian Faith book 1 ch.7.48 p.208. See also Concerning Repentance (c.384 A.D.) book 1 ch.9 no.41 p.336

John Chrysostom (martyred 407 A.D.) "For as the master of the Church has many names: being called the Father, and the way, and the life, and the light, and the arm, and the propitiation, and the foundation, and the door, and the sinless one, and the treasure, and Lord, and God, and Son, and the only begotten, and the form of God, and the image of God…" Eutropius, and the Vanity of Riches vol.9 ch.6 p.256

 

From the Council of Ephesus to the start of Muslim conquests (431-634 A.D.)

Nestorius (451/452 A.D.) says that Christ is the image of the Father. The Bazaar of Heracleides book 1 part 1 ch.60.

 

t6. Jesus is the/our Rock/Stone/Cornerstone

 

Acts 4:10-11; 1 Corinthians 10:4; Ephesians 2:20; 1 Peter 2:4,6-7

~Matthew 21:42: ~Mark 12:10; ~Luke 20:17-19

 

From the Council of Nicea I to the Council of Ephesus (325-431 A.D.)

Athanasius of Alexandria (339 A.D.) says, "they [believers] are founded upon a rock; which is Christ." Easter Letter 11 ch.4 p.534

Ambrose of Milan (370-390 A.D.) says, "Christ is the cornerstone" Of the Holy Spirit book 2 ch.10.111 p.129

 

t7. Jesus is the Light or Light of Light

 

John 1:4-9; 8:12; 9:5

 

From the Council of Nicea I to the Council of Ephesus (325-431 A.D.)

Eusebius of Caesarea (318-339-340 A.D.) says the Word was the Ligh which was before the world. Eusebius’ Ecclesiastical History book 1 ch.2 p.82.

The Macrostich Creed (344/345 A.D.) says Jesus is "Light of Light" On the Councils (=de Synodis) part 1 ch.26 p.462-464

First Council of Sirmium (351 A.D.) says Jesus is "Light of Light" On the Councils (=de Synodis) part 1 ch.26 p.464

Ephraim/Ephrem, Syrian hymn-writer (350-378 A.D.) calls Jesus the Light Hymns on the Nativity hymn 3 p.235

Athanasius of Alexandria (356-360 A.D.) says Jesus is the Light Four Discourses Against the Arians discourse 2 ch.54 p.377

Gregory of Nyssa (382-383 A.D.) calls Jesus God, the Word of God, Life, and Light in Against Eunomius book 10 ch.4 p.225

Cyril of Jerusalem (c.349-386 A.D.) "Believe also in the Son of God, the one and only, our Lord Jesus Christ, who is God begotten of God, who is life begotten of life, who is light begotten of light, who is in all things like unto the begetter, and who did not come to exist in time but was before all the ages, eternally and incomprehensibly begotten of the Father. He is the Wisdom of God" First Catechetical Lectures lecture 4 ch.7 p.20.

Council of Ephesus (431 A.D.) calls Jesus "Light of Light, Very God of very God" Cyril of Nestorius p.202

 

From the Council of Ephesus to the start of Muslim conquests (431-634 A.D.)

Nestorius (451/452 A.D.) says that Christ is Light. The Bazaar of Heracleides book 1 part 1 ch.54.

Pope Vigilius’ Letter to the Council of Constantinople II p.321 (553 A.D.) says that Christ is the true light.

Venantius (lived ca.530-609 A.D.) speaks of the presence of light and that darkness flees by the brightness of Christ. Poem on Easter p.330

 

t8. Jesus is our Shepherd

 

Matthew 2:6; 26:31; Mark 14:27; John 10:11,14; Hebrews 13:20; 1 Peter 2:25; 5:4; Revelation 7:17

 

From the Council of Nicea I to the Council of Ephesus (325-431 A.D.)

Rufinus (410 A.D.) freely translated Origen (240 A.D.) (implied) says "that He [Jesus] might gather the Church into one flock, is Himself the true Ecclesiast; for an ecclesiast takes his title from his function of assembling the ecclesia." … Christ becomes our Ecclesiast too," Commentary on the Song of Songs prologue p.51-52

Ephraim/Ephrem, Syrian hymn-writer (350-378 A.D.) calls Jesus "the Shepherd of all" Hymns on the Nativity Hymn 3 p.232.

Athanasius of Alexandria (356-360 A.D.) says that Jesus is our Shepherd. Four Discourses Against the Arians discourse 1 ch.12 p.313

Gregory Nazianzen (330-391 A.D.) mentions Jesus being from the virgin, the angels glorifying Jesus, and calls Jesus the Lamb and the Shepherd. The star led the Magi to worship and offer gifts. Jesus was baptized, and fasted, and was tempted. Devils were cast out and diseases healed. In Defense of His Flight to Pontus ch.24 p.210

Gregory Nazianzen (330-391) says that Jesus is word, door, lamb, shepherd, high priest, first born. In Defense of His Flight to Pontus ch.98 p.224

Pacian of Barcelona (342-379/392 A.D.) Christ is the bishop and shepherd of our souls. Letter 1 ch.7.2 p.26

Niceta of Remesianus (366-415 A.D.) taught that Jesus was the Good Shepherd. Instructions for Candidates for Baptism ch.6 p.204

Augustine of Hippo (380-430 A.D.) says that Jesus is the good Shepherd, who laid down His own life for His sheep" See also On the Gospel of John Tractate 123 ch.21.5 vol.7 p.447.

 

Theodore Balsamon (c.1170 A.D.) "For if he who has committed the lesser fault, of leaving for more than six months the people placed under him destitute of the care and administration of a pastor, incurs the privation of the episcopate and of his sacred dignity; he who offends in a way greater and much more grievous, namely, in deserting altogether the multitude which the grace of the Holy Spirit has committed to him to be cared for and guarded, shall deservedly be punished with greater severity, and will pay the heavier penalty of losing, as far as he is concerned, the flock of which he was appointed shepherd by the great and chief Shepherd and High Priest." Balsamon’s commentary on Peter of Alexandria ANF vol.6 p.275

 

t9. Jesus Christ is the Lamb of God

 

John 1:29; Revelation 5:5

1 Peter 1:19 (lamb without blemish or defect)

 

From the Council of Nicea I to the Council of Ephesus (325-431 A.D.)

Athanasius of Alexandria (329 A.D.) mentions Jesus as the sheep and lamb. His sacrifice was purified by His precious blood. Easter Letter 1 ch.9 p.509

Ephraim the Syrian (350-378 A.D.) (implied) teaches that Jesus is the Lamb of God. Nativity Hymns hymn 2 p.228

Cyril of Jerusalem (c.349-386 A.D.) says that Jesus is the Lamb of God. Catechical Lectures Lecture 13 ch.2 p.82

Gregory Nazianzen (330-391) mentions that Jesus is the Lamb as well as God. On the Son - Third Theological Oration ch.20 p.309. See also where he calls Jesus the Lamb in Orations on the Holy Lights ch.16 p.358

Gregory Nazianzen (330-391 A.D.) mentions Jesus being from the virgin, the angels glorifying Jesus, and calls Jesus the Lamb and the Shepherd. The star led the Magi to worship and offer gifts. Jesus was baptized, and fasted, and was tempted. Devils were cast out and diseases healed. In Defense of His Flight to Pontus ch.24 p.210

Gregory Nazianzen (330-391) says that Jesus is word, door, lamb, shepherd, high priest, first born. In Defense of His Flight to Pontus ch.98 p.224

Orosius/Hosius of Braga (414-418 A.D.) Christ is the lamb. Defense Against the Pelagians ch.15 p.134

Orosius/Hosius of Braga (414-418 A.D.) (partial) says the Word was God and all things were made through Him. He is the only Son of the Father He had no sin, was the lamb of God, crucified, died, the only-begotten, and the first born. Defense Against the Pelagians ch.25 p.151

Augustine of Hippo (388-430 A.D.) speaks of the lamb that takes away the sin of the world. On the Trinity book 15 ch.24.43 p.223

 

From the Council of Ephesus to the start of Muslim conquests (431-634 A.D.)

Nestorius (451/452 A.D.) Jesus is the "lamb of God" The Bazaar of Heracleides book 1 part 1 ch.55 p.51

Leo I of Rome (422-461 A.D.) (implied) says that Christ was offered to God for the world’s salvation. He was the true lamb. Sermon 68.3 p.181

 

t10. Jesus is a Lion / as a lion’s whelp

 

Revelation 5:5

 

From the Council of Nicea I to the Council of Ephesus (325-431 A.D.)

Cyril of Jerusalem (c.349-386 A.D.) says that Jesus was as a lion. Catechical Lectures Lecture 10 ch.3 p.57-58

 

t11. Son/Jesus was/was begotten before the morning star

 

From the Council of Nicea I to the Council of Ephesus (325-431 A.D.)

Eusebius of Caesarea (323-339/340 A.D.) says Jesus was before the morning star. Eusebius’ Ecclesiastical History book 1 ch.3.18 p.87

Athanasius of Alexandria (356-360 A.D.) "But that the Son has no beginning of being, but before He ws made man was ever with the Father, John makes clear in his first Epistle," and quotes 1 John 1:1-2. Four Discourses Against the Arians discourse 4 ch.26 p.443.. See also ibid discourse 4 ch.24 p.442.

Athanasius of Alexandria (356-360 A.D.) Jesus was "before the morning star" Four Discourses Against the Arians discourse 4 ch.27 and 28 p.444.

 

t12. Jesus/the cross the wisdom and power of God

 

From the Council of Nicea I to the Council of Ephesus (325-431 A.D.)

Athanasius of Alexandria (c.371 A.D.) "the crucified Christ is at once Lord of Glory, and the Power of God and Wisdom of God." Letter 61 ch.1 p.578

 

John of Damascus (706-749 A.D.) says that Christ is "the power of God and the wisdom of God". Exposition of the Orthodox Faith ch.11 p.80

 

t13. Christ is the Holy One of God

 

p88 Mark 2:1-16 (350 A.D.) (implied, the demon is speaking) Mark 2:24

 

From the Council of Nicea I to the Council of Ephesus (325-431 A.D.)

Hegemonius of Sirmium (4th century) (partial) "We know Thee, who Thou art, the holy God,’" Archelaus Disputation with Manes ch.48 p.225

 

t14. Jesus / the Son is the Logos

 

John 1:1 (partial, does not say Jesus or the Son here)

 

From the Council of Nicea I to the Council of Ephesus (325-431 A.D.)

Athanasius of Alexandria (356-360 A.D.) says that Jesus is the Logos. Four Discourses Against the Arians discourse 4 ch.22 p.442

 

 

t15. [Christ] the King/Lord of glory

 

1 Corinthians 2:6-8

 

From the Council of Nicea I to the Council of Ephesus (325-431 A.D.)

Athanasius of Alexandria (356-360 A.D.) says Christ is the Lord of glory. Four Discourses Against the Arians discourse 1 ch.38 p.328

 

INCARNATE TitleS of Jesus

 

i1. Jesus is the first-born (not just of Mary)

 

Romans 8:29; Colossians 1:15; 1:18; Hebrews 1:6; 12:23; Revelation 1:5

 

From the Council of Nicea I to the Council of Ephesus (325-431 A.D.)

Eusebius’ Ecclesiastical History (323-339/340 A.D.) book 1 ch.2.4 p.82 calls Jesus "the first-born Word"

Athanasius of Alexandria (326-372/373 A.D.) "as Paul in another place calls him ‘first-born of all creation’ (Colossians 1:15). But by calling him First-born, He shews that He is not a Creature, but Offspring of the Father. For it would be inconsistent with his deity for Him to be called a creature. For all things were created by the Father through the Son, but the Son alone was eternally begotten from the Father, whence God the Word is ‘first-born of all creation,’ unchangeable from unchangeable. However, the body which He wore for our sakes is a creature." Statement of Faith ch.3 p.85. See also Four Discourses Against the Arians (356-360 A.D.) discourse 2 ch.61 p.381

Ephraim/Ephrem, Syrian hymn-writer (350-378 A.D.) "Lo! The First-born has opened unto us His feast as a treasure-house." Hymns on the Nativity Hymn 4 p.235. See also Nisibine Hymns hymn 38 no.7 p.200.

Gregory of Nyssa (382-383 A.D.) calls Jesus the firstborn. Against Eunomius

Ambrose of Milan (378-381 A.D.) calls Jesus "the first-begotten of all creation." On the Christian Faith book 1 ch.7.48 p.208

John Chrysostom (died 407 A.D.) has an extensive discussion of how Christ is the first born. After differentiating being Christ being called firstborn" but not "first created", says one meaning is "firstborn from the dead" (Colossians 1:18; Romans 8:29) refers to the first resurrected [he forgot to say in a glorified body]. "So also the word ‘firstborn,’ in the sense of a foundation. But this doth not show the creatures to be consubstantial with Him; but that all things are through Him, and in Him are upheld." Homilies on Colossians homily 3 p.270-271

Rufinus (410 A.D.) freely translated Origen (240 A.D.) says that Christ is the firstborn of all creation. Commentary on the Song of Songs ch.1 p.59

 

i2. Christ is the Second/Last Adam

 

Romans 5:14-16

 

From the Council of Nicea I to the Council of Ephesus (325-431 A.D.)

Athanasius of Alexandria (356-360 A.D.) calls Jesus the second Adam. Four Discourses Against the Arians discourse 1 ch.51 p.336

 

From the Council of Ephesus to the start of Muslim conquests (431-634 A.D.)

Nestorius (451/452 A.D.) Christ was the second Adam. The Bazaar of Heracleides book 2 ch.12(b) p.235

 

i3. Jesus called Emmanuel (God with us)

 

Isaiah 7:14; Matthew 1:23

 

From the Council of Nicea I to the Council of Ephesus (325-431 A.D.)

Athanasius of Alexandria (356-360 A.D.) Jesus is called Emmanuel. Four Discourses Against the Arians discourse 1 ch.55 p.338

Pacian of Barcelona (342-379/392 A.D.) Christ was called Emmanuel. On Baptism ch.3.1 p.89

 

i4. Jesus is our High Priest

 

Hebrews 2:17; 3:1; 4:14; 8:1

 

From the Council of Nicea I to the Council of Ephesus (325-431 A.D.)

Eusebius of Caesarea (323-339/340 A.D.) says the High Priest in the Old Testament was a type of Christ. Eusebius’ Ecclesiastical History book 1 ch.3 p.80. He is our high priest in book 1 ch.3.8 p.86.

Athanasius of Alexandria (356-360 A.D.) discusses Jesus’ high priesthood and godhead in Four Discourses Against the Arians discourse 2 ch.14.10 p.353. See also discourse 2 ch.7 p.351 and discourse 1 ch.8 p.353

Constitutions of the Holy Apostles (c.380 A.D.) book 5 ch.6 p.439 "believing in the one and the only true God and Father, through Jesus Christ, the great High Priest, and Redeemer of our souls, and rewarder of our sufferings."

Gregory Nazianzen (330-391) says that Jesus is word, door, lamb, shepherd, high priest, first born. In Defense of His Flight to Pontus ch.98 p.224

Augustine of Hippo (388-430 A.D.) says Jesus is out great High Priest. The City of God book 10 ch.6 p.184

Augustine of Hippo (388-430 A.D.) (partial) discusses how Christ is both King and Priest after the order of Melchizedek. He does not actually say "High Priest" though. The City of God book 17 ch.17 p.355

 

i5. Jesus is our Physician/Doctor

 

Mark 2:17 (Implied)

 

From the Council of Nicea I to the Council of Ephesus (325-431 A.D.)

Athanasius of Alexandria (335-342 A.D.) "that the Word Himself might be made Flesh, and by taking the Flesh, restore it wholly. For to Him, as to a physician, man ‘was delivered’ to heal the bite of the serpent; as to life to raise what was dead; as to light, to illumine the darkness…" On Luke 10:22 ch.2 p.87

Ephraim the Syrian (350-378 A.D.) says that Jesus is the Physician. Nativity Hymns hymn 2 p.228

 

i6. Jesus is the Way

 

John 14:6

 

Note that references merely saying Jesus showed us the way are not included here.

 

From the Council of Nicea I to the Council of Ephesus (325-431 A.D.)

Athanasius of Alexandria (356-360 A.D.) "For in It the Lord becomes our guide to the Kingdom of Heaven and to His own Father, saying, ‘I am the way’ and ‘the door,’ and ‘through me all must enter.’" Four Discourses Against the Arians discourse 2 ch.61 p.381

John Chrysostom (martyred 407 A.D.) "For as the master of the Church has many names: being called the Father, and the way, and the life, and the light, and the arm, and the propitiation, and the foundation, and the door, and the sinless one, and the treasure, and Lord, and God, and Son, and the only begotten, and the form of God, and the image of God…" Eutropius, and the Vanity of Riches vol.9 ch.6 p.256

 

i7. Jesus is the Truth

 

John 14:6

 

From the Council of Nicea I to the Council of Ephesus (325-431 A.D.)

John Chrysostom (martyred 407 A.D.) "For as the master of the Church has many names: being called the Father, and the way, and the life, and the light, and the arm, and the propitiation, and the foundation, and the door, and the sinless one, and the treasure, and Lord, and God, and Son, and the only begotten, and the form of God, and the image of God…" Eutropius, and the Vanity of Riches vol.9 ch.6 p.256

 

Among heretics

X Mandaeans (>350?) said that Jesus altered the words of truth. Ginza p.550

 

i8. Jesus is our/the Life

 

John 10:10; 14:6; Colossians 3:3; 1 John 5:11-12

(implied) John 4:14; Galatians 2:20

 

From the Council of Nicea I to the Council of Ephesus (325-431 A.D.)

Athanasius of Alexandria (326-372/373 A.D.) says that Jesus is our Life. On the Opinions of Dionysius ch.18-19 p.183

John Chrysostom (martyred 407 A.D.) "For as the master of the Church has many names: being called the Father, and the way, and the life, and the light, and the arm, and the propitiation, and the foundation, and the door, and the sinless one, and the treasure, and Lord, and God, and Son, and the only begotten, and the form of God, and the image of God…" Eutropius, and the Vanity of Riches vol.9 ch.6 p.256

 

i9. Jesus is the Bread or Bread of Life

 

John 6:35

 

From the Council of Nicea I to the Council of Ephesus (325-431 A.D.)

Athanasius of Alexandria (335 A.D.) quotes John 6:35. Easter Letter 7 ch.10 p.527

Aquila in discussing Hippolytus says that Jesus says He is the bread of life. Fragment 1 Genesis 49:16-20 (ANF vol.5) p.166

 

i10. Jesus is the Vine

 

John 16:1-7

 

From the Council of Nicea I to the Council of Ephesus (325-431 A.D.)

Athanasius of Alexandria (326-372/373 A.D.) says Jesus is the vine. On the Opinions of Dionysius ch.10 p.180

Rufinus (410 A.D.) freely translated Origen (240 A.D.) "I am the true Vine; His heavenly Father is the Husbandman who makes it in the press." Commentary on the Song of Songs book 3 ch.6 p.186

 

i11. Jesus is the Messiah

 

Athanasius of Alexandria (326-372 A.D.) "For the Psalmist, having called Him the Anointed One, that is Messiah or Christ, fortwith declares His human birth by saying, Harken, O daughter, and see; the only difference being that Gabriel addresses Mary by an epithet, because he is of another race from her, while David fitly calls her his own daughter, because it was from him that she should spring." Athanasius on Psalms

 

i12. Jesus a star rising out of Jacob

 

^^^

 

i13. Christ is of the root of Jesse

 

^^^

 

i14. Jesus is the descendent/seed of David

 

(The phrase "Son of David" does not specify biological or adopted, so that is not counted here.)

 

Luke 2 Romans 1:3; 2 Timothy 2:8 (implied Luke 3:21-31)

(partial) Matthew 1:6; Luke 1:69 is legal, not biological

(partial) Luke 1:32 (not specified if father/son is biological or legal)

Revelation 22:16

 

From the Council of Nicea I to the Council of Ephesus (325-431 A.D.)

Hegemonius of Sirmium (4th century) (implied) "Nay, He does not deign even to hear it said that He is David’s son." Archelaus Disputation with Manes ch.3 p.207.

Ephraim/Ephrem, Syrian hymn-writer (350-378 A.D.) calls Jesus the Son of David. Hymns on the Nativity Hymn 4 p.235

Athanasius of Alexandria (339 A.D.) says that Jesus was the seed of David. Easter Letter 11 ch.4 p.533

Augustine of Hippo (388-430 A.D.) call Christ the "seed of David of Judah" On the Psalms Psalm 76.1 p.355

 

Among heretics

The Ebionite Gospel of pseudo-Matthew (600-625 A.D.) ch.13 p.374 says Jesus is of the family of David.

 

i15. Jesus of Nazareth

 

Matthew 2:23-23; 4:12-13; 26:71

Mark 1:24; 10:27

Luke 2:39; 4:14-16; 4:34; 18:37; 24:19

John 1:45; 18:5; 18:7; 19:19

Acts 2:22; 3:6; 4:10; 6:14; 10:38; 22:8; 26:9

 

Athanasius of Alexandria (326-372/373 A.D.) refers to "Jesus of Nazareth". On the Opinion of Dionysius ch.7 p.178

 

From the Council of Ephesus to the start of Muslim conquests (431-634 A.D.)

Nestorius (451/452 A.D.) calls Jesus the Nazarene. The Bazaar of Heracleides book 1 part 1 ch.55.

 

After the Start of Muslim conquests (634 A.D.-)

John of Damascus (706-749 A.D.) mentions Jesus of Nazareth" Exposition of the Orthodox Faith ch.11 p.80

 

Among heretics

The Ebionite Gospel of pseudo-Matthew (600-625 A.D.) ch.32 p.380 says that Jesus lived in Nazareth as a boy.

 

i16. Jesus is the first fruits

 

^^^

 

i17. Jesus is the son of Abraham

 

Matthew 1:1,18

 

^^^

 

i18. The sign of Jonah refers to Jesus

 

Matthew 12:39-41; Luke 11:29-32

 

^^^

 

i19. Christ is the/our bridegroom

 

From the Council of Nicea I to the Council of Ephesus (325-431 A.D.)

Hegemonius of Sirmium (4th century) translating Archelaus "And the Lord Jesus Christ Himself gave His testimony to what we affirm, when He said with His heavenly voice, ‘Can ye make the children of the bride-chamber fast so long as the bridegroom is with them?’ And again, He did not actually reject circumcision; but we should rather say that He received in Himself and in our stead the cause of circumcision, relieving us by what He Himself endured, and not permitting us to have to suffer any pain to no purpose." (Archelaus is speaking) Disputation with Manes ch.42 p.&&&

Athanasius of Alexandria (331 A.D.) says that Christ is our bridegroom. History of the Arians book 4 ch.32 p.280

 

 

Purpose Of the Life of Jesus

 

p1. Jesus sent by the Father

 

John 17:18

 

Vaticanus (B) Most of the Old Testament and all of New Testament up to Hebrews 9:15 (325-350 A.D.)

 

p2. Jesus/Christ came to save us/is our Savior

 

From the Council of Nicea I to the Council of Ephesus (325-431 A.D.)

Eusebius of Caesarea (323-339/340 A.D.) "dispensation of our Saviour and Lord Jesus Christ." Eusebius’ Ecclesiastical History book 1 ch.1.3 p.81

Synod of Antioch in Encaeniis (341 A.D.) Synodal Letter p.107 "The grace and truth of our Lord and Saviour Jesus Christ"

Hegemonius of Sirmium (4th century) "There, Moses led forth his people from the midst of the Egyptians, and saved them; and here, Jesus, leading forth His people from the midst of the Pharisees, transferred them to an eternal salvation." Archelaus Disputation with Manes ch.44 p.220

Hegemonius of Sirmium (4th century) "But away with such a supposition in the case of our Lord Jesus Christ, the Saviour of every soul." (Archelaus is speaking) Archelaus Disputation with Manes ch.27 p.200

Philo of Carpasia (4th century) "Because of this he was named king, for he alone did priestly ministry within her. That is Jerusalem, a prophecy of the one who was to come, Jesus, Savior of the world."

Athanasius of Alexandria (356-360 A.D.) says that Jesus cam for our salvation. Four Discourses Against the Arians discourse 2 ch.47 p.374

 

From the Council of Ephesus to the start of Muslim conquests (431-634 A.D.)

Epitaph of Pectorius (300-500 A.D.) stanza 7 "I pray thee, Lord Savior, satisfy his hunger with the Fish."

Venantius (lived c.530-609 A.D.) says Christ is our Savior. Poem on Easter p.329

 

Among corrupt or spurious books

History of Joseph the Carpenter (4th century) ch.17 p.391 "O Jesus of Nazareth! Jesus, my Saviour!Jesus, the deliverer of my soul! Jesus, my protector! Jesus! O sweetest name in my moutn, and in the mouth of all those that love it!"

 

Among heretics

The Ebionite Gospel of pseudo-Matthew (600-625 A.D.) ch.&&&

 

p3. Jesus was tempted

 

Matthew 4:1-10; Mark 1:13; Luke 4:1-12; Hebrews 4:15

 

Vaticanus (B) Most of the Old Testament and all of New Testament up to Hebrews 9:15 (325-350 A.D.) Matthew 4:1-10; Mark 1:13; Luke 4:1-12

Sinaiticus (340-350 A.D.) Matthew 4:1-10; Mark 1:13; Luke 4:1-12

 

Eusebius of Caesarea (323-339/340 A.D.) in speaking of our Savior says, "For Matthew, after the forty day’s fast and the temptation which followed it, indicated the chronology of his work when he says," Eusebius’ Ecclesiastical History book 3 ch.24 p.153

Aphrahat the Syrian (337-345 A.D.) "9. Let us take pattern, my beloved, from our Saviour, Who though He was rich, made Himself poor; and though He was lofty, humbled His Majesty; and though His dwelling place was in heaven, He had no place to lay His head; and though He is to come upon the clouds, yet rode on a colt and so entered Jerusalem; and though He is God and Son of God, He took upon Him the likeness of a servant; and though He was (for others) rest from all weariness, yet was Himself tired with the weariness of the journey; though He was the fountain that quenches thirst, yet Himself thirsted and asked for water; though He was abundance and satisfied our hunger, yet He Himself hungered when He went forth to the wilderness to be tempted; though He was a Watcher that slumbers not, He yet slumbered and slept in the ship in the midst of the sea; and though He was ministered to in the Tabernacle of His Father, yet let Himself be served by the hands of men; though He was the healer of all sick men, yet nails were fastened into His hands; though His mouth brought forth things that were good, yet they gave Him gall to eat; though He injured no man and harmed none, yet He was beaten with stripes and endured shame; and though he was Saviour of all mortals, He delivered Himself to the death of the cross." Select Demonstrations Demonstration 6 ch.9 p.&&&

Hegemonius of Sirmium (4th century) "For forthwith Jesus was led by the Spirit into the wilderness to be tempted by the devil; and as the devil had no correct knowledge" Archelaus Disputation with Manes ch.50 p.228

Life of Antony (355 A.D.) ch.37 p.206 (implied) "But the Lord did not suffer us to be deceived by the devil, for He rebuked him whenever he framed such delusions against Him, saying: "Get behind me, Satan: for it is written, Thou shalt worship the Lord thy God, and Him only shalt thou serve.’"

Athanasius of Alexandria (326-372/373 A.D.) mentions that the devil tempted Jesus on the mount. To the Bishops of Egypt ch.2.14 p.230.

Ephraim the Syrian (350-378 A.D.) says that Satan tempted Jesus. Nisibine Hymns hymn 35 no.4 p.193-194

Gregory Nazianzen (330-391 A.D.) (partial) Jesus was baptized, and fasted, and was tempted. Devils were cast out and diseases healed. In Defense of His Flight to Pontus ch.24 p.210. See also On Pentecost ch.5 p.381

 

From the Council of Ephesus to the start of Muslim conquests (431-634 A.D.)

Nestorius (451/452 A.D.) Jesus endured temptation. The Bazaar of Heracleides book 1 part 1 ch.74 p.68

 

p4. Jesus sent to suffer [for us]

 

Matthew 16:21; "From that time on Jesus began to explain to his disciples that he must go to Jerusalem and suffer many things … and that he must be killed and on the third day be raised to life"

Matthew 17:12 "In the same way the Son of Man is going to suffer at their hands."

son of man Matthew 26:23-25

Matthew 26:38-39 (Jesus in the Garden of Gethsemane)

Mark 8:31 "He then began to teach them that the Son of man must suffer many things and be rejected by… and that he must be killed and after three days rise again."

Mark 9:12 "Why then is it written that the Son of Many must suffer much and be rejected"

Luke 9:22 "And he [Jesus] said, ‘The Son of Man must suffer many things and be rejected by… and he must be killed and on the third day be raised to life."

Luke 17:25 "but first he [the Son of Man] must suffer many things and be rejected by this generation."

Luke 22:15 "I have eagerly desired to eat this Passover with you before I suffer."

Luke 22:19b "This is my body given for you; do this in remembrance of me."

Luke 22:20b "This cup is the new covenant in my blood, which is poured out for you."

(partial) Luke 22:64 the soldiers mocked and beat Jesus

(partial) Luke 23:39 a thief hurled insults at Jesus

Luke 24:26 "He [Jesus] said to them, ‘How foolish you are, and how slow of heart to believe all that the prophets have spoken! Did not the Christ have to suffer these things and then enter his glory?’";

Acts 3:18 "But this is how God fulfilled what he had foretold through all the prophets, says that his Christ would suffer." (Peter is speaking)

Acts 17:3 [Paul was] "explaining and proving that the Christ had to suffer and rise from the dead."

Acts 26:22b-23 "I [Paul] am saying nothing beyond what the prophets and Moses said would happen – that the Christ would suffer and, as the first to rise from the dead, would proclaim light to his own people and to the Gentiles."

2 Corinthians 1:5a "For just as the sufferings of Christ flow over into our lives,…"

Hebrews 2:9-10,18; "… he [Jesus] suffered death, so that by the grace of God he might taste death for everyone. I bringing many sons to glory, it was fitting that God, for whom and through whom everything exists, should make the author of their salvation perfect through suffering." (18) Because he himself [Jesus] suffered when he was tempted, he is able to help those who are being tempted."

1 Peter 1:11; "the Spirit of Christ… predicted the sufferings of Christ and the glories that would follow."

1 Peter 2:21 "To this you were called, because Christ suffered for you, leaving you an example, that you should follow in his steps."

1 Peter 2:23a "When they hurled their insults at him, he did not retaliate; when he suffered, he made no threats."

(partial) Matthew 26:28 "This is my blood of the covenant, which is poured out for many for the forgiveness of sins."

(partial) Mark 14:24 "‘This is my blood of the covenant, which is poured out for many,’ he said to them."

(partial, not say for us) Romans 8:17 "… if indeed we share in his [Christ’s] sufferings in order that we may also share in his glory."

(partial, not say for us) Philippians 3:10 "… and the fellowship of sharing in his [Christ’s] sufferings…"

(partial, "freeing him [Christ] from the agony of death") Acts 2:24

(partial) Hebrews 9:26 "Then Christ would have had to suffer many times since the creation of the world. … by the sacrifice of himself."

(partial, not say for us) 1 Peter 4:1a "Therefore, since Christ suffered in his body,…"

(partial) 1 Peter 4:13a "But rejoice that you participate in the sufferings of Christ…"

 

Vaticanus (B) Most of the Old Testament and all of New Testament up to Hebrews 9:15 (325-350 A.D.) Luke 9:22; 17:25; 22:64; 23:41

Sinaiticus (340-350 A.D.) Luke 9:22; 17:25; 22:64; 23:31

 

From the Council of Nicea I to the Council of Ephesus (325-431 A.D.)

Council of Nicea (325 A.D.) Creed p.3 "one Lord Jesus Christ, the Son of God, the only-begotten of his Father… very God of Very God… By whom all things were made… was made man He suffered … rose again, and ascended into heaven. And he shall come again to judge both the quick and the dead."

Private Creed of Arius (328 A.D.) "And in the Lord Jesus Christ, his Son, who was begotten of him before all ages, the Divine Logos, through whom all things were made, both those in the heavens and those on the earth; who came down and was made flesh; and suffered; and rose again; and ascended to the heavens;"

Eusebius’ Ecclesiastical History (323-339/340 A.D.) book 1 ch.2 p.85 says the Jesus suffered, was resurrected, and ascended to heaven.

Eusebius’ Ecclesiastical History (323-339/340 A.D.) book 1 ch.2.23 p.85 (partial, not say for us) says that Jesus suffered.

Synod of Antioch in Encaeniis (341 A.D.) (implied by Nicea) Canon 1 p.108 says to excommunicate people who presume to set Nice[a] under Constantine.

Hegemonius of Sirmium (4th century) (implied) "But if your allegation is true, that He was not born, then it will follow undoubtedly that He did not suffer; for it is not possible for one to suffer who was not also born. But if He did not suffer, then the name of the cross is done away with. And if the cross was not endured, then Jesus did not rise from the dead. And if Jesus rose not from the dead, then no other person will rise again." Archelaus Disputation with Manes ch.49 p.225

Synod of Seleucia in Isauria (357/358 A.D.) says that Christ suffered for our sins, rose again, ascended. In Socrates’ Ecclesiastical History book 2 ch.40 in The Nicene and post-Nicene Fathers Second series vol.2 p.60

Athanasius of Alexandria (356-360 A.D.). F ch.14 p.348&

Athanasius of Alexandria (335-243 A.D.) in speaking of the Word says, "Suffering Himself, He gave us rest" On Luke 10:22 (Matthew 11:27) ch.2 p.88

Athanasius of Alexandria (326-372/373 A.D.) says the Crucified was God. The Son of God was in the body, while it suffered. Letter 59 ch.10 p.574. See also Easter Letter 10 (338 A.D.) p.7 p.530

Council of Constantinople II (381 A.D.) says that it is the same Jesus Christ who is the Word of God, suffered, was incarnate and made man, and worked miracles. the flesh from Mary, Mother of God. The Capitula of the Council ch.3 p.312

Constitutions of the Holy Apostles (c.380 A.D.) book 5 ch.7 p.439 "Now his and our Master, Jesus the Lord, was smitten for our sake: He underwent reproaches and revilings with long-suffering. He was spit upon, He was smitten on the face, He was buffeted; and when He had been scourged, He was nailed to the cross."

Ambrose of Milan (378-381 A.D.) discusses Jesus’ manhood and says that Jesus suffered as a man for us. On the Christian Faith book 1 ch.14.91 p.216

Gregory of Nyssa (382-383 A.D.) Jesus suffered on the cross. Against Eunomius book 12 ch.3 p.244. See also Against Eunomius book 11 ch.1 p.231.

Gregory Nazianzen (330-391) says Jesus "was God made capable of suffering to strive against sin;" On the Son - Third Theological Oration ch.21 p.309

Gregory Nazianzen (330-391) says that Jesus was tempted, hungered, thirsted, and He was bruised and wounded. On the Son - Third Theological Oration ch.20 p.308-309. See also On Pentecost ch.5 p.381

Pacian of Barcelona (342-379/392 A.D.) (implied) "Christ will no more be able to suffer for him" On Baptism ch.7.2 p.94

Epiphanius of Salamis (360-403 A.D.) says that the Son of God suffered for people’s salvation. Since God could not suffer, that is why Jesus assumed a human body. (Panarion, as quoted in The Two Natures in Christ, p.211)

Rufinus (374-406 A.D.) freely translating Origen (225-253/254 A.D.) says Jesus truly suffered, truly died, and truly rose from the dead. de Principiis book 1 ch.4 p.240

Augustine of Hippo (388-430 A.D.) says that Jesus suffered, and rose again, and ascended into Heaven. On the Trinity book 1 ch.5.8 p.21. He says that Jesus "might suffer for us all" in On the Gospel of John Tractate 123 ch.21.5 vol.7 p.447.

Council of Ephesus (431 A.D.) He [Jesus] suffered, and rose again the third day. He ascended into the heavens, from thence he shall come to judge both the quick and the dead." Letter from Cyril of Nestorius p.202

 

From the Council of Ephesus to the start of Muslim conquests (431-634 A.D.)

Nestorius (451/452 A.D.) said that Jesus "suffered in advance of other trials" Bazaar of Heracleides ch.80 p.73

 

p5. Christ is the end/fulfillment of the law

 

Romans 10:4; Hebrews 10:18

 

Vaticanus (B) Most of the Old Testament and all of New Testament up to Hebrews 9:15 (325-350 A.D.)

 

From the Council of Nicea I to the Council of Ephesus (325-431 A.D.)

Gregory Nazianzen (330-391 A.D.) "This is the wish of our schoolmaster the law, of the prophets who intervened between Christ and the law, of Christ who is the fulfiller and end of the spiritual law; of the emptied Godhead, of the assumed flesh, of the novel union between God and man," In Defense of His Flight to Pontus ch.23 p.209

Augustine of Hippo (388-430 A.D.) "the end of the law is Christ for righteousness to every man abelieving:" On the Psalms Psalm 68.1 p.285

Rufinus (364-406 A.D.) freely translating Origen (225-253/254 A.D.) "His coming now He fulfilled that law which has a shadow of good things to come" de Principiis book 4 ch.25 p.375

 

From the Council of Ephesus to the start of Muslim conquests (431-634 A.D.)

Nestorius (451/452 A.D.) Christ fulfilled the law. The Bazaar of Heracleides book 2 ch.2.7 p.91

 

p6. Jesus is Lord of the Sabbath

 

Matthew 12:8; Mark 2:28; Luke 6:5

 

Vaticanus (B) Most of the Old Testament and all of New Testament up to Hebrews 9:15 (325-350 A.D.) Matthew 12:8; Mark 2:28; Luke 5:6

Sinaiticus (340-350 A.D.) Matthew 12:8; Mark 2:28; Luke 5:6

 

Hegemonius of Sirmium (4th century) says that Jesus "Himself also Lord of the Sabbath." Archelaus Disputation with Manes ch.25 p.211

 

p7. Jesus is our Redeemer / redeemed us

 

Romans 3:24; Galatians 3:13; 4:5; Ephesians 1:7,14; Colossians 1:14; Tt 2:14; Hebrews 9:12,15; 1 Peter 1:18; Revelation 5:9

Partial Job 19:25

 

Vaticanus (B) Most of the Old Testament and all of New Testament up to Hebrews 9:15 (325-350 A.D.) Galatians 3:13; 4:5

 

Aphrahat the Syrian (337-345 A.D.) "our Redeemer". Select Demonstrations Demonstration 6 ch.1 p.363

Hegemonius of Sirmium (4th century) "And seeing that you have made mention only of three several scriptures, in terms of which the apostle has declared that ‘the law is a ministration of death,’ and that ‘Christ has redeemed us from the curse of the law,’ and that ‘the law is the strength of sin," (Archelaus is speaking) Archelaus Disputation with Manes ch.28 p.201

Athanasius of Alexandria (328 A.D.) mentions that Jesus gave us redemption. Statement of Faith ch.4 p.85.

Athanasius of Alexandria (356-360 A.D.) "redeeming all by the Cross" Four Discourses Against the Arians discourse 2 ch.15.13 p.355

Athanasius of Alexandria (356-360 A.D.) "(as the Apostle has said, ‘Has redeemed us from the curse,’ and’has carried,’ as Isaiah has said, ‘our sins,’ and as Peter has written, ‘has borne them in the body on the wood);" Four Discourses Against the Arians discourse 2 ch.19.47 p.374

Ephraim the Syrian (350-378 A.D.) says that Jesus redeemed. Nisibine Hymns hymn 67 no.2 p.218.

Constitutions of the Holy Apostles (c.380 A.D.) book 5 ch.6 p.439 "believing in the one and the only true God and Father, through Jesus Christ, the great High Priest, and Redeemer of our souls, and rewarder of our sufferings."

Ambrose of Milan (370-390 A.D.) "For the Spirit made us children by adoption, the water of the sacred Font washed us, the blood of the Lord redeemed us." Of the Holy Spirit book 3 ch.10.67 p.144

Augustine of Hippo (413-426 A.D.) "…the grace of Christ, who redeemed us by His blood." The City of God book 22 ch.30 p.511

 

From the Council of Ephesus to the start of Muslim conquests (431-634 A.D.)

A Poem on the Passion of the Lord (315-350 A.D.) has Christ saying He is "the true redemption" p.327

Venantius (lived ca.530-609 A.D.) "love. O Christ, Thou Saviour of the world, merciful Creator and Redeemer," Poem On Easter p.329

Leo I of Rome (422-461 A.D.) calls Christ our redeemer. Sermon 67.7 p.180. He says Christ’s work was for the redemption of mankind. Sermon 68.2 p.181.

Epitaph of Pectorius (300-500 A.D.) (implied) stanza 5 "Take from the Redeemer of saints the honey-sweet food;"

 

Among heretics

The Ebionite Gospel of pseudo-Matthew (600-625 A.D.) ch.16 p.375 says that Jesus is redeemer of the world.

 

p8. Christ finished His work

 

John 4:34; 5:36

(implied) John 19:30

 

Vaticanus (B) Most of the Old Testament and all of New Testament up to Hebrews 9:15 (325-350 A.D.) John 4:34; 5:36. (Implied) John 19:30

Sinaiticus (340-350 A.D.) John 4:34; 5:36. (Implied) John 19:30

 

p9. Jesus forgives us / remits sins

 

Luke 7:48; Romans 6:23; Ephesians 1:7

 

Vaticanus (B) Most of the Old Testament and all of New Testament up to Hebrews 9:15 (325-350 A.D.) Luke 7:48; Romans 6:23; Ephesians 1:7

Sinaiticus (340-350 A.D.) Luke 7:48; Romans 6:23; Ephesians 1:7

p88 Mark 2:1-16 (350 A.D.) Mark 2:10

 

From the Council of Nicea I to the Council of Ephesus (325-431 A.D.)

Athanasius of Alexandria (356-360 A.D.) says that Jesus remitted sins against the paralytic. Four Discourses Against the Arians discourse 3 ch.27.40 p.415

Athanasius of Alexandria (331 A.D.) "cleansed all of our sins in His own blood." &&&

Gregory Nazianzen (330-391) says "He [Jesus] was baptized as Man – but He remitted sins as God" On the Son - Third Theological Oration ch.20 p.308

Rufinus (374-406 A.D.) freely translating Origen (225-253/254 A.D.) "The Lord also signifies this in the Gospel when he says, ‘Your sins are forgiven you.’" Homilies on Joshua homily 5 ch.6 p.64

 

p10. Jesus: the/One Mediator (between God & man)

 

Hebrews 7:25; 8:6; 9:15; 12:24; 1 Timothy 2:5

(partial) Galatians 3:19-22

(partial, shows the need for a mediator but does not say Jesus) Job 9:33-34; 33:23

 

Macrostich Creed (344/345 A.D.) "Christ, the Son of God, the Mediator" Socrates Ecclesiastical History book 2 ch.19 in Nicene and Post-Nicene Fathers 2nd Series vol.2 p.45

Athanasius of Alexandria (356-360 A.D.) says that Jesus "became Mediator between God and Men, ministering the things of God to us, and ours to God." Four Discourses Against the Arians discourse 4 ch.6 p.435. See also ibid discourse 1 ch.59 p.341.

Hilary of Poitiers (355-367/368 A.D.) write of the Law, Moses, Jesus being our mediator, and angels in On the Trinity book 5 ch.23 p.91. See also On the Trinity book 8 ch.15 p.141

Ephraim the Syrian (350-378 A.D.) (implied) refers to 1 Timothy 2:5. "Let our Lord be set betweenGod and men!" Nisibine Hymns hymn 6 no.6 p.299

Ambrose of Milan (370-390 A.D.)

Gregory of Nyssa (382-383 A.D.) (implied) says that Jesus is the mediator between God and man. Against Eunomius book 1 ch.6 p.33

Gregory Nazianzen (330-391) says that Jesus is the mediator between God and carnality. Letter to Cledonius Against Apollinarius p.441

Didymus the Blind (398 A.D.) (partial) Christ is our mediator. Commentary on Zechariah 11 p.279

Rufinus (374-406 A.D.) freely translation Origen (225-253/254 A.D.) calls our Lord "a Mediator" de Principiis book 2 ch.6.1 p.281.

X John Chrysostom (martyred 407 A.D.) &&&

Augustine of Hippo (388-430 A.D.) (implied) says that Christ Jesus is the "only-begotten Son, God co-eternal with Himself, to become man". He says that Jesus is the Mediator of God and men. On the Trinity book 13 ch.10.13 p.174. See also On the Gospel of John Tractate 124 ch.21.5 vol.7 p.449 and Sermons on the New Testament sermon 1 ch.32 p.258

 

From the Council of Ephesus to the start of Muslim conquests (431-634 A.D.)

Nestorius (451/452 A.D.) says the Word it the Mediator. Bazaar of Heracleides book 1 part 1 ch.24 and book 1 part 1 ch.55.

Nestorius (451/452 A.D.) (partial, does not say the or one) Christ is a mediator. The Bazaar of Heracleides book 1 part 1 ch.24 p.19; book 1 part 1 ch.55 p.51; book 1 part 1 ch.59 p.56

Theodoret of Cyrus (423-458 A.D.) quotes 1 Timothy 2:5, "one mediator between God and men," in referring to Jesus. Dialogues p.187

Leo I of Rome (422-461 A.D.) (implied) says that Jesus is the mediator in Sermon 68.3 p.175

 

p11. Jesus bore our sins

 

1 Peter 2:24

(implied) Hebrews 10:11-12

(implied) Hebrew 9:28

Isaiah 53:4

 

Athanasius of Alexandria (356-360 A.D.) "(as the Apostle has said, ‘Has redeemed us from the curse,’ and’has carried,’ as Isaiah has said, ‘our sins,’ and as Peter has written, ‘has borne them in the body on the wood);" Four Discourses Against the Arians discourse 2 ch.19.47 p.374

 

p12. Jesus bore the curse for us

 

Galatians 3:13

 

Hegemonius of Sirmium (4th century) "Christ, who redeemed us from the curse of the law." Archelaus Disputation with Manes ch.31 p.203

Athanasius of Alexandria (356-360 A.D.) "(as the Apostle has said, ‘Has redeemed us from the curse,’ and’has carried,’ as Isaiah has said, ‘our sins,’ and as Peter has written, ‘has borne them in the body on the wood);" Four Discourses Against the Arians discourse 2 ch.19.47 p.374

 

p13. Christ suffered shame/disgrace

 

Hebrews 12:2; 13:13

 

Aphrahat the Syrian (337-345 A.D.) "though He injured no man and harmed none, yet He was baten with stripes and endured shame;" Select Demonstrations Demonstration 6 ch.9 p.369

 

p14. Jesus was a ransom

 

Matthew 20:28; Mark 10:45; 1 Timothy 2:5f-b; Hebrews 9:15b

 

Vaticanus (B) Most of the Old Testament and all of New Testament up to Hebrews 9:15 (325-350 A.D.) Matthew 20:28; Mark 10:45; 1 Timothy 2:5f-b

Sinaiticus (340-350 A.D.) Matthew 20:28; Mark 10:45; 1 Timothy 2:5f-b; Hebrews 9:15b

 

From the Council of Nicea I to the Council of Ephesus (325-431 A.D.)

Gregory of Nyssa (382-383 A.D.) says that Jesus was a ransom for our death. Against Eunomius book 11 ch.1 p.231.

 

From the Council of Ephesus to the start of Muslim conquests (431-634 A.D.)

Nestorius (451/452 A.D.) (implied) said that Jesus endured unto death and gave a just compensation for us in that he exchanged for our death the death which came unjustly upon him." Bazaar of Heracleides ch.80 p.73

Venantius (lived ca.530-609 A.D.) (implied) "it is not becoming that Thy limbs should lie in the lowly sepulchre, nor that worthless stones should press that which is the ransom of the world. It is unworthy that a stone should shut in with a confining rock, and cover Hi in whose fist all things are enclosed." Poem On Easter p.329

 

p15. Christ reconciled us

 

Romans 5:10-11; 2 Corinthians 5:18-19; Ephesians 2:16; Colossians 1:20-22; Hebrews 2:17

 

Alexandrinus (c.450 A.D.) All of the Old Testament except Genesis 14:14-17; 15:1-5, 16-19; 16:6-9; 1 Samuel 12:17-14:9; Psalm 19:20-79:11. All of the New Testament except Matthew 1:1-25:6, John 6:50-8:52; Romans 16:24; and 2 Corinthians 4:13-12:6. Ephesians 2:16; Colossians 1:20-21; Hebrews 2:17

 

From the Council of Nicea I to the Council of Ephesus (325-431 A.D.)

Hilary of Poitiers (355-367/368 A.D.) says that Jesus reconciled us. On the Trinity book 8 ch.51 p.152

Ephraim the Syrian (350-378 A.D.) says that Christ reconciled us. Nativity Hymns hymn 2 p.228

Athanasius of Alexandria (335-342 A.D.) "in which Flesh, as the Apostle says, He reconciled the enmity which was against us and destroyed the law of the commandments in ordinances, that He might make the two into one new man, making peace, and reconcile both in one body to the Father. On Luke 10:22 ch.3 p.88

 

p16. Christ overcame/triumphed

 

John 16:33; Colossians 2:15; Revelation 3:21; 5:5; 17:14

 

Vaticanus (B) Most of the Old Testament and all of New Testament up to Hebrews 9:15 (325-350 A.D.) John 16:33; Colossians 2:15

Sinaiticus (340-350 A.D.) John 16:33; Colossians 2:15

 

From the Council of Nicea I to the Council of Ephesus (325-431 A.D.)

Hilary of Poitiers (355-367/368 A.D.) &&&

Ephraim the Syrian (350-378 A.D.) Christ overcame. Hymns for the Feast of Epiphany hymn 1 no.12 p.266

Athanasius of Alexandria (327-373 A.D.) "The Psalm then is 94; for it was on the fourth day from the Sabbath [This Psalm is headed in the Septuagint, A Psalm of David for the fourth day from the Sabbath] that the Lord through His betrayal entered on His Passion, by which He should redeem us and by the which He triumphed gloriously." Commentary on Psalms

John Chrysostom (died 407 A.D.) &&&

 

From the Council of Ephesus to the start of Muslim conquests (431-634 A.D.)

Nestorius (451/452 A.D.) said that the victory of Christ made all victorious. Bazaar of Heracleides book 1 part 1 ch.80 p.73.

Nestorius (451/452 A.D.) mentions conquering and being victorius. Bazaar of Heracleides book 1 part 1 ch.3 and book 1 part 1 ch.84

Venantius (lived c.530-609 A.D.) "give back the day which flees from us at Thy death. But returning, O holy conqueror!" Poem on Easter p.330

Venantius (lived c.530-609 A.D.) "For in honour of Christ rising triumphant after His descent to the gloomy Tartarus, the grove on every side with its leaves expresses approval, the plants with their flowers express approval." Poem on Easter p.329

 

p17. Grace and truth by Jesus Christ

 

John 1:17

 

Vaticanus (B) Most of the Old Testament and all of New Testament up to Hebrews 9:15 (325-350 A.D.) John 1:17

Sinaiticus (340-350 A.D.) John 1:17

 

From the Council of Nicea I to the Council of Ephesus (325-431 A.D.)

Synod of Antioch in Encaeniis (341 A.D.) Synodal Letter p.107 "The grace and truth of our Lord and Saviour Jesus Christ"

Athanasius of Alexandria (346-356 A.D.) says Jesus was "full of grace and truth" Defence of the Nicene Definition ch.15 p.159

 

p18. Jesus revealed the Father to us

 

John 1:18

 

Vaticanus (B) Most of the Old Testament and all of New Testament up to Hebrews 9:15 (325-350 A.D.) John 1:18

Sinaiticus (340-350 A.D.) John 1:18

 

From the Council of Nicea I to the Council of Ephesus (325-431 A.D.)

Hegemonius of Sirmium (4th century) "we are to look for our Lord Jesus Christ as the perfect one, who is the only one that knows the Father, with the sole exception of him to whom He has chosen also to reveal Him," (Archelaus is speaking) Archelaus Disputation with Manes ch.37 p.211

Ambrose of Milan (378-381 A.D.) says Christ is the image of the Father, and Jesus said he who has seen Him has seen the Father. On the Christian Faith book 1 ch.7.48 p.208

Rufinus (374-406 A.D.) freely translating Origen (225-253/254 A.D.) "We must understand, therefore, that as the Son, who alone knows the Father, reveals Him to whom He will, so the Holy Spirit, who alone searches the deep things of God, reveals God to whom He will: "For the Spirit bloweth where He listeth." de Principiis book 1 ch.3.3 p.252

 

p19. Jesus the Paschal Lamb

 

1 Corinthians 5:7

 

From the Council of Nicea I to the Council of Ephesus (325-431 A.D.)

Athanasius of Alexandria (347 A.D.) says Jesus was the Passover. Festal Letter 19 ch.1 p.344

Ephraim the Syrian (350-378 A.D.) calls Jesus the "Paschal Lamb". Nativity Hymns hymn 3 p.230

 

Fragment of Clement of Alexandria (193-217/220 A.D.) calls Jesus the Passover, the Lamb of God. Fragment 10 p.581

 

p20. Jesus baptized with the Holy Spirit & fire

 

Matthew 3:11

 

Vaticanus (B) Most of the Old Testament and all of New Testament up to Hebrews 9:15 (325-350 A.D.) Matthew 3:11

Sinaiticus (340-350 A.D.) Matthew 3:11

 

From the Council of Nicea I to the Council of Ephesus (325-431 A.D.)

Basil of Cappadocia (357-378/379 A.D.) taught this was the fire of judgment for a Christian’s work in On the Spirit ch.15.36 p.22.

Augustine of Hippo (388-430 A.D.) quoted Matthew 3:11 but did not specify a view of fire in Harmony of the Gospels book 2 ch.12.26 p.117.

 

p21. Jesus provided purification

 

Hebrews 1:3

 

From the Council of Nicea I to the Council of Ephesus (325-431 A.D.)

Athanasius of Alexandria (329 A.D.) mentions Jesus as the sheep and lamb. His sacrifice was purified by His precious blood. Easter Letter 1 ch.9 p.509

 

p22. Jesus gives us living water

 

John 4:11

 

^^^

 

p23. Jesus came to save the lost

 

Luke 19:10

Luke 15:24,32

Implied Luke 15:4-9

Matthew 10:6; 15:24 lost sheep of Israel

Matthew 18:14 little ones be lost

 

From the Council of Nicea I to the Council of Ephesus (325-431 A.D.)

John Chrysostom (died 407 A.D.) &&&

 

p24. Jesus/Christ rescued us

 

^^^

 

From the Council of Ephesus to the start of Muslim conquests (431-634 A.D.)

Venantius (lived c.530-609 A.D.) Thou [Jesus] rescuest an innumerable people from the prison of death, and they follow in freedom to the place whither their leader approaches. The fierce monster in alarm vomits forth the multitude whom he had swallowed up, and the Lamb withdraws the sheep from the jaw of the wolf." Poem on Easter p.330

 

p25. Do the will of the One who sent Him

 

John 6:38

 

From the Council of Nicea I to the Council of Ephesus (325-431 A.D.)

Athanasius of Alexandria (356-360 A.D.) quotes John 6:38. Four Discourses Against the Arians discourse 2 ch.20.54 p.377.

 

p26. In 1 Jn 2:1 Jesus is our sins’ propitiation

 

1 John 2:1

 

From the Council of Nicea I to the Council of Ephesus (325-431 A.D.)

Athanasius of Alexandria (356-360 A.D.) says Jesus was "redeeming all, and for all propitiating God." Four Discourses Against the Arians discourse 2 ch.7 p.351

 

p27. The Son / Jesus gives life

 

John 5:21

1 John 1:2 (partial)

 

Jesus giving up His life, and the law giving life, are not included here.

God giving life at creation is also not counted here.

 

From the Council of Nicea I to the Council of Ephesus (325-431 A.D.)

Cyril of Jerusalem (c.349-386 A.D.) says Jesus gives us life. Catechetical Lectures Lecture 13 ch.28 p.89

 

p28. Jesus called sinners to repentance

 

John 5:31

 

^^^

 

p29. Jesus came to save His people from their sins

 

Matthew 1:21

 

^^^

 

Among heretics

The Ebionite Gospel of pseudo-Matthew (600-650 A.D.) ch.11 p.373 says that Jesus came to save His people from their sins.

 

 

The Holy Spirit

 

H1. Mention of the Holy Spirit

 

Matthew 3:11 Luke 1:67; 3:22; 11:13; 12:10; John 1:34; Acts 19:2-3; 2 Corinthians 13:14; Hebrews 2:4; 1 Peter 1:1-2; 2 Peter 1:21; Jude 20

 

Vaticanus (B) Most of the Old Testament and all of New Testament up to Hebrews 9:15 (325-350 A.D.) Luke 1:67; 3:22; 11:13; 12:10; John 1:34

Sinaiticus (340-350 A.D.) Luke 1:67; 3:22; 11:13; 12:10; John 1:34

 

From the Council of Nicea I to the Council of Ephesus (325-431 A.D.)

Private Creed of Arius (328 A.D.) "And in the Holy Ghost; and in the resurrection of the flesh;"

Hegemonius of Sirmium (4th century) in his Archelaus Disputation with Manes ch.26 p.199 discusses the Holy Spirit, as the Paraclete sent by Jesus. As well as ch.27 p.200, ch.34 p.207,208 and ch.31 p.204

Athanasius of Alexandria (339 A.D.) says Jesus told us to "Go ye and make disciples of all nations, baptizing them in the name of the Father, and of the Son, and of the Holy Ghost." Circular Letter ch.1 p.92

Synod of Antioch in Encaeniis (341 A.D.) (implied by Nicea) Canon 1 p.108 says to excommunicate people who presume to set Nice[a] under Constantine.

Aphrahat the Syrian (337-345 A.D.) "meditate not before the time what ye shall say, and how ye shall make defence; and I will give you a mouth and wisdom, that your enemies may not be able to overcome you, because it is not ye that speak, but the Holy Spirit of your Father; He shall speak in you. This is the spirit which spoke by the mouth of Jacob to Esau, his persecutor; and the spirit of wisdom which spoke before Pharaoh by the mouth of the persecuted Joseph; and the spirit which spoke by the mouth of Moses in all the prodigies which he did in the land of Egypt, and the spirit of knowledge which was given to Joshua, the son of Nun, when Moses laid his hand upon him, so that the nations which persecuted him came to a complete end before him; and the spirit that uttered psalms by the mouth of the persecuted David, by which he used to sing psalms and soothe Saul his persecutor from the evil spirit; and the spirit which clothed Elijah, and through him reproved Jezebel and Ahab his persecutor; and the spirit which spoke in Elisha, and prophesied and made known to the king his persecutor about all that was to happen thereafter; and the spirit which was fervent in the mouth of Micaiah when he reproved Ahab his persecutor saying:—If thou shalt at all return back, the Lord hath not spoken by me; and the spirit which strengthened Jeremiah, so that he stood boldly, and by it reproved Zedekiah; and the spirit that preserved Daniel and his brethren in the land of Babylon; and the spirit that delivered Mordecai and Esther in the place of their captivity." Select Demonstrations demonstration 21 ch.21 p.401

Philo of Carpasia (4th century) "And for this reason Sem [Shem] too, after stealing from his father and mother, as his father had ordered, because Noah knew from the Holy Spirit, that he would have become priest of the high God inside Salem."

Council of Sirmium (Greek creed) 351 A.D. mentions the Holy Spirit as "He". Socrates Ecclesiastical History book 2 ch.30 in Nicene and Post-Nicene Fathers 2nd Series vol.2 p.56-57.

Synod of Seleucia in Isauria (357/358 A.D.) mentions the Holy Spirit as a person. Socrates’ Ecclesiastical History book 2 ch.40 in The Nicene and post-Nicene Fathers Second series vol.2 p.60

Ephraim the Syrian (350-378 A.D.) mentions the Holy Spirit. Nisibine Hymns Hymn 20 no.4 p.190

Ambrose of Milan (381 A.D.) "without doubt the Holy Spirit also is to be adored, since He Who according to the flesh was born of the Holy Spirit is adored. (80) And let no one divert this to the Virgin Mary; Mary was the temple of God, not the God of the temple. And therefore He alone is to be worshipped Who was working in His temple." Of the Holy Spirit book 3 ch.11 no.79f-80

Basil of Cappadocia (357-379 A.D.) mentions blasphemy against the Holy Spirit. Letter 188 ch.I p.224

Gregory of Nyssa (382-383 A.D.) mentions the Father, the Only-Begotten, and the Holy Spirit. Against Eunomius book 1 ch.22 p.61

Cyril of Jerusalem (349-386 A.D.) "Cleanse thy vessel, that thou mayest receive grace more abundantly. For though remission of sins is given equally to all, the communion of the Holy Ghost is bestowed in proportion to each man’s faith" (First Catechetical Lecture 1 Nicene & Post-Nicene Fathers p.7 also Lecture 6 ch.6 p.34)

Epiphanius of Salamis (360-403 A.D.) "The Father, truly having begotten the Son, and the Son truly having been begotten of the Father, is personally subsisting without beginning and eternal; and the Holy Spirit, as truly of the Father and the Son, being of the same Godhead…" homily Against the Sabellians, as quoted by the Tubingen theologians in Augsburg and Constantinople, p.229

Rufinus (374-406 A.D.) freely translating Origen (225-253/254 A.D.) mentions two livings things in the hymn of Habakkuk. He interprets these as Christ and the Holy Spirit. Then he goes on to discuss the Holy Spirit more. de Principiis book 1 ch.3.3 p.253 He also discusses "the Holy Spirit Himself" in de Principiis Preface p.239.

Rufinus (410 A.D.) freely translated Origen (240 A.D.) refers to the Holy Spirit. Commentary on the Song of Songs ch.1 p.56

Palladius (419-420 A.D.) mentions the Holy Spirit as a person of the Trinity. [Both Greek and Coptic] Lausiac History 38.11 in Four Desert Fathers. (Chapter: Evagrius Debates Three Demons) p.179. See also p.442.

John Cassian (410-430 A.D.) "Glory to the Father, Son and Holy Ghost" 12 Books book 2.8 p.208

Council of Ephesus (431 A.D.) mentions the Holy Ghost" Letter from Cyril of Nestorius p.202

 

From the Council of Ephesus to the start of Muslim conquests (431-634 A.D.)

Peter Chrysologus of Ravenna (406-450 A.D.) "‘Go’, he [Jesus] says, ‘and baptize all nations in the name of the Father, and of the Son, and of the Holy Spirit’ [Matthew 28:19] in remission of sins. If in the remission of sins the Trinity is united in showing mercy, how is the whole Trinity not one in will in the Passion of the Son?" Sermon 72A ch.4 p.4-5

Nestorius (451/452 A.D.) mention the Holy Spirit. Bazaar of Heracleides book 1 part 1 ch.46

Patrick of Ireland (420-461 A.D.) "[T]here is no other God, nor has there been heretofore, nor will there be hereafter, except God the Father unbegotten, without beginning, from whom is all beginning, upholding all things, as we say, and his Son Jesus Christ, whom we likewise to confess to have always been with the Father--before the world’s beginning . . . Jesus Christ is the Lord and God in whom we believe . . . and who has poured out on us abundantly the Holy Spirit . . . whom we confess and adore as one God in the Trinity of the Sacred Name" Confession of St. Patrick 4

Leo I of Rome (422-461 A.D.) mentions the Father, Son, and Holy Ghost. Sermon 68.4 p.181

Council of Constantinople II (May 553 A.D.) mentions the Holy Spirit. The Sentence of the Synod p.306 and The Capitula of the Council canon 1 p.312

Pope Vigilius’ Letter to the Council of Constantinople II p.322 (553 A.D.) says that Theodore of Mopsuestia was wrong to deny that Christ did not give the apostles the Holy Spirit.

 

From the Council of Nicea I to the Council of Ephesus (325-431 A.D.)

Gregory of Nazianzen (330-391 A.D.) extensively discusses the Holy Spirit. Oration on Pentecost ch.5 p.381

Pacian of Barcelona (343/377-379/392 A.D.) mentions the Holy Spirit in Letter 1.3.4 p.21

Pacian of Barcelona (342-379/392 A.D.) Baptize in the name of the Father, Son, and Holy Spirit. Letter 3 ch.11.1 p.51

John Chrysostom (died 407 A.D.) "confessing, indeed, that the Godhead of the Father and of the Son and of the Holy Ghost, is all one, while we add thereunto a Trinity of Persons." On the Christian Priesthood book 4 ch.4 p.66

Orosius/Hosius of Braga (414-418 A.D.) teaches on the Holy Spirit. Defense Against the Pelagians ch.29 p.159

Augustine of Hippo (388-430 A.D.) says that in the Trinity there is no division, no diversity, and perpetual dearness of love. The Holy Spirit is God, and baptized believers are the Holy Spirit’s temple. On the Creed ch.13 p.374

 

From the Council of Ephesus to the start of Muslim conquests (431-634 A.D.)

Peter Chrysologus of Ravenna (406-450 A.D.) "‘Go’, he [Jesus] says, ‘and baptize all nations in the name of the Father, and of the Son, and of the Holy Spirit’ [Matthew 28:19] in remission of sins. If in the remission of sins the Trinity is united in showing mercy, how is the whole Trinity not one in will in the Passion of the Son?" Sermon 72A ch.4 p.4-5

Nestorius (451/452 A.D.) The Holy Spirit is God The Bazaar of Heracleides book 1 part 1 ch.45-46 p.36-37; book 1 part 1 ch.47 p.38

Nestorius (451/452 A.D.) "Divine Spirit wishes us to understand [it]" The Bazaar of Heracleides book 1 part 1 ch.38 p.29

Council of Constantinople II (about 153 bishops present) (551/553 A.D.) "In anyone shall not confess that the nature or essence of the Father, of the Son, and of the Holy Ghost is one, as also the force and the power; [if anyone does not confess] a consubstantial Trinity, one Godhead to be worshipped in three subsistences or Persons: let him be anathema. For there is but one God even the Father of whom are all things, and one Lord Jesus Christ..." Capitula of the Council ch.1 p.313

 

Among heretics

Mandaeans (>350?) mentions the Holy Spirit, but not positively or negatively. Ginza p.549

Creed of Eunomius (Extreme Arian) (c.360-c.377 A.D.) "We believe … and in one Holy Spirit, the Comforter…" Nicene and Post-Nicene Fathers Second Series vol.8 p.xxxiv

Pelagian heretic Theodore of Mopsuestia (392-423/429 A.D.) refers to the Holy Spirit. Commentary on Nahum ch.1 p.250

The Ebionite Gospel of pseudo-Matthew (600-625 A.D.) ch.3 p.370 and ch.39 p.382 mention the Holy Spirit.

 

H2. The Holy Spirit is God

 

Acts 5:3-4

 

Vaticanus (B) Most of the Old Testament and all of New Testament up to Hebrews 9:15 (325-350 A.D.) Acts 5:3-4

Sinaiticus (340-350 A.D.) Acts 5:3-4

 

From the Council of Nicea I to the Council of Ephesus (325-431 A.D.)

Hegemonius of Sirmium (4th century) (implied) says that the Holy Spirit has understanding of all things, is made all things to all men. This implies He is God. Archelaus Disputation with Manes ch.36 p.210

Basil of Cappadocia (357-378/379 A.D.) "Let them say whether it is more proper to rank Him [the Holy Spirit] with God or to thrust Him forth to the place of the creature. Peter’s word to Sapphira, ‘How is it that ye have agreed together to tempt the Spirit of the Lord? Ye have not lied unto men, but unto God,’ show that sins against the Holy Spirit and against God are the same. On the Spirit ch.16.37 p.22.

Gregory of Nazianzen (330-391 A.D.) has an entire oration: Oration on Pentecost ch.5 p.378-385

Epiphanius of Salamis (360-403 A.D.) "The Father, truly having begotten the Son, and the Son truly having been begotten of the Father, is personally subsisting without beginning and eternal; and the Holy Spirit, as truly of the Father and the Son, being of the same Godhead…" homily Against the Sabellians, as quoted by the Tubingen theologians in Augsburg and Constantinople, p.229

Augustine of Hippo (388-430 A.D.) says that in the Trinity there is no division, no diversity, and perpetual dearness of love. The Holy Spirit is God, and baptized believers are the Holy Spirit’s temple. On the Creed ch.13 p.374

 

From the Council of Ephesus to the start of Muslim conquests (431-634 A.D.)

Nestorius (451/452 A.D.) The Holy Spirit is God The Bazaar of Heracleides book 1 part 1 ch.45-46 p.36-37; book 1 part 1 ch.47 p.38

Nestorius (451/452 A.D.) "Divine Spirit wishes us to understand [it]" The Bazaar of Heracleides book 1 part 1 ch.38 p.29

Nestorius (451/452 A.D.) God is Father and God is Son and God is Holy Spirit. The Bazaar of Heracleides book 2 ch.1(b) p.309

Pope Vigilius’ Letter to the Council of Constantinople II p.322 (553 A.D.) (implied because accepted the four synods (Nicea, Constantinople I, Ephesus, Chalcedon)

Council of Constantinople II (about 153 bishops present) (551/553 A.D.) "In anyone shall not confess that the nature or essence of the Father, of the Son, and of the Holy Ghost is one, as also the force and the power; [if anyone does not confess] a consubstantial Trinity, one Godhead to be worshipped in three subsistences or Persons: let him be anathema. For there is but one God even the Father of whom are all things, and one Lord Jesus Christ..." Capitula of the Council ch.1 p.313

 

Among heretics

Pelagian heretic Theodore of Mopsuestia (392-423/429 A.D.) says that the Holy Spirit is a distinct hypostasis in God." He says the Holy Spirit is a distinct person, baptizing in the name of the three. Commentary on Haggai ch.2 p.314

 

H3. Person of the Holy Spirit

 

John 15:26-27; 16:7,12-14

Acts 5:3-5; 15:28

 

Vaticanus (B) Most of the Old Testament and all of New Testament up to Hebrews 9:15 (325-350 A.D.) Acts 5:3-5; 15:28

Sinaiticus (340-350 A.D.) Acts 5:3-5; 15:28

 

From the Council of Nicea I to the Council of Ephesus (325-431 A.D.)

Hegemonius of Sirmium (4th century) discusses the Holy Spirit, as the Paraclete sent by Jesus. Archelaus Disputation with Manes ch.26 p.199. See also ibid ch.27 p.200, ch.34 p.207,208

Hegemonius of Sirmium (4th century) "Again, that it was the Paraclete Himself who was in Paul, is indicated by our Lord Jesus Christ in the Gospel." Archelaus Disputation with Manes ch.34 p.208

Hegemonius of Sirmium (4th century) says of the Holy Spirit that He knows all languages. Archelaus Disputation with Manes ch.36 p.210

Athanasius of Alexandria (356-360 A.D.) discusses the Holy Spirit, who is the same as the Paraclete. He makes holy and comforts those who are His recipients. Also, we are adopted as sons. Four Discourses Against the Arians discourse 2 ch.29 p.444-445

Council of Sirmium (Greek creed) 351 A.D. mentions the Holy Spirit as "He". Socrates Ecclesiastical History book 2 ch.30 in Nicene and Post-Nicene Fathers 2nd Series vol.2 p.56-57.

Synod of Seleucia in Isauria (357/358 A.D.) mentions the Holy Spirit as a person. Socrates’ Ecclesiastical History book 2 ch.40 in The Nicene and post-Nicene Fathers Second series vol.2 p.60

Gregory of Nyssa (382-383 A.D.) says that the Holy Spirit is a person. Against Eunomius book 1 ch.19 p.57

Rufinus (374-406 A.D.) freely translating Origen (225-253/254 A.D.) mentions two livings things in the hymn of Habakkuk. He interprets these as Christ and the Holy Spirit. Then he goes on to discuss the Holy Spirit more. de Principiis book 1 ch.3.3 p.253 He also discusses "the Holy Spirit Himself" in de Principiis Preface p.239.

Augustine of Hippo (388-430 A.D.) says that in the Trinity there is no division, no diversity, and perpetual dearness of love. The Holy Spirit is God, and baptized believers are the Holy Spirit’s temple. On the Creed ch.13 p.374

 

From the Council of Ephesus to the start of Muslim conquests (431-634 A.D.)

Nestorius (451/452 A.D.) "Divine Spirit wishes us to understand [it]" The Bazaar of Heracleides book 1 part 1 ch.38 p.29

 

Among heretics

Pelagian heretic Theodore of Mopsuestia (392-423/429 A.D.) mentions that the O.T. people did not yet understand that the Holy Spirit was a person. Commentary on Joel ch.2 p.117

 

H4. Glorify/worship the Holy Spirit

 

From the Council of Nicea I to the Council of Ephesus (325-431 A.D.)

John Chrysostom (before 407 A.D.) says to give glory to the Father, Son, and Holy Spirit very frequently, such as in vol.12 Commentary on 1 Corinthians homily 1 p.5.

Ambrose of Milan (370-390 A.D.) "He Who is in the prophets is worshipped, the same Spirit is worshipped." Of the Holy Spirit book 3 ch.18.143 p.155.

Ambrose of Milan (370-390 A.D.) "We serve the Spirit of God. He is, therefore, to be worshiped by us, Whom the Apostle taught that we must serve, and Whom we serve we also adore,…: Of the Holy Spirit book 3 ch.18.142 p.155.

Gregory of Nazianzen (330-391 A.D.) "our Lord Jesus Christ, … to Whom be the glory and worship, with the Father and the Holy Ghost, now and for ever. Amen". Oration on Pentecost ch.18 p.385

Augustine of Hippo (388-430 A.D.) says we worship One God, Father, Son, and Holy Spirit. The City of God book 10 ch.25 p.196

Augustine of Hippo (388-430 A.D.) says that they should not suppose that three gods are worshipped by Christians because there is only One God. On Faith and the Creed ch.9.16 p.327

Council of Constantinople II (May 553 A.D.) says the Trinity is to be worshipped in three subsistences or persons. Capitula of the Council canon 1 p.312

 

H5. The Holy Spirit is distinct

 

From the Council of Ephesus to the start of Muslim conquests (431-634 A.D.)

Vincent of Lerins (c.434 A.D.) "He [the heretic Photinus] denies the completeness of the Trinity, and does not believe that there is any Person of God the Word, or any Person of the Holy Ghost. Christ he affirms to be a mere man, whose original was from Mary. Hence he insists with the utmost obstinacy that we are to render worship only to the Person of God the Father, and that we are to honour Christ as man only. This is the doctrine of Photinus." A Commonitory ch.12 p.139

Nestorius (451/452 A.D.) Father, Son, and Spirit are distinct. The Bazaar of Heracleides book 1 part 1 ch.71 p.64-65

 

H6. Holy Spirit called Spirit of truth

 

John 14:17a; 16:13

 

From the Council of Nicea I to the Council of Ephesus (325-431 A.D.)

Ambrose of Milan (370-390 A.D.) quotes John 16:13 saying Jesus called the Holy Spirit the Spirit of Truth. Of the Holy Spirit book 2 ch.11.114 p.129

 

Among heretics

Pelagian heretic Theodore of Mopsuestia (392-423/429 A.D.) The Holy Spirit is the spirit of truth. Commentary on Zechariah ch.1 p.329

 

H7. Holy Spirit addressed as "He"

 

John 14:17 "...the Spirit of truth. The world cannot accept him, because it neither sees him nor knows him. But you know him, for he lives with you and will be with you."

John 16:7 "I [Jesus] will send him to you.."

John 16:8 "When he comes, he..."

John 16:13 "he will guide you into all truth. He will not speak on his own, he will speak only what he hears, and he will tell you what is yet to come. He will bring glory to me."

Romans 8:16 "The Spirit himself testifies"

Romans 8:26 "but the Spirit himself..."

1 Corinthians 12:11 "All these are the work of one and the same Spirit, and he gives them to each one, just as he determines."

 

From the Council of Nicea I to the Council of Ephesus (325-431 A.D.)

Hegemonius of Sirmium (4th century) Not thus is it with the Holy Spirit: God forbid; but He divides to all, and knows all kinds of tongues, and has understanding of all things, and is made all things to all men, so that the very thoughts of the heart cannot escape His cognizance. For what says the Scripture? "That every man heard the apostles speak in his own language through the Spirit, the Paraclete.’" Archelaus Disputation with Manes ch.36 p.210

Rufinus (374-406 A.D.) freely translating Origen (225-253/254 A.D.) "3. And since many saints participate in the Holy Spirit, He cannot therefore be understood to be a body, which being divided into corporeal parts, is partaken of by each one of the saints; but He is manifestly a sanctifying power, in which all are said to have a share who have deserved to be sanctified by His grace." de Principiis book 1 ch.1.3 p.242

others too

 

From the Council of Ephesus to the start of Muslim conquests (431-634 A.D.)

Fulgentius of Ruspe (507-532/533 A.D.) "the Holy Spirit is sometimes spoken of in such a way as if he himself..." Letters of Fulgentius Letter 14 to Ferrandus ch.13 p.514

others too

 

H8. Sevenfold spirit or seven spirits

 

Revelation 1:4; 4:5; 5:6; Zechariah 3:9

 

p10 (= P. Oxyrhynchus 209) Romans 1:1-7 (4th century) has Revelation 1:4

 

^^^

 

H9. The Holy Spirit/Comforter was promised

 

Ephesians 1:13

 

From the Council of Nicea I to the Council of Ephesus (325-431 A.D.)

Hegemonius of Sirmium (4th century) (partial, Archelaus is speaking what Manes said) "For you declared that the Spirit whom Jesus promised to send has come upon you; and whence can He come but by descending from Heaven?" Archelaus Disputation with Manes ch.50 p.227

 

H10. Jesus sent the Holy Spirit

 

John 15:26; 16:7

 

From the Council of Nicea I to the Council of Ephesus (325-431 A.D.)

Cyril of Jerusalem (c.349-386 A.D.) says Jesus sent the Holy Spirit. Catechetical Lectures Lecture 16 ch.4 p.116

 

H11. Paraclete or Holy Spirit already present

 

1 Corinthians 12:13

 

Vaticanus (B) Most of the Old Testament and all of New Testament up to Hebrews 9:15 (325-350 A.D.) 1 Corinthians 12:13

Sinaiticus (340-350 A.D.) 1 Corinthians 12:13

 

From the Council of Nicea I to the Council of Ephesus (325-431 A.D.)

Hegemonius of Sirmium (4th century) in his Archelaus Disputation with Manes ch.26 p.199 discusses the Holy Spirit, as the Paraclete sent by Jesus. He also discusses this in Archelaus Disputation with Manes ch.27 p.200; ch.34 p.207-208

Council of Sirmium (Greek creed) (351 A.D.) (implied) "in the Holy Spirit, that is to say the Comforter, whom, having promised to his apostles after his ascension into the heavens, to teach them, and bring all things to their remembrance, he sent; (past tense)" Socrates Ecclesiastical History book 2 ch.30 in Nicene and Post-Nicene Fathers 2nd Series vol.2 p.56. See also ibid p.57

Athanasius of Alexandria (356-360 A.D.) discusses the Holy Spirit, who is the same as the Paraclete. He [currently] makes holy and comforts those who are His recipients. Four Discourses Against the Arians discourse 4 ch.29 p.444-445

Gregory of Nyssa (382-383 A.D.) says that the Holy Spirit is the paraclete in Against Eunomius book 2 ch.4 p.145.

Pacian of Barcelona (343/377-379/392 A.D.) says that by baptism the Holy Spirit is poured out on us. On Baptism ch.6(2) p.92

Ambrose of Milan (370-390 A.D.) says that Jesus promised the paraclete (John 15:26) in Of the Holy Spirit book 3 ch.1.8 p.136. The entire work says that the Spirit dwells in believers now.

Ambrose of Milan (370-390 A.D.) "But He [God] gave the Holy Spirit to all, to shed upon the apostles though separated the gift of indivisible grace." Of the Holy Spirit book 1 ch.7.81 p.104.

Rufinus (374-406 A.D.) freely translating Origen (225-253/254 A.D.) says that the Paraclete is the Holy Spirit. de Principiis 2.7.1 p.284; 2.7.3 p.285; 2.7.4 p.285-286

Orosius/Hosius of Braga (414-418 A.D.) The Comforter came to us (John 16:7) Defense Against the Pelagians ch.10 p.128

Augustine of Hippo (388-430 A.D.) says the Holy Spirit was given to us. On the Trinity book 15 ch.17.31 p.217

 

H12. Blasphemy against the Holy Spirit

 

(not just blasphemy against God or Jesus)

 

Matthew 12:31; Mark 3:28-29; Luke 12:10

 

From the Council of Nicea I to the Council of Ephesus (325-431 A.D.)

Hegemonius of Sirmium (4th century) (partial) "But if a man dealt thus with the Holy Spirit, He made him subject to two curses,-namely, to that of the law of Moses, and to that of His own law; to the law of Moses in truth in this present life, but to His own law at the time of the judgment: for His word is this: "It shall not be forgiven him, neither in this world, neither in the world to come." Archelaus Disputation with Manes ch.31 p.204

Athanasius of Alexandria (356-360 A.D.) mentions blasphemy against the Holy Spirit (Matthew 12:32; 13:55). Four Discourses Against the Arians discourse 1 ch.12.50 p.335-336

Basil of Cappadocia (357-379 A.D.) mentions blasphemy against the Holy Spirit. Letter 188 ch.I p.224

Rufinus (374-406 A.D.) freely translating Origen (225-253/254 A.D.) "Who, then, is not amazed at the exceeding majesty of the Holy Spirit, when he hears that he who speaks a word against the Son of man may hope for forgiveness; but that he who is guilty of blasphemy against the Holy Spirit has not forgiveness, either in the present world or in that which is to come!" de Principiis book 1 ch.252

 

H13. Holy Spirit dwells/lives in us

 

1 Corinthians 6:19

 

From the Council of Nicea I to the Council of Ephesus (325-431 A.D.)

Cyril of Jerusalem (c.349-386 A.D.) says the Spirit lives in us. Catechetical Lectures Lecture 12 ch.26 p.79

 

H14. Live in the Spirit

 

Galatians 5:16 Live by the Spirit and you will not gratify the desires of the sinful nature.

 

^^^

 

H15. We can grieve the Holy Spirit

 

Ephesians 4:30

(partial) Hebrews 3:7-8

 

From the Council of Nicea I to the Council of Ephesus (325-431 A.D.)

Athanasius of Alexandria (after 347 A.D.) "If is neither holy nor just, in order ot gratify the petty feeling of a few persons, to reject those who have never been condemned, and thereby to grieve the Spirit." Defence Against the Ariahs ch.2.34 p.118

Cyril of Jerusalem (c.349-386 A.D.) says don’t grieve the Holy Spirit. Catechical Lectures Lecture 17 ch.37 p.133

 

From the Council of Ephesus to the start of Muslim conquests (431-634 A.D.)

Leo I of Rome (422-461 A.D.) (partial) people can resist the Holy Spirit. Sermon 68.2 p.180

 

H16. The Divine Spirit

 

From the Council of Nicea I to the Council of Ephesus (325-431 A.D.)

Cyril of Jerusalem (c.349-386 A.D.) says the Holy Spirit is a Beign divine. Catechical Lectures Lecture 16 ch.3 p.115

 

 

THE HOLY SPIRIT’s WORK

 

Hw1. The Power of the Holy Spirit

 

1 Corinthians 2:4

 

From the Council of Nicea I to the Council of Ephesus (325-431 A.D.)

Cyril of Jerusalem (c.349-386 A.D.)

Ambrose of Milan (370-390 A.D.) "how clearly did the Holy Spirit express His own power!" Of the Holy Spirit book 2 ch.10.104 p.128

Rufinus (374-406 A.D.) freely translating Origen (225-253/254 A.D.) "And this method of apprehension is undoubtedly suggested to the minds of all by the power of the Holy Spirit." de Principiis book 2 ch.7.2 p.285

 

Hw2. God’s Spirit moved over abyss/waters

 

Genesis 1:2

 

From the Council of Nicea I to the Council of Ephesus (325-431 A.D.)

Cyril of Jerusalem (c.349-386 A.D.)

Rufinus (374-406 A.D.) freely translating Origen (225-253/254 A.D.) said that the Spirit of God moved over the waters. Homilies on Genesis homily 1 p.47

 

Hw3. The Holy Spirit spoke Scripture

 

Acts 1:16; 1 Peter 1:21

 

Cyril of Jerusalem (c.349-386 A.D.)

 

Hw4. Sword of the Spirit is the word of God

 

Cyril of Jerusalem (c.349-386 A.D.) "the sword of the Spirit, which is the Word of God" Catechical Lectures lecture 17 ch.33 p.132

 

Hw5. Christ born of Mary by the Holy Spirit

 

Luke 1:35

 

Vaticanus (B) Most of the Old Testament and all of New Testament up to Hebrews 9:15 (325-350 A.D.) Luke 1:35

Sinaiticus (340-350 A.D.) Luke 1:35

 

From the Council of Nicea I to the Council of Ephesus (325-431 A.D.)

Synod of Seleucia in Isauria (357/358 A.D.) (partial) says that Christ was begotten without passion. Socrates’ Ecclesiastical History book 2 ch.40 in The Nicene and post-Nicene Fathers Second series vol.2 p.60

Athanasius of Alexandria (356-360 A.D.) "He [the Archangel] says, ‘The Holy Ghost shall come upon thee, and the Power of the Highest shall overshadow thee, therefore also that Holy Thing which shall be born of thee, shall be called the Son of God.’" Four Discourses Against the Arians discourse 4 ch.32 p.446

Cyril of Jerusalem (c.349-386 A.D.)

Rufinus (374-406 A.D.) freely translating Origen (225-253/254 A.D.) says Jesus was born of the virgin and the Holy Spirit. de Principiis book 1 ch.4 p.240

Augustine of Hippo (388-430 A.D.) &&& City of God

 

From the Council of Ephesus to the start of Muslim conquests (431-634 A.D.)

Nestorius (451/452 A.D.) Christ was born of the Holy Spirit. The Bazaar of Heracleides book 1 part 1 ch.71 p.55; book 2 ch.1(b) p.198

Nestorius (451/452 A.D.) Mary is the Holy Virgin, but not the mother of God. The Bazaar of Heracleides book 2 ch.1 p.149; Virgin Mary. The Bazaar of Heracleides book 2 ch.1 p.171

 

Hw6. Holy Spirit appeared as a dove

 

Matthew 3:16; Mark 1:10; Luke 3:22

John 1:33 (partial)

 

From the Council of Nicea I to the Council of Ephesus (325-431 A.D.)

Hegemonius of Sirmium (4th century) "Wherefore tell me this too, O Manichaeus: If you say that Christ was not born of Mary, but that He only appeared like a man, while yet He was not really a man, the appearance being effected and produced by the power that is in Him, tell me, I repeat, on whom then was it that the Spirit descended like a dove?" Archelaus Disputation with Manes ch.49 p.226. See also ibid ch.50 p.228

Athanasius of Alexandria (356-360 A.D.) (partial, no dove) says the Holy Spirit descended. Four Discourses Against the Arians discourse 1 ch.12.47 p.334

Cyril of Jerusalem (c.349-386 A.D.)

Gregory of Nazianzen (330-391 A.D.) says the Holy Spirit came down as a dove. Orations on the Holy Lights ch.16 p.358

 

From the Council of Ephesus to the start of Muslim conquests (431-634 A.D.)

Nestorius (451/452 A.D.) says the Holy Spirit came down on Jesus as a dove. Bazaar of Heracleides book 1 part 1 ch.55 and book 1 part 1 ch.71.

 

Hw7. Holy Spirit came down at Pentecost

 

Acts 2

 

Vaticanus (B) Most of the Old Testament and all of New Testament up to Hebrews 9:15 (325-350 A.D.) Acts 2

Sinaiticus (340-350 A.D.) Acts 2

 

From the Council of Nicea I to the Council of Ephesus (325-431 A.D.)

Council of Nicea canon 20 p.42 (325 A.D.) Mentions Pentecost (partial) No mention of the Holy Spirit here though.

Hegemonius of Sirmium (4th century) (partial) quotes Acts 2:6 in discussing the work of the Holy Spirit in Archelaus Disputation with Manes ch.36 p.210

Cyril of Jerusalem (c.349-386 A.D.)

Jerome (373-420 A.D.) &&&

Augustine of Hippo (388-430 A.D.) mentions the cloven tongues that appeared as fire when the Holy Spirit came. The City of God book 20 ch.21 p.441

 

Hw8. Holy Spirit gives gifts

 

1 Corinthians 12:7-8,11; Hebrews 2:4

 

From the Council of Nicea I to the Council of Ephesus (325-431 A.D.)

Cyril of Jerusalem (c.349-386 A.D.)

Gregory of Nazianzen (330-391 A.D.) discusses the Holy Spirit giving gifts. Oration on Pentecost ch.16 p.384

 

Hw9. The Holy Spirit is a gift

 

Acts 1:4-5; 2:38b; 10:45

 

From the Council of Nicea I to the Council of Ephesus (325-431 A.D.)

Hegemonius of Sirmium (4th century) "straightway He sent (that gift of the Paraclete), dividing and imparting" Archelaus Disputation with Manes ch.27 p.200

Athanasius of Alexandria (356 A.D.) mentions "the gift of the Holy Ghost". To the Bishops of Egypt ch.1.1 p.223

Athanasius of Alexandria (356-360 A.D.) (partial) Jesus is given of the Holy Spirit. Four Discourses Against the Arians discourse 1 ch.12.50 p.336

Athanasius of Alexandria (372 A.D.) To all whom cam ethe Word of God gave to all the gift of the Spirit. Letter 44 p.553

Cyril of Jerusalem (c.349-386 A.D.)

Rufinus (374-406 A.D.) freely translating Origen (225-253/254 A.D.) "gift of the Spirit" de Principiis book 1 ch.3.7 p.248

 

Hw10. Fruit of the Spirit

 

Galatians 5:22

 

From the Council of Nicea I to the Council of Ephesus (325-431 A.D.)

Athanasius of Alexandria (334 A.D.) quotes Galatians 5:22 in Festal Letter 6 ch.5 p.521

Cyril of Jerusalem (c.349-386 A.D.)

Rufinus (374-406 A.D.) freely translating Origen (225-253/254 A.D.) "…The Holy Spirit is to be understood; as e.g., in the expression, ‘Now the fruit of the Spirit if love, joy, and peace;’" de Principiis book 1 ch.4 p.252

 

Hw11. Baptized/washed with the Holy Spirit

 

Matthew 3:11; Luke 1:23; 3:16; John 1:34; Acts 11:16; 1 Corinthians 12:13

 

Vaticanus (B) Most of the Old Testament and all of New Testament up to Hebrews 9:15 (325-350 A.D.) John 1:34

Sinaiticus (340-350 A.D.) John 1:34

 

From the Council of Nicea I to the Council of Ephesus (325-431 A.D.)

Cyril of Jerusalem (349-386 A.D.) mentions the Holy Spirit baptizing us. Catechetical Lecture 17 ch.36 Nicene & Post-Nicene Fathers p.132

Basil of Cappadocia (357-378/379 A.D.) &&&

Ambrose of Milan (370-390 A.D.) &&&

Augustine of Hippo (388-430 A.D.) speaks of the promise of being baptized in the Holy Spirit. Expositions on Psalms Psalm 1.3 p.1

 

Hw12. The Holy Spirit seals believers

 

Ephesians 1:13-14; 2 Corinthians 1:22

 

Vaticanus (B) Most of the Old Testament and all of New Testament up to Hebrews 9:15 (325-350 A.D.) Ephesians 1:13-14

Sinaiticus (340-350 A.D.) Ephesians 1:13-14

 

From the Council of Nicea I to the Council of Ephesus (325-431 A.D.)

Athanasius of Alexandria (356-360 A.D.) mentions the Holy Spirit sealing believers. Four Discourses Against the Arians discourse 1 ch.12.47 p.337

Cyril of Jerusalem (349-386 A.D.) refers to the Holy Spirit giving use the seal at which evil spirits tremble. Catechetical Lecture 17 ch.35 Nicene & Post-Nicene Fathers p.132

 

Hw13. Filled with the Holy Spirit

 

Acts 9:17; Ephesians 5:18

 

Vaticanus (B) Most of the Old Testament and all of New Testament up to Hebrews 9:15 (325-350 A.D.) Acts 9:17

Sinaiticus (340-350 A.D.) Acts 9:17

 

From the Council of Nicea I to the Council of Ephesus (325-431 A.D.)

Hegemonius of Sirmium (4th century) "Forasmuch, indeed, as the word of the Gospel is understood much better by you than by this person [Manes] who puts himself forward as the Paraclete, although I could call him rather parasite than paraclete,..." (Archelaus is speaking) Archelaus Disputation with Manes ch.22 p.195

Cyril of Jerusalem (c.349-386 A.D.)

Augustine of Hippo (388-430 A.D.) &&& Holy Spirit. Expositions on Psalms Psalm &&&

 

Among heretics

The Ebionite Gospel of pseudo-Matthew (600-625 A.D.) ch.5 p.371 mentions being filled with the Holy Spirit.

 

Hw14. The Holy Spirit directs

 

(implied) Acts 8:29; 13:2

(implied) Acts 15:28

 

Vaticanus (B) Most of the Old Testament and all of New Testament up to Hebrews 9:15 (325-350 A.D.) Acts 8:29; 13:2; 15:28

Sinaiticus (340-350 A.D.) Acts 8:29; 13:2; 15:28

 

Cyril of Jerusalem (c.349-386 A.D.)

 

Hw15. Holy Spirit taught us

 

John 14:26; 1 Corinthians 2:13

Reveals things from God 1 Corinthians 2:10 + 2:16

 

Vaticanus (B) Most of the Old Testament and all of New Testament up to Hebrews 9:15 (325-350 A.D.) John 14:26; 1 Corinthians 2:13

Sinaiticus (340-350 A.D.) John 14:26; 1 Corinthians 2:13

 

From the Council of Nicea I to the Council of Ephesus (325-431 A.D.)

Council of Sirmium (Greek creed) (351 A.D.) "in the Holy Spirit, that is to say the Comforter, whom, having promised to his apostles after his ascension into the heavens, to teach them, and bring all things to their remembrance, he sent;" Socrates Ecclesiastical History book 2 ch.30 in Nicene and Post-Nicene Fathers 2nd Series vol.2 p.56. See also ibid p.57

Cyril of Jerusalem (c.349-386 A.D.)

Ambrose of Milan (370-390 A.D.) says the Holy Spirit shall lead us into all truth (John 16:13) in Of the Holy Spirit book 2 ch.11.114 p.129.

Ambrose of Milan (370-390 A.D.) "For He [the Holy Spirit] shall not speak from Himself, but what things He shall hear shall He speak, and He shall declare unto you the thing that are to come." Of the Holy Spirit book 2 ch.11.115 p.129.

 

Hw16. The Holy Spirit gives knowledge

 

Genesis 41:38-40; Numbers 27:18; Judges 3:10; 6:34; 11:29; 1 Samuel 10:10; 1 Samuel 6:13

 

From the Council of Nicea I to the Council of Ephesus (325-431 A.D.)

Hegemonius of Sirmium (4th century) (implied) "certainly he should have this measure of knowledge, if it be true indeed that the Spirit of the Paraclete dwells in him." Archelaus Disputation with Manes ch.46 p.222

Cyril of Jerusalem (c.349-386 A.D.)

Rufinus (374-406 A.D.) freely translating Origen (225-253/254 A.D.) For all knowledge of the Father is obtained by revelation of the Son through the Holy Spirit, de Principiis book 1 ch.3.4 p.&&&

 

Hw17. Spirit gives us guidance/understanding

 

The Spirit of understanding came upon Christ is not included here.

 

John 16:13 "he will guide you into all truth. He will not speak on his own, he will speak only what he hears, and he will tell you what is yet to come. He will bring glory to me."

 

Vaticanus (B) Most of the Old Testament and all of New Testament up to Hebrews 9:15 (325-350 A.D.) John 16:13

Sinaiticus (340-350 A.D.) John 16:13

 

From the Council of Nicea I to the Council of Ephesus (325-431 A.D.)

Hegemonius of Sirmium (4th century) (partial) "Not thus is it with the Holy Spirit: God forbid; but He divides to all, and knows all kinds of tongues, and has understanding of all things, and is made all things to all men, so that the very thoughts of the heart cannot escape His cognizance." Archelaus Disputation with Manes ch.36 p.210

Rufinus (374-406 A.D.) freely translating Origen (225-253/254 A.D.) "For if the animal man receive not the things of the Spirit of God, and because he is animal, is unable to admit the understanding of a better, i.e., of a divine nature, it is for this reason perhaps that Paul, wishing to teach us more plainly what that is by means of which we are able to comprehend those things which are of the Spirit, i.e., spiritual things, conjoins and associates with the Holy Spirit an understanding rather than a soul." De Principiis book 2 ch.8.2 p.&&&

 

Hw18. The Comforter/Holy Spirit comforts us

 

John 14:15-18,25-27

 

Vaticanus (B) Most of the Old Testament and all of New Testament up to Hebrews 9:15 (325-350 A.D.) John 14:15-18,25-27

Sinaiticus (340-350 A.D.) John 14:15-18,25-27

 

From the Council of Nicea I to the Council of Ephesus (325-431 A.D.)

Hegemonius of Sirmium (4th century) "And I will pray my Father, and He shall give you another Comforter." In these words He points to the Paraclete Himself, for He speaks of "another" Comforter." Archelaus Disputation with Manes ch.34 p.208

Council of Sirmium (Greek creed) (351 A.D.) "in the Holy Spirit, that is to say the Comforter" Socrates Ecclesiastical History book 2 ch.30 in Nicene and Post-Nicene Fathers 2nd Series vol.2 p.56. See also ibid p.57

Cyril of Jerusalem (c.349-386 A.D.)

Rufinus (373-406 A.D.) freely translating Origen (225-253/254 A.D.) "but when the Holy Spirit, the Comforter, is come" de Principiis book 1 ch.3.4 p.253

Rufinus (374-406 A.D.) freely translating Origen (225-253/254 A.D.) "Holy Spirit, the Paraclete must be understood in the sense of comforter, inasmuch as He bestows consolation upon the souls to whom He openly reveals the apprehension of spiritual knowledge." de Principiis book 2 ch.7.4 p.285-286

 

Hw19. Disciples received the Holy Spirit

 

John 20:22 Jesus breathed on them and said receive the Holy Spirit

Acts 1:8

 

Vaticanus (B) Most of the Old Testament and all of New Testament up to Hebrews 9:15 (325-350 A.D.) John 20:22; Acts 1:8

Sinaiticus (340-350 A.D.) John 20:22; Acts 1:8

 

From the Council of Nicea I to the Council of Ephesus (325-431 A.D.)

Athanasius of Alexandria (356-360 A.D.) The Holy Spirit was received by the apostles. Four Discourses Against the Arians discourse 1 ch.47 p.334

Cyril of Jerusalem (c.349-386 A.D.)

Rufinus freely translating Origen (225-253/254 A.D.) "And in the New Testament we have abundant testimonies, as when the Holy Spirit is described as having descended upon Christ, and when the Lord breathed upon His apostles after His resurrection, saying, "Receive the Holy Spirit;" de Principiis book1 ch.3.2 p.&&&

 

Hw20. The Holy Spirit witnesses

 

The Holy Spirit witnessing by scripture (Acts 1:15) is not counted here.

 

John 15:26; Acts 10:19

 

Vaticanus (B) Most of the Old Testament and all of New Testament up to Hebrews 9:15 (325-350 A.D.) John 15:26; Acts 10:19

Sinaiticus (340-350 A.D.) John 15:26; Acts 10:19

 

Cyril of Jerusalem (c.349-386 A.D.) says the Holy Spirit witnesses. Catechical Lectures lecture 16 ch.14 p.118

 

The Work of God IN GENESIS

 

Wgn1. God made all things in heaven and earth

 

(implied) John 1:3

Acts 17:24; Colossians 1:16; Hebrews 2:10; Revelation 4:11

 

Vaticanus (B) Most of the Old Testament and all of New Testament up to Hebrews 9:15 (325-350 A.D.) (implied) John 1:3

Sinaiticus (340-350 A.D.) (implied) John 1:3

 

From the Council of Nicea I to the Council of Ephesus (325-431 A.D.)

Nicea (325 A.D.) says God the Father is the maker of heaven and earth, and all things visible and invisible.

Private Creed of Arius (328 A.D.) "We believe in one God, the Father Almighty; And in the Lord Jesus Christ, his Son, who was begotten of him before all ages, the Divine Logos, through whom all things were made, both those in the heavens and those on the earth; who came down and was made flesh; and suffered;"

Eusebius’ Ecclesiastical History (323-339/340 A.D.) book 1 ch.2 p.82 discusses the divinity and humanity of Christ, the only-begotten of God, the Creator of all things. Nicene and Post-Nicene Fathers Second Series vol.1 p.82

Hegemonius of Sirmium (4th century) says, "God is the artificer of all things." Archelaus Disputation with Manes ch.19 p.193

Athanasius of Alexandria (326-372/373 A.D.) says God made everything. Letter 60 ch.8 p.578

Life of Antony (355 A.D.) ch.76 p.216 "none the less, you do not worship God Himself, but serve the creature rather than God who created all things."

Synod of Antioch in Encaeniis (341 A.D.) (implied by Nicea) Canon 1 p.108 says to excommunicate people who presume to set Nice[a] under Constantine.

Council of Sirmium (Greek creed) 351 A.D. says that God made all things. Socrates Ecclesiastical History book 2 ch.30 in Nicene and Post-Nicene Fathers 2nd Series vol.2 p.56-57.

Cyril of Jerusalem (c.349-386 A.D.) says that God made all things. Catechetical Lecture Lecture 9 ch.4 p.52.

Gregory of Nyssa (356-397 A.D.) says that God made all things. Against Eunomius book 2 p.309

Pacian of Barcelona (342-379/392 A.D.) "and are not all things from God?" Letter 1 ch.4.4 p.32

John Chrysostom (before 407 A.D.) says God is the creator of all things. Marcion was wrong to say the Creator was not good. Commentary on Philippians homily 6 p.207

Venantius (lived c.530-609 A.D.) says that He who was crucified reigns over all things. All things offer prayer to their Creator. Poem on Easter p.329

Synod of Seleucia in Isauria (357/358 A.D.) , One God, Father Almighty, made all things, Socrates’ Ecclesiastical History book 2 ch.40 in The Nicene and post-Nicene Fathers Second series vol.2 p.60

Marius Victorinus to the Arian Candidus (359-362 A.D.) says that God is the cause of all. Marius’ Letter to Candidus ch.3 (14) p.71

Gregory of Nyssa (382-383 A.D.) says God is the maker of all creation. Against Eunomius 8 ch.1 p.208

Cyril of Jerusalem (349-386 A.D.) says there was only one Creator of heaven and earth. First Catechetical Lecture 4 ch.4 Nicene & Post-Nicene Fathers p.20

 

From the Council of Ephesus to the start of Muslim conquests (431-634 A.D.)

Nestorius (451/452 A.D.) God is the maker of all things. The Bazaar of Heracleides book 2 ch.1 p.141; 1 p.144

Nestorius (451/452 A.D.) Everything came into being by the Father through the Son. The Bazaar of Heracleides book 1 part 1 ch.53 p.4

 

Among heretics

The Arian Candidus’ Letter to Marius Victorinus (359-362 A.D.) (partial) says there is One God, who is the first cause of all things and unchangeable. Candidus’ First Letter ch.1,2 p.54

Creed of Eunomius (Extreme Arian) (c.360-c.377 A.D.) "We believe in One God, the Father Almighty, of Whom are all things…Nicene and Post-Nicene Fathers Second Series vol.8 p.xxxiv

Pelagian heretic Theodore of Mopsuestia (392-423/429 A.D.) "God, who is the creator and Lord of everything." Commentary on Amos ch.1 p.131

Pelagian heretic Theodore of Mopsuestia (392-423/429 A.D.) "God, who is both maker and Lord of all." Commentary on Amos ch.9 p.173

 

Wgn2. Heaven and earth were created good

 

Genesis 1:4a,10b,12b,18b,21b,25b,31a; 1 Timothy 4:4

 

Vaticanus (B) Most of the Old Testament and all of New Testament up to Hebrews 9:15 (325-350 A.D.) Genesis 1:4a; 10b,12b,18b,21b,25b,31a

Sinaiticus (340-350 A.D.) Genesis 1:4a, 10b,12b,18b,21b,25b,31a

 

From the Council of Nicea I to the Council of Ephesus (325-431 A.D.)

Hegemonius of Sirmium (4th century) "God made all Creation good." Archelaus Disputation with Manes ch.32 p.204

Life of Antony (355 A.D.) ch.76 p.216 (partial) says that creation is beautiful.

Rufinus (374-406 A.D.) freely translating Origen (225-253/254 A.D.) says that it would be absurd to assert that God made anything hostile to Himself. de Principiis book 3 ch.4.5 p.340

Augustine of Hippo (388-430 A.D.) says creation was originally good. The City of God book 11 ch.21 p.216

 

Among heretics

Tatian (died 172 A.D.) (implied) "But God, if He had prepared these things to effect just what men wish, would be a Producer of evil things; whereas He Himself produced everything which has good qualities, but the profligacy of the demons has made use of the productions of nature for evil purposes, and the appearance of evil which these wear is from them, and not from the perfect God." (apparently written before he became an Encratite) Address to the Greeks ch.17 p.72

The Ebionite Clementine Homilies (uncertain date) homily 8 ch.10 p.272 says the only good God made all things well.

 

Wgn3. God created things from nothing

 

~Hebrews 11:3

(partial) Hebrews 11:3

 

From the Council of Nicea I to the Council of Ephesus (325-431 A.D.)

Athanasius of Alexandria (339 A.D.) says God created from nothing. Letter 16 ch.4 p.533

Athanasius of Alexandria (356-360 A.D.) says God "brought all things from nothing into being". Defence of the Nicene Definition ch.18 p.162

Cyril of Jerusalem (c.349-386 A.D.) says that God called into existence from non-eistence. Catechetical Lecture Lecture 4 ch.30 p.26.

John Chrysostom (died 407 A.D.) "Not only did He Himself [Christ] bring them out of nothing into being, but Himself sustains them now, so that were they dissevered from His Providence, they were at once undone and destroyed." Homilies on Colossians homily 3 p.271

Rufinus (374-406 A.D.) freely translating Origen (225-253/254 A.D.) says that God created all things when nothing existed. de Principiis book 1 ch.4 p.240

 

Among heretics

Pelagian heretic Theodore of Mopsuestia (392-423/429 A.D.) (partial) God brought us into existence from nothing. Commentary on Malachi ch.1 p.401

 

Wgn4. Six days of Creation

 

From the Council of Nicea I to the Council of Ephesus (325-431 A.D.)

Hegemonius of Sirmium (4th century) "after God had made the world, and all things that are in it, in the space of six days, He rested on the seventh day from all His works by which statement I do not mean to affirm that He rested because He was fatigued, but that He did so as having brought to its perfection every creature which He had resolved to introduce." Archelaus Disputation with Manes ch.30 p.203

Athanasius of Alexandria (356-360 A.D.) mentions the six days of Creation. Four Discourses Against the Arians discourse 2 ch.19 p.358

Athanasius of Alexandria (329 A.D.) (implied) "of those six holy and great days, which are the symbol of the creation of this world," Easter Letter 329 A.D. ch.10 p.509

 

Wgn5. God blessed the Seventh Day

 

Genesis 2:3a

 

^^^

 

Wgn6. God imparted the breath of life

 

^^^

 

Wgn7. Garden of Eden

 

Genesis 2:8-17; Genesis 3; Isaiah 51:3; Ezekiel 28:13; 31:9-18; 36:35; Joel 2:3

 

From the Council of Nicea I to the Council of Ephesus (325-431 A.D.)

Ephraim the Syrian (350-378 A.D.) mentions the Garden of Eden. Nisibine Hymns Hymn 58 no.20 p.212

Cyril of Jerusalem (c.349-386 A.D.) (partial) mentions paradise. Catechetical Lecture Lecture 2 ch.4 p.9.

 

Wgn8. Four rivers leaving the Garden of Eden

 

Genesis 2:10-14

 

^^^

 

Wgn9. Tree of knowledge

 

Genesis 2:16,17

 

Wgn10. Eve from Adam’s rib

 

Genesis 2:22

 

^^^

 

Wgn11. Enoch was translated without dying

 

Genesis 5:21-24; Hebrews 11:5; Jude 14

Partial Luke 3:37 simpy mentions Enochin a genealogy

 

Vaticanus (B) Most of the Old Testament and all of New Testament up to Hebrews 9:15 (325-350 A.D.) Genesis 5:21-24

Sinaiticus (340-350 A.D.) Genesis 5:21-24

 

From the Council of Nicea I to the Council of Ephesus (325-431 A.D.)

Athanasius of Alexandria (356-360 A.D.) says, "Enoch, for instance was thus translated," Four Discourses Against the Arians discourse 3 ch.28.52 p.422

Ephraim the Syrian (350-378 A.D.) says that Enoch and Elijah did not see death. Nisibine Hymns Hymn 36 no.7 p.196

Cyril of Jerusalem (c.349-386 A.D.) teaches how Enoch was taken to heaven. Catechetical Lecture Lecture 3 ch.6 p.15.

Syriac Book of Steps (Liber Graduum) (350-400 A.D.) Enoch did not taste death. Memra 13 ch.4 p.131

 

Wgn12. Noah’s ark

 

Genesis 6:14-8:19

 

From the Council of Nicea I to the Council of Ephesus (325-431 A.D.)

Cyril of Jerusalem (c.349-386 A.D.) mentions Noah, his sons and their wives, and the ark. Catechetical Lecture Protocatechesis ch.14 p.4.

 

Wgn13. Judgment of Noah’s flood / deluge

 

Genesis 6-9; Isa 54:9; Matthew 24:37-38; Luke 3:36; 17:26-27; Hebrews 11:7; 1 Peter 3:10; 2 Peter 2:5

 

From the Council of Nicea I to the Council of Ephesus (325-431 A.D.)

Eusebius’ Ecclesiastical History (323-339/340 A.D.) book 1 ch.4 p.87 mentions Noah and the flood.

Eusebius’ Ecclesiastical History (323-339/340 A.D.) book 1 ch.3 p.86 mentions Noah’s flood. Nicene and Post-Nicene Fathers Second Series vol.1 p.84

Athanasius of Alexandria (356-360 A.D.) mentions God warning Noah of seven days before the flood upon the earth. Four Discourses Against the Arians discourse 3 ch.28.45 p.419

Ephraim the Syrian (350-378 A.D.) "For lo! It was but as mysteries of Him that those lowly sacrifices gained virtue, which Noah offered, and stayed by them Thy wrath. Be propitiated by the gift upon my altar, and stay from me the deadly flood. So shall both Thy signs bring deliverance to me Thy cross and to Noah Thy bow! Thy cross shall cleave the sea of waters; Thy bow shall stay the flood of rain." Nisibine Hymns hymn 1 no.2 p.167

Gregory of Nyssa (382-383 A.D.) mentions Noah’s flood and the rain of fire on Sodom in Against Eunomius book 2 ch.12 p.126

Cyril of Jerusalem (c.349-386 A.D.) mentions Noah, his sons and their wives, and the ark. Catechetical Lecture Lecture 2 ch.9 p.10

Epiphanius of Salamis (360-403 A.D.) Noah’s flood (2262 years after Adam) The Panarion section 1.1 p.14

Rufinus (374-406 A.D.) freely translating Origen (225-253/254 A.D.) "long-suffering of God in the days of Noah, when the ark was preparing" de Principiis book 2 ch.5.3 p.279

Rufinus (c.410 A.D.) freely translating Origen (240 A.D.) (partial) briefly mentions Noe (Noah). Commentary on the Song of Songs ch.1 p.65

John Chrysostom (before 407 A.D.) mentions Noah’s flood in vol.10 Commentary on Matthew homily 77 p.464.

 

Among heretics

The Vision of Paul (c.388 A.D. – after Nicea) ch.50 p.165 mention of Noe (Noah) and Noah’s Flood.

 

Wgn14. God confused/altered the languages

 

Genesis 11:7-9

 

^^^

 

Wgn15. Scattering after the Tower of Babel

 

Genesis 11:8

 

^^^

 

Wgn16. Abraham’s seed like the stars of heaven

 

Genesis 15:5

 

From the Council of Nicea I to the Council of Ephesus (325-431 A.D.)

Augustine of Hippo (338-430 A.D.) "the seed of Abraham like the stars of heaven," Commentary on Psalms Psalm 113 no.7 p.549

 

Wgn17. Judgment against Sodom or Gomorrah

 

Genesis 13:10-13; 18:20-19:28; Deuteronomy 29:13; 32:32; Isa 1:9-10; Jer 49:18; 50:40; Amos 4:11; Matthew 10:15; 11:23-24; Luke 10:12; 17:29; Romans 9:29; 2 Peter 2:6; Jude 7

 

Sinaitic Syriac (SyrS) (3rd/4th century) Matthew 1:1-6:10, 7:3-12:4; 12:6-25; 12:29-16:15; 18:11-20:24; 21:20-25:15; 25:17-20,25-26; 25:32-28:7; Mark 1:12-44; 2:21-4:17; 5:1-26; 6:5-16:18; Luke 1:36-5:28; 6:12-24:52; John 1:25-47; 2:16-4:37; 5:6-25; 5:46-18:31; 19:40-end. Matthew 10:15; 11:23-24; Luke 10:12; 17:29

Vaticanus (B) (325-350 A.D.) contains all of Deuteronomy. It has most of the Old Testament and all of New Testament up to Hebrews 9:15 (325-350 A.D.)

 

From the Council of Nicea I to the Council of Ephesus (325-431 A.D.)

Athanasius of Alexandria (356-360 A.D.) mentions God raining brimstone and fire down on Sodom and Gomorrah. Four Discourses Against the Arians discourse 2 ch.15.13 p.355 and "in this body offering Himself for all" ch.14 p.355

Eusebius’ Ecclesiastical History (323-339/340 A.D.) book 1 ch.2.9 p.83 mentions the Lord raining fire down on Sodom and Gomorrah.

Ephraim the Syrian (350-378 A.D.) Nisibine Hymns hymn 10 no.13 p.178

Gregory of Nyssa (382-383 A.D.) mentions Noah’s flood and the rain of fire on Sodom in Against Eunomius book 2 ch.12 p.126

Cyril of Jerusalem (c.349-386 A.D.) mentions the judgment of Sodom. Catechetical Lecture Lecture 10 ch.6 p.59.

The Vision of Paul (first ‘found’ c.388 A.D. – after Nicea) ch.39 p.161 speaks of punishment for homosexuals, which was called "the iniquity of Sodom and Gomorrah, the male with the male, for which reason they unceasingly pay penalties". They were "covered with dust, their countenance was like blood, and they were in a pit of pitch and sulphur and running down into a fiery river"

John Chrysostom (before 407 A.D.) mentions the great sin of the Sodomites in vol.10 Commentary on Matthew homily 37 p.247.

 

Wgn18. Lot’s wife a pillar of salt

 

Genesis 19:26

 

^^^

 

Wgn19. Jacob’s ladder

 

Genesis 28:12-15

 

^^^

 

Wgn20. Jacob wrestled with God/an angel

 

Genesis 32:22-32

 

^^^

 

The Work of God IN THE OLD TESTAMENT

 

Wot1. God’s appearances in the Old Testament

 

Genesis 18 (entire chapter); Exodus 3:4-6; 14:19-20; 19:18-20; 33:17-23

(implied) Acts 7:32-34

1 Corinthians 10:1-4

 

From the Council of Nicea I to the Council of Ephesus (325-431 A.D.)

Eusebius’ Ecclesiastical History (323-339/340 A.D.) book 1 ch.2 p.83 says that Jesus was one of the three men who appeared to Abraham.

Hilary of Poitiers (355-367/368 A.D.) (partial) extensively discusses the three children. "dare we think of His pierced body in that pain and weakness, from which the spirit of faith in Him rescued the glorious and blessed Martyrs?" (ch.46) On the Trinity book 10 ch.45-47 p.194.

Rufinus (374-406 A.D.) freely translating Origen (225-253/254 A.D.) discusses Moses seeing God, in a mystical sense, in Exodus 33:20. de Principiis book 2 ch.4.3 p.277

X Jerome (373-420 A.D.) thought it was not Christ, but rather just an angel who prefigured in type Christ in the fiery furnace in Daniel.

Athanasius of Alexandria (356-360 A.D.) quotes Exodus 3:2-6 in Four Discourses Against the Arians discourse 3 ch.14 p.401

 

Wot2. The earth is God’s footstool

 

From the Council of Nicea I to the Council of Ephesus (325-431 A.D.)

Cyril of Jerusalem (c.349-386 A.D.) says the earth is God’s footstool Catechetical Lectures Lecture 6 ch.8 p.35

 

Wot3. God sends the rain on everyone

 

Acts 14:17b "He has shown kindness by giving you rain from heaven and crops in their seasons, he provides you with plenty of food and fills your hearts with joy."

Zephaniah 10:1 (partial) "rain to men"

 

&&&Rufinus translating Origen (225-253/254 A.D.) the rain falls in kindness and impartiality de Principiis book 3 ch.&&&

Rufinus translating Origen (225-253/254 A.D.) bad, to just and unjust, by so doing give a preference to the Holy Spirit over de Principiis book 1 ch.&&&

 

Wot4. The burning bush of Moses

 

Exodus 3; Acts 7:30

 

From the Council of Nicea I to the Council of Ephesus (325-431 A.D.)

Hilary of Poitiers (355-367/368 A.D.) discusses Moses and the bush, saying that the Lord who appeared to Moses was "He who is seen", meaning Christ. On the Trinity book 4 ch.32 p.80-81

 

Wot5. Plagues of Egypt

 

Exodus 7-12

(partial) Acts 7:36 (says wonders in Egypt, but not specifically plagues)

 

From the Council of Nicea I to the Council of Ephesus (325-431 A.D.)

Hegemonius of Sirmium (4th century) "Moses prayed that Pharaoh and his people might be spared the plagues;" Archelaus Disputation with Manes ch.44 p.220

Rufinus (374-406 A.D.) freely translating Origen (225-253/254 A.D.) "Egypt was scourged with ten plagues, to allow the people of God to depart" de Principiis book 4 ch.24 p.&&&

 

Wot6. The firstborn of Egypt perished

 

From the Council of Nicea I to the Council of Ephesus (325-431 A.D.)

Hegemonius of Sirmium (4th century) "There, before the sight of Moses, all the first-born of the Egyptians perished on account of the treachery of Pharaoh;" Archelaus Disputation with Manes ch.44 p.220

&&&Athanasius of Alexandria

 

Wot7. Cloud and/or pillar of fire

 

^^^

 

Wot8. Crossing the Red Sea

 

Exodus 14-15; Acts 7:36; Hebrews 11:24-28

 

p46 Chester Beatty II – 1,680 verses 70% Paul + Hebrews (100-150 A.D.) Hebrews 11:29

p13 (Hebrews 2:14-5:5; 10:8-22; 10:29-11:13; 11:28-12:17) (225-250 A.D.) speaks of Moses in Hebrews 11:24-28 and the people crossing the Red Sea in Hebrews 11:29

 

From the Council of Nicea I to the Council of Ephesus (325-431 A.D.)

Athanasius of Alexandria (338 A.D.) (implied) says that when the children of Israel went forth and came out of Egypt, the Egyptians drowned in the deep. Easter Letter 10 ch.5 p.530

Ephraim the Syrian (350-378 A.D.) (implied, no mention of Moses here) "In the Red Sea Thou didst drown bodies;" in this sea drown my guilt instead of bodies!" Nisibine Hymns hymn 1 no.5 p.167

Rufinus (374-406 A.D.) freely translating Origen (225-253/254 A.D.) mentions Moses and the Israelites crossing the Red Sea and Joshua and the priests crossing the Jordan. Homilies on Joshua homily 4 ch.1 p.51

Augustine of Hippo (388-430 A.D.) discusses the Exodus in The City of God book 4 ch.33 p.84-82-83

 

Among heretics

Ebionite Gospel of pseudo-Matthew (600-625 A.D.) (implied) ch.24 p.377 indirectly mentions crossing the Red Sea.

 

Wot9. Water from the rock

 

Exodus 17:1-7; 1 Corinthians 10:3-4

 

^^^

 

Wot10. [Moses] and the Amalekites

 

Exodus 17:8-15

 

From the Council of Nicea I to the Council of Ephesus (325-431 A.D.)

Hegemonius of Sirmium (4th century) "There, Moses, when he was assailed, stretched forth his hands and fought against Amalek; and here, the Lord Jesus, … stretched forth His hands upon the cross, and gave us salvation." Archelaus Disputation with Manes ch.44 p.220

 

Wot11. Manna

 

^^^

 

From the Council of Ephesus to the start of Muslim conquests (431-634 A.D.)

The Didascalia (after 431 A.D.)" down manna from heaven, and with the manna gave them also flesh; who"

 

Wot12. The Ark [of the Covenant]

 

Exodus 25:1-22

 

From the Council of Nicea I to the Council of Ephesus (325-431 A.D.)

Athanasius of Alexandria (356-360 A.D.) mentions the ark. History of the Arians ch.7.57 p.291

 

Wot13. Bronze/brazen serpent in the wilderness

 

Numbers 21:4-9; John 3:14

 

^^^

 

Wot14. Hezekiah and the Assyrian army

 

2 Kings 19; Isaiah 36-37

 

From the Council of Nicea I to the Council of Ephesus (325-431 A.D.)

Aphrahat (337-344 A.D.) (implied) mentions the Assyrians and Hezekiah but does not say anything else. Select Demonstrations book 21 ch.7 p.395

Ephraim the Syrian (350-378 A.D.) (partial, not mention of the Assyrians) Nisibine Hymns hymn 39 no.18 p.202

Life of Antony (355 A.D.) ch.28 p.204 "At least the true angel of the Lord sent against the Assyrian had no need for tumults nor displays from without, nor noises nor rattlings, but in quiet he used his power and forthwith destroyed a hundred and eighty-five thousand."

Athanasius of Alexandria (338 A.D.) mentions Hezekiah and the Assyrian army that perished. Easter Letter 10 ch.3 p.528

 

Among heretics

Pelagian heretic Theodore of Mopsuestia (392-423/429 A.D.) (implied) speaks of the advancing Assyrians who fled when the angel annihilated vast numbers. Commentary on Zechariah ch.13 p.386. Also Commentary on Habakkuk preface p.266

 

Wot15. Elisha did miracle(s)

 

2 Kings 4:42-44

 

^^^

 

Wot16. Christ with the 3 youths in Daniel

 

Daniel 3:25 (implied)

 

From the Council of Nicea I to the Council of Ephesus (325-431 A.D.)

Hilary of Poitiers (355-367/368 A.D.) (implied) extensively discusses the three children. "dare we think of His pierced body in that pain and weakness, from which the spirit of faith in Him rescued the glorious and blessed Martyrs?" (ch.46) On the Trinity book 10 ch.45-47 p.194.

Athanasius of Alexandria (356-360 A.D.) (partial) "and in Daniel, ‘And the form of the Fourth is like the Song of God;" says that this must be the Son. Four Discourses Against the Arians discourse 4 ch.24 p.442

Athanasius of Alexandria (338 A.D.) (partial, does not refer to the fourth) "And those valiant and blessed three who were tried in Babylon, Hananiah, Hishael, and Azariah, when they were in the safety and the fire became to them as new, gave thanks, praising and saying words of glory to God. I too like them have written, my brethren, having these things in mind;" Letters of Athanasius of Alexandria Paschal Letter 10 ch.3 p.528

X Jerome (373-420 A.D.) thought it was not Christ, but rather just an angel who prefigured in type Christ in the fiery furnace in Daniel.

Augustine of Hippo (388-430 A.D.)

 

Wot17. Daniel in the lion’s den

 

^^^

 

The Work of God IN THE NEW TESTAMENT

 

Wnt1. Zechariah was made mute [temporarily]

 

Luke 1:18-20

 

^^^

 

Wnt2. The star [of Bethlehem]

 

Matthew 2:2,7,9-10

 

^^^

 

Among heretics

The Ebionite Gospel of pseudo-Matthew (600-625 A.D.) ch.13 p.375 "And some shepherds also affirmed that they had seen angels singing a hymn at midnight, praising and blessing the God of heaven, and saying: There has been born the Saviour of all, who is Christ the Lord, in whom salvation shall be brought back to Israel. Moreover, a great star, large than any that had been seen since the beginning of the world, shone over the cave from the evening till the morning. And the prophets who were in Jerusalem said that this star pointed out the birth of Christ, who should restore the promise not only to Israel, but to all nations."

 

Wnt3. Jesus performed miracles

 

Luke 6:10; 7:14-15

 

John 2:1-11; John 4:46-54; Matthew 8:14-17; Mark 1:29-34; Luke 4:38-41; Matthew 8:23-27; Mark 4:35-41; Luke 8:22-25; Matthew 14:13-21; Mark 6:30-44; Luke 9:10-17; John 6:-14; Matthew 14:22-23; Mark 6:45-52; John 6:16-21; Matthew 15:32-39; Mark 8:1-9; Matthew 17:1-13; Mark 9:2-13; Luke 4:16-31; Luke 9:28-36; Matthew 9:18-26; Mark 5:21-43; Luke 8:40-56; John 9:1-41; John 11:1-44; Matthew 20:29-34; Mark 10:46-52; Luke 18:35-43; Matthew 21:18-19; Mark 11:12-14; Matthew 28:1-10; Mark 16:1-8; Luke 24:1-12; John 20:1-10; Mark 16:12-13; Luke 24:13-35; Mark 16:14; Luke 24:36-43; John 20:19-25; John 20:26-31; John 21:1-25; Matthew 28:16-20; Mark 16:29-20; Luke 24:44-53

 

Vaticanus (B) Most of the Old Testament and all of New Testament up to Hebrews 9:15 (325-350 A.D.) Luke 6:10; 7:14-15

Sinaiticus (340-350 A.D.) Luke 6:10; 7:14-15

 

From the Council of Nicea I to the Council of Ephesus (325-431 A.D.)

Juvencus (329 A.D.) said that Jesus performed miracles in his Englynion Introduction.

Life of Antony (probably by Athanasius of Alexandria) (355 A.D.) ch.75 p.216 mentions Jesus healing the blind man.

Athanasius of Alexandria (356-360 A.D.) mentions that Jesus raised Lazarus and open the eyes of a blind man. Letter to the Church of Antioch ch.7 p.485

Athanasius of Alexandria (346-356 A.D.) lists some of the miracles of Jesus, icluding healing the lame, turning water into wine, and feeding the 5,000. Defence of the Nicene Definition ch.1 p.150

Rufinus (374-406 A.D.) freely translating Origen (225-253/254 A.D.) Homilies on Joshua. homily 8 ch.3 p.88

Augustine of Hippo (388-430 A.D.) says Jesus raised Lazarus from the dead. The City of God book 14 ch.9 p.269

A Poem on the Passion of the Lord (315-350 A.D.) Jesus said "uniting with wholesome teaching many evident miracles" p.327

Council of Constantinople II (May 553 A.D.) says that it is the same Jesus Christ who is the Word of God, suffered, was incarnate and made man, and worked miracles. the flesh from Mary, Mother of God. The Capitula of the Council ch.3 p.312

 

Among heretics

Mandaeans (>350?) (partial) said that Jesus put the demons with him into dead people so that their bodies would rise. Ginza p.549

Ebionite Gospel of pseudo-Matthew (600-625 A.D.) ch.27 p.378 says that Jesus performed a miracle of making twelve clay pigeons, which were given life and flew. This is also alluded to in the Qur’an in Sura 3:49; Sura 5:110; and Sura 105:1-4.

 

Wnt4. Jesus at Cana or turning water to wine

 

John 2:1-12

 

From the Council of Nicea I to the Council of Ephesus (325-431 A.D.)

Athanasius of Alexandria (346-356 A.D.) lists some of the miracles of Jesus, icluding healing the lame, turning water into wine, and feeding the 5,000. Defence of the Nicene Definition ch.1 p.150

 

Wnt5. Jesus calmed the storm

 

Matthew 8:23-27; Mark 4:35-41; Luke 8:22-25

 

^^^

 

Wnt6. Jesus fed the 5,000

 

Matthew 14:13-21; Mark 6:30-44; Luke 9:10-17; John 6:8-12

 

From the Council of Nicea I to the Council of Ephesus (325-431 A.D.)

Hegemonius of Sirmium (4th century) "my Lord Jesus by His own power satisfied with five loaves five thousand men in the wilderness." Archelaus Disputation with Manes ch.44 p.220

Athanasius of Alexandria (346-356 A.D.) "In truth, dead men were raised, lame walked, blind saw afresh, lepers were cleansed, and the water became wine, and five loaves satisfied five thousand, and all wondered and worshipped the Lord, confessing that in Him were fulfilled the prophecies, and that He was God the Son of God;" Defense of the Nicene Definition ch.1 p.150

 

Wnt7. Jesus walked on water/waves/deep

 

John 6:17-22

 

From the Council of Nicea I to the Council of Ephesus (325-431 A.D.)

Hegemonius of Sirmium (268-272 A.D.) "There, Moses went without fear into the darkness of the clouds that carry water; and here, the Lord Jesus walked with all power upon the waters." Archelaus Disputation with Manes ch.44 p.220

 

Wnt8. Jesus healed a leper

 

Luke 5:12-13

 

From the Council of Nicea I to the Council of Ephesus (325-431 A.D.)

Athanasius of Alexandria (346-356 A.D.) "In truth, dead men were raised, lame walked, blind saw afresh, lepers were cleansed, and the water became wine, and five loaves satisfied five thousand, and all wondered and worshipped the Lord, confessing that in Him were fulfilled the prophecies, and that He was God the Son of God;" Defense of the Nicene Definition ch.1 p.150

 

Wnt9. Jesus healed the paralytic

 

Luke 5:17-20

 

From the Council of Nicea I to the Council of Ephesus (325-431 A.D.)

Athanasius of Alexandria (356-360 A.D.) says that Jesus remitted sins against the paralytic. Four Discourses Against the Arians discourse 3 ch.27.40 p.415

 

Wnt10. Healing the flow of blood

 

Matthew 9:20-22; Mark 5:25-34; Luke 8:43-49

 

From the Council of Nicea I to the Council of Ephesus (325-431 A.D.)

Life of Antony (probably by Athanasius of Alexandria) (355 A.D.) ch.58 p.211 mentions the healing of the woman with the flow of blood.

Athanasius of Alexandria (326-372/373 A.D.) mentiosn the woman healed of the flow of blood. Letter 60 ch.3 p.576

 

Wnt11. Raising the widow’s son

 

Luke 7:14-15

 

^^^

 

Wnt12. Raising Lazarus from the dead

 

John 11:38-44; 12:1

 

Sinaitic Syriac (SyrS) (3rd/4th century) Matthew 1:1-6:10, 7:3-12:4; 12:6-25; 12:29-16:15; 18:11-20:24; 21:20-25:15; 25:17-20,25-26; 25:32-28:7; Mark 1:12-44; 2:21-4:17; 5:1-26; 6:5-16:18; Luke 1:36-5:28; 6:12-24:52; John 1:25-47; 2:16-4:37; 5:6-25; 5:46-18:31; 19:40-end. John 11:38-44; 12:1

 

From the Council of Nicea I to the Council of Ephesus (325-431 A.D.)

Athanasius of Alexandria (356-360 A.D.) says the Jesus recalled Lazarus’ soul. Four Discourses Against the Arians discourse 3 ch.28.46 p.419.

Athanasius of Alexandria (356-360 A.D.) mentions that Jesus raised Lazarus and opened the eyes of a blind man. Letter to the Church of Antioch ch.7 p.485

Athanasius of Alexandria (346-356 A.D.) (partial) "In truth, dead men were raised, lame walked, blind saw afresh, lepers were cleansed, and the water became wine, and five loaves satisfied five thousand, and all wondered and worshipped the Lord, confessing that in Him were fulfilled the prophecies, and that He was God the Son of God;" Defense of the Nicene Definition ch.1 p.150

Aphrahat the Syrian (337-345 A.D.) mentions Lazarus coming out of the tomb, and the Lord saying, "Come forth". quotes part of John 11:43 saying that Jesus said it. Select Demonstrations Demonstration 8 ch.14 p.379

Ephraim the Syrian (350-378 A.D.) Nisibine Hymns hymn 37 no.6 p.198

Ambrose of Milan (370-390 A.D.) mentions Lazarus who rose fro mthe Dead. On Repentance book 2 ch.7.59,63 p.353

Augustine of Hippo (388-430 A.D.) says Jesus raised Lazarus from the dead. The City of God book 14 ch.9 p.269

 

Among heretics

Ebionite: One of the manuscripts of the Gospel of pseudo-Matthew (600-625 A.D.) "And forthwith the dead man rose from his bed, and asked who Jesus was. In place of this chapter, one of the mss. has a number of miracles copied from the canonical Gospels: "the walking on the sea, the feeding of the five thousand, the healing of a blind man, the raising of Lazarus, and the raising of a certain young man."

 

Wnt13. The apostle(s) worked miracles

 

Luke 9:1; Acts 3:1-8; 5:12; 9:40-42

 

Sinaitic Syriac (SyrS) (3rd/4th century) Matthew 1:1-6:10, 7:3-12:4; 12:6-25; 12:29-16:15; 18:11-20:24; 21:20-25:15; 25:17-20,25-26; 25:32-28:7; Mark 1:12-44; 2:21-4:17; 5:1-26; 6:5-16:18; Luke 1:36-5:28; 6:12-24:52; John 1:25-47; 2:16-4:37; 5:6-25; 5:46-18:31; 19:40-end. Luke 9:1

 

From the Council of Nicea I to the Council of Ephesus (325-431 A.D.)

Eusebius’ Ecclesiastical History (323-339/340 A.D.) book 1 ch.13.2-5 p.100 and book 1 ch.13.17 p.101 discusses the apostle Thaddeus going to see King Agabus.

Athanasius of Alexandria (356-360 A.D.) says the apostles did miracles in the Lord’s grace. Four Discourses Against the Arians discourse 3 ch.2 p.395.

 

Wnt14. Ananias or Sapphira killed

 

Acts 5:1-11

 

From the Council of Nicea I to the Council of Ephesus (325-431 A.D.)

Hegemonius of Sirmium (4th century) "Peter, who raised Tabitha to life, but also put Sapphira to death?" A Fragment of Archelaus Disputation with Manes p.234

Basil of Cappadocia (357-378/379 A.D.) "Let them say whether it is more proper to rank Him [the Holy Spirit] with God or to thrust Him forth to the place of the creature. Peter’s word to Sapphira, ‘How is it that ye have agreed together to tempt the Spirit of the Lord? Ye have not lied unto men, but unto God,’ show that sins against the Holy Spirit and against God are the same. On the Spirit ch.16.37 p.22.

Ambrose of Milan (370-390 A.D.) quotes Acts 5:3-4,5 and mentions Ananias and his wife, who were killed by the Holy Spirit. Of the Holy Spirit book 3 ch.9.56 p.143.

 

Wnt15. Jesus healing the blind

 

John 9:1-12

 

From the Council of Nicea I to the Council of Ephesus (325-431 A.D.)

Life of Antony (probably by Athanasius of Alexandria) (355 A.D.) ch.75 p.216 mentions Jesus healing the blind man.

Athanasius of Alexandria (326-372/373 A.D.) mentions "the man blind from birth was healed by the fleshly spitting of the Word" Letter 60 ch.5 p.576

Athanasius of Alexandria (346-356 A.D.) "In truth, dead men were raised, lame walked, blind saw afresh, lepers were cleansed, and the water became wine, and five loaves satisfied five thousand, and all wondered and worshipped the Lord, confessing that in Him were fulfilled the prophecies, and that He was God the Son of God;" Defense of the Nicene Definition ch.1 p.150

 

Among heretics

Ebionite: One of the manuscripts of the Gospel of pseudo-Matthew (600-625 A.D.) "And forthwith the dead man rose from his bed, and asked who Jesus was. In place of this chapter, one of the mss. has a number of miracles copied from the canonical Gospels: "the walking on the sea, the feeding of the five thousand, the healing of a blind man, the raising of Lazarus, and the raising of a certain young man."

 

 

People

 

Pe1. People are made in the image of God

 

Genesis 1:26-27; 1 Corinthians 11:7; James 3:9

Genesis 9:6 (people, not just Adam)

 

Vaticanus (B) Most of the Old Testament and all of New Testament up to Hebrews 9:15 (325-350 A.D.) Genesis 1:26-27

Sinaiticus (340-350 A.D.) Genesis 1:26-27

 

From the Council of Nicea I to the Council of Ephesus (325-431 A.D.)

Eusebius’ Ecclesiastical History (323-339/340 A.D.) book 1 ch.2.4 p.82 says that we were made in the image of Christ. Nicene and Post-Nicene Fathers Second Series vol.1 ch.2.4 p.83

Hegemonius of Sirmium (4th century) give the metaphor that our spirits in our body are God’s image in His temple. Archelaus Disputation with Manes ch.19 p.193

Hilary of Poitiers (355-367/368 A.D.) quotes Genesis that people are made in the image of God, and says the image people were made from was that of Christ. On the Trinity book 5 ch.9 p.87

Athanasius of Alexandria (335-342 A.D.) says that God made us in His image. On Luke 10:22 ch.2 p.87

Ambrose of Milan (378-381 A.D.) quotes Genesis 1:26. On the Christian Faith book 1 ch.7.51 p.209

John Chrysostom (martyred 407 A.D.) says we are made in the image of God. Homilies on John homily 25 ch.2 (vol.14) p.89

Epiphanius of Salamis (360-403 A.D.) Man made in the image of God. The Panarion section 3 ch.44 p.342

Rufinus (374-406 A.D.) freely translating Origen (225-253/254 A.D.) quotes Genesis 1:26-28 "Let us make man in our image" de Principiis book 3 ch.6.1 p.344

Life of Aphou (399-420? A.D.) says that we are made in the image of God. "Aba Aphou said, ‘Just as it is necessary to believe this, it is also necessary to believe his authority: ‘humankind has been created [according to] the likeness and image of God,’’" Four Desert Fathers. p.185

 

From the Council of Ephesus to the start of Muslim conquests (431-634 A.D.)

Nestorius (451/452 A.D.) We are made in the image of God. The Bazaar of Heracleides book 1 ch.1.63 p.59

 

Pe2. Our bodies die but our souls are immortal

 

God’s Judgment is final and the Lake of Fire is eternal. Revelation 20:10(Mt 25:46); 2 Thessalonians 1:9; Hebrews 6:2; Jude 7

Non-believers have painful consciousness after death. Revelation 20:10; Luke 12:5; 13:28; 16; Ezekiel 32:31-32; Matthew 3:12;5:21;13:42,50;22:13;25:41; Isaiah 50:11

Non-believers will perish. Luke 13:3,5; John 3:16; 2 Thessalonians 1:9, be no more on earth. Psalm 104:35; Deuteronomy 29:20, be destroyed.2 Thessalonians 1:9; 2 Peter 3:16; Matthew 10:28; 1 Corinthians 3:17; Philippians 1:28; James 4:12; Revelation 11:18

Destruction does not mean non-existence; Satan, beast, and false prophet will suffer forever in the lake of fire. Luke 21:16+18; 2 Thessalonians 2:8; Revelation 19:20;20:10.

Unbelievers are eternally punished there too. Matthew 25:41,46; Revelation 14:9-11;~19:3;~22:15

 

Sinaitic Syriac (SyrS) (3rd/4th century) Matthew 1:1-6:10, 7:3-12:4; 12:6-25; 12:29-16:15; 18:11-20:24; 21:20-25:15; 25:17-20,25-26; 25:32-28:7; Mark 1:12-44; 2:21-4:17; 5:1-26; 6:5-16:18; Luke 1:36-5:28; 6:12-24:52; John 1:25-47; 2:16-4:37; 5:6-25; 5:46-18:31; 19:40-end. Matthew 25:46

Vaticanus (B) Most of the Old Testament and all of New Testament up to Hebrews 9:15 (325-350 A.D.) Matthew 25:46

Sinaiticus (340-350 A.D.) Matthew 25:46

 

From the Council of Nicea I to the Council of Ephesus (325-431 A.D.)

Chryosotom (died 407 A.D.) "For of the fact that we have an immortal soul, and that we shall hereafter render an account of what we have done here, and stand before a fearful Tribunal, their minds are at once thoroughly persuaded, and they have also regulated their whole course of life by such hopes as these; and have become superior to all worldly show, instructed as they have been by the sacred Scriptures, that ‘all is vanity, yea, vanity of vanities,’ [Ecclesiastes i.2] and they do not greedily long for any of those things which seem to be so splendid." On the Statues ch.19.3 p.465

Rufinus (374-406 A.D.) freely translating Origen (225-253/254 A.D.) (implied) discusses the immutability of the soul in de Principiis book 3 ch.1.13 p.313-314

Many others too

 

Among corrupt or spurious works

Apocalypse of Peter v.25 Ante-Nicene Fathers vol.9 p.145-147 (partial) tells in great detail of the tormonets of the wicked after death.

 

Pe3. People were made of dust

 

Genesis 2:7; Psalm 103:14; 1 Corinthians 15:47-48

 

^^^

 

Pe4. Our bodies will return to dust

 

Genesis 3:19b

 

From the Council of Nicea I to the Council of Ephesus (325-431 A.D.)

Rufinus (374-406 A.D.) freely translating Origen (225-253/254 A.D.) "We, however, who believe in its resurrection, understand that a change only has been produced by death, but that its substance certainly remains; and that by the will of its Creator, and at the time appointed, it will be restored to life; and that a second time a change will take place in it, so that what at first was flesh (formed) out of earthly soil, and was afterwards dissolved by death, and again reduced to dust and ashes (‘For dust thou art,’ it is said, ‘and to dust shall thou return’), will be again raised from the earth, and shall after this, according to the merits of the indwelling soul, advance to the glory of a spiritual body." de Principiis book 3 ch.6.5 p.&&&

 

Pe5. People are like clay

 

Pe6. Soul shares body’s pain and feelings

 

^^^

 

Pe7. People have the will to choose

 

Joshus 24:15; (implied) Luke 7:30

 

Vaticanus (B) Most of the Old Testament and all of New Testament up to Hebrews 9:15 (325-350 A.D.) Luke 7:30

Sinaiticus (340-350 A.D.) Luke 7:30

 

From the Council of Nicea I to the Council of Ephesus (325-431 A.D.)

Hegemonius of Sirmium (4th century) "For all the creatures that God made, He made very good; and He gave to every individual the sense of free-will, in accordance with which standard He also instituted the law of judgment. To sin is ours, and that we sin not is God’s gift, as our will is constituted to choose either to sin or not to sin." (Archelaus is speaking) Archelaus Disputation with Manes ch.32 p.204

Rufinus (374-406 A.D.) freely translating Origen (225-253/254 A.D.) Every soul has free will. Origen’s de Principiis preface 5 p.240

Rufinus (374-406 A.D.) freely translating Origen (225-253/254 A.D.) Mention of free will. Fragment 1 from Origen’s de Principiis p.267

Rufinus (374-406 A.D.) freely translating Origen (225-253/254 A.D.) believed in free will. Origen’s de Principiis 3.5.5 p.343; 3.5.8 p.344

Augustine of Hippo (388-8/28/430 A.D.)

 

Fulgentius of Ruspe (507-532/533 A.D.)

 

Pe8. We should tremble at God’s Word

 

Isaiah 66:2,5

 

From the Council of Nicea I to the Council of Ephesus (325-431 A.D.)

Gregory Nazianzen (380/381 A.D.) (partial) says to tremple because of our sins, and tremble with joy because of our hope. Oration 38 On the Theophany ch.1 p.345

Pacian of Barcelona (342-379/392 A.D.) "be humble and tremble at God’s words" On Penitents ch.6.1 p.76

Pe9. Do not trust in man

 

Pe10. The spirit is willing but the flesh is weak

 

Matthew 26:41b

 

Pe11. No profit to gain the whole world and lose your soul

 

Matthew 16:26; Mark 8:36; Luke 9:25

 

Pe12. Positive mention of non-Biblical Jews

 

Eusebius of Caesarea (323-339/340 A.D.) "We must admire the account of Josephus for its agreement with the divine Scriptures in regard to this wonderful event; for he clearly bears witness to the truth in the nineteenth book of his Antiquities," Eusebius’ Ecclesiastical History book 6 ch.10 p.111

Eusebius of Caesarea (323-339/340 A.D.) extensively discusses about Philo "how exceedingly he labored in the scriptures". Eusebius’ Ecclesiastical History book 2 ch.4-5 p.107-109

 

Pe13. Even the elect an be deceived

 

Matthew 24:24b

 

From the Council of Nicea I to the Council of Ephesus (325-431 A.D.)

Hegemonius (3d century) translating Archelaus (262-278 A.D.) quotes Matthew 24:4-5,23-26. "The Spirit in the evangelist Matthew is also careful to give note of these words of our Lord Jesus Christ: ‘Take heed that no man deceive you: for many shall come in my name, saying, I am Christ; and shall deceive many. But if any man shall say unto you, Lo, here is Christ, or there; believe it not. For there shall arise false Christs, and false apostles, and false prophets, and shall show great signs and wonders; insomuch that, if it were possible, they shall deceive the very elect." (Archelaus is speaking) Disputation with Manes ch.35 p.209

Hegemonius (3d century) translating Archelaus (262-278 A.D.) "For we are given to understand beforehand that the devil himself is to be transformed into an angel of light, and that his servants are to make their appearance in similar guise, and that they are to work signs and wonders, insomuch that, if it were possible, the very elect should be deceived." (Archelaus is speaking) Disputation with Manes ch.36 p.210

 

Pe14. We are God’s workmanship

 

Ephesians 2:2:10

 

From the Council of Nicea I to the Council of Ephesus (325-431 A.D.)

Athanasius of Alexandria (356-360 A.D.) "but ‘Where I am, there ye’ shall ‘be also;’ so that we may say, ‘We are His workmanship, created unto good works.’" Four Discourses Against the Arians discourse 2 ch.21.66 p.337.

Cyril of Jerusalem (349-386 A.D.) quotes Ephesians 2:10. Catechical Lectures Lecture 2.1 p.8

 

SIN

 

Si1. Man fell when Adam and Eve ate the fruit

 

Genesis 3; Romans 5:17-19

 

Vaticanus (B) Most of the Old Testament and all of New Testament up to Hebrews 9:15 (325-350 A.D.) Genesis 3

Sinaiticus (340-350 A.D.) Genesis 3

 

From the Council of Nicea I to the Council of Ephesus (325-431 A.D.)

Hegemonius of Sirmium (4th century) discusses the serpent’s deceit of Eve and being cast out. Archelaus Disputation with Manes ch.33 p.206

Athanasius of Alexandria (335-342 A.D.) says that death prevailed from Adam to Moses, the earth was cursed, Hades opened, and Paradise shut. On Luke 10:22 (Matthew 11:27) ch.2 p.87

Athanasius of Alexandria (328 A.D.) (partial) says that man is in need and is fallen. Statement of Faith ch.4 p.85.

Pacian of Barcelona (342-379/392 A.D.) (implied) Adam’s condemnation transmitted to the whole human race. All people have sinned. On Baptism ch.2.1 p.88

Pacian of Barcelona (342-379/392 A.D.) discusses how mankind fell because Adam sinned. On Baptism ch.1.2 p.87-88 and ch.2.1 p.88

Orosius/Hosius of Braga (414-418 A.D.) says that Adam sinned and so the human race sinned. Defense Against the Pelagians ch.26 p.152-153

Augustine of Hippo (388-430 A.D.) says the fall came from the bad use of free will. The City of God book 13 ch.14 p.251. They sinned when they ate the fruit. The City of God book 13 ch.20 p.256

 

From the Council of Ephesus to the start of Muslim conquests (431-634 A.D.)

Nestorius (451/452 A.D.) Mentions the Fall of Adam and eating of the forbidden tree. The Bazaar of Heracleides book 1 ch.1.75 p.68-69

Venantius (lived ca.530-609 A.D.) (partial) mentions Eve taking the fruit. Poem on Easter p.330.

 

Among heretics

Mandaeans (>350?) (partial) mention Adam and Eve. Ginza p.543

 

Si2. Adam & Eve covered themselves for shame

 

Si3. We have or inherited a sinful nature

 

Romans 5:12-19; 1 John 1:10

1 Corinthians 15:22-23 (partial)

 

From the Council of Nicea I to the Council of Ephesus (325-431 A.D.)

Rufinus (34-406 A.D.) freely translating Origen (225-253/254 A.D.) (partial) discusses the spirit vs. the flesh. de Principiis book 3 ch.2.3 p.330

Augustine of Hippo (388-430 A.D.)

 

From the Council of Ephesus to the start of Muslim conquests (431-634 A.D.)

Nestorius (451/452 A.D.) Man is sinful. The Bazaar of Heracleides book 1 ch.1.92 p.82

Prosper of Aquitaine (426-455 A.D.)

Cassiodorus (520-560/c.580 A.D.) translating Clement of Alexandria (193-217/220 A.D.) "For so also we lie under Adam’s sin through similarity of sin." Comments on the Letter of Jude fragment 1 from Cassiodorus ch.2 p.573

 

Si4. All have sinned

 

Psalm 14:2-3; Psalm 53:2-3;

Romans 3:22-23; 1 John 1:8,10; (partial) Luke 5:8; (partial) James 3:2a;

 

Sinaitic Syriac (SyrS) (3rd/4th century) Matthew 1:1-6:10, 7:3-12:4; 12:6-25; 12:29-16:15; 18:11-20:24; 21:20-25:15; 25:17-20,25-26; 25:32-28:7; Mark 1:12-44; 2:21-4:17; 5:1-26; 6:5-16:18; Luke 1:36-5:28; 6:12-24:52; John 1:25-47; 2:16-4:37; 5:6-25; 5:46-18:31; 19:40-end. (partial) Luke 5:8

 

From the Council of Nicea I to the Council of Ephesus (325-431 A.D.)

Pacian of Barcelona (342-379/392 A.D.) Adam’s condemnation transmitted to the whole human race. All people have sinned. On Baptism ch.2.1 p.88

John Chrysostom (before 407 A.D.) says that all men live a natural life of sin. Commentary on Philippians homily 3 verse 21 p.195

Jerome (373-420 A.D.)

Council of Ephesus (Jun-Sep 431 A.D.)

 

Si5. Those who sin are sin’s servants/slaves

 

John 8:34

 

From the Council of Nicea I to the Council of Ephesus (325-431 A.D.)

John Chrysostom (died 407 A.D.) says Paul said sinners were "Servants of sin" Commentary on Matthew homily 38 p.251

 

Si6. People have guilt

 

Exodus 34:7; Leviticus 5:15; Psalm 3:29; 38:4; Isa 6:7; Jer 2:22; Hebrews 10:2,22; James 2:10

 

From the Council of Nicea I to the Council of Ephesus (325-431 A.D.)

Hegemonius of Sirmium (4th century) "Stop, my beloved brethren, lest mayhap we be found to have the guilt of blood on us at the day of judgment; for it is written of men like this, that ‘there must be also heresies among you, that they which are approved may be made manifest among you.’" Archelaus Disputation with Manes ch.39 p.213

&&&Athanasius of Alexandria (326-372/373 A.D.)

 

Balsamon interpreting Peter of Alexandria (306,285-311 A.D.) "tormentors, that we may not be the cause of bringing upon them the guilt of"" Canonical Epistle Canon 9 p.&&&

 

From the Council of Ephesus to the start of Muslim conquests (431-634 A.D.)

Venantius (lived ca.530-609 A.D.) "them away, He [Christ] guards the fold of God. Those whom guilty Eve had before infected, He now restores, fed with abundant milk at the bosom of the Church." Poem On Easter p.330

 

Among heretics

Tatian (died 172 A.D.) quotes John

 

Si7. Reason/understanding was darkened

 

Job 38:2 (partial)

Matthew 4:16; 6:23; Luke 11:34; John 3:19-20;

John 12:35,40 (implied); 2 Corinthians 4:4-6 (implied)

1 Corinthians 2:14; 2 Corinthians 3:14-16 (Jews when reading Moses)

Romans 1:21; 2:19; Ephesians 4:17-18; 5:8; 6:12; Colossians 1:13; 1 John 1:6-7; 2:9

 

Sinaitic Syriac (SyrS) (3rd/4th century) Matthew 1:1-6:10, 7:3-12:4; 12:6-25; 12:29-16:15; 18:11-20:24; 21:20-25:15; 25:17-20,25-26; 25:32-28:7; Mark 1:12-44; 2:21-4:17; 5:1-26; 6:5-16:18; Luke 1:36-5:28; 6:12-24:52; John 1:25-47; 2:16-4:37; 5:6-25; 5:46-18:31; 19:40-end. (implied John 12:40

 

From the Council of Nicea I to the Council of Ephesus (325-431 A.D.)

Athanasius of Alexandria (330 A.D.) quotes Romans 1:22, 28. Easter Letter 2 ch.3 p.511

 

Si8. People are corrupted/corruptible

 

1 Corinthians 15:42,50,53

 

Saying that a few people, or evil people, are corrupted is not counted here. Corrupt superstitions are also not counted.

 

From the Council of Nicea I to the Council of Ephesus (325-431 A.D.)

Athanasius of Alexandria (334 A.D.) quotes 1 Corinthians 15:53. Easter Letter 6 ch.4 p.520

Genuine Acts of Peter of Alexandria (after 384 A.D.) p.268 "By no means, For as long as this corruptible body weighs us down, and this earthly habitation depresses the sense of our infirmity, many are easily deceived in their imaginations, and think that which is unjust to be just, that to be holy which is impure. The Gibeonites who, by the divine threatenings, were to be utterly destroyed, having one thing in their wishes and another in their voice and mien, were able quickly to deceive Joshua, that just distributor of the land of promise."

 

Si9. People are hardened

 

Exodus 4:21; 10:20; Psalm 95:8; Proverbs 28:14; Romans 9:18; 11:25; Ephesians 4:18

 

^^^

 

Si10. Idolators/sinners are shameful

 

Daniel 9:7-11,16

 

From the Council of Nicea I to the Council of Ephesus (325-431 A.D.)

&&&Athanasius of Alexandria (356-360 A.D.) (implied) Four Discourses Against the Arians discourse

 

Balsamon commenting on Peter of Alexandria (306,285-311 A.D.) "even though after their fall they should confess the faith, who, if they are not converted, will undergo more shame and ignominy than others, even as he who laid the foundation, and did not finish the building." Canonical Epistle Canon 10 p.&&&

 

Si11. The sinful provoke God

 

Exodus 23:21; Num 14:11,23; 16:30; Deuteronomy 4:25; 9:7,8,18,22; 31:20,29; 32:16,21; Jdg 2:12; 1 Kings 14:9,15,22; 15:30; 16:2,7,13,26,33; 21:22,53; 2 Kings 17:11,17; 21:6,15,17; 23:1,26; 2 Chr 28:25; 33:6; 34:25; Ezr 5:12; Neh 4:5; Job 12:6; Psalm 78:17,40,56,58; 106:29,33,43; Isa 1:4; 65:3; Jer 7:18,19; 8:19; 11:17; 25:6,7; 32:29,30,32; 44:3,8; Ezek 8:17; 16:26; Hos 12:14; Zech 8:14; 1 Corinthians 10:22; Hebrews 3:16

 

Vaticanus (B) (325-350 A.D.) contains all of Deuteronomy. It has most of the Old Testament and all of New Testament up to Hebrews 9:15 (325-350 A.D.)

 

^^^

 

Si12. We are dead in sin

 

Romans 7:9; Ephesians 2:1,5; Colossians 2:13

 

From the Council of Nicea I to the Council of Ephesus (325-431 A.D.)

Athanasius of Alexandria (338 A.D.) quotes Ephesians 2:4,5 in Letter 10 (Paschal Letter) ch.4 p.528.

 

Si13. The conscience of some is seared

 

1 Timothy 4:2

 

From the Council of Nicea I to the Council of Ephesus (325-431 A.D.)

Hegemonius of Sirmium (4th century) "Apostle Paul, that elect vessel, has given us very clear indication when he says: ‘Now in the last times some shall depart from the faith, giving heed to seducing spirits, and doctrines of devils; speaking lies in hypocrisy; having their conscience seared with a hot iron; forbidding to marry, and commanding to abstain from meats, which God hath created to be received with thanksgiving of them which believe and know the truth. For every creature of God is good, and nothing to be refused, if it be received with thanksgiving.’" Archelaus Disputation with Manes ch.35 p.209

 

Si14. Hardness of people’s hearts

 

^^^

 

Si15. Works of the flesh / sinful nature

 

Galatians 5:19-21

 

From the Council of Nicea I to the Council of Ephesus (325-431 A.D.)

Rufinus (374-406 A.D.) freely translating Origen (225-253/254 A.D.) lists the works of the flesh. de Principiis book 3 ch.4.2 p.338

 

Si16. Ezekiel 18 referring to an individual

 

Ezekiel 18

 

From the Council of Ephesus to the start of Muslim conquests (431-634 A.D.)

The Didascalia (after 431 A.D.) ch.6 p.29 "And concerning this, that (men) are not to suppose that they perish or are defiled by the sins of others, He again cut off their evil thought, and by Ezekiel also the Lord our God spoke thus: ‘And the word of the Lord came unto me, saying: ‘Son of man, why use ye this proverb in the land of Israel, and say: ‘The fathers do eat sour grapes, and their sons’ teeth are on edge?’ As I live, saith the Lord Adonai, there shall no more be any that useth this proverb in Israel. For all the souls are mine: as the soul of the father is mine, so also the soul of the son is mine. The soul that sinneth, the same shall die."

 

spurious works

In the Treatise on Repentance Attributed to Cyprian p.593-594 it refers to Ezekiel 18 in the context of both the individual and nation.

Apostolic Constitutions (3rd-5th century, compiled c.390 A.D.) ch.12,14 p.400 refers to Ezekiel 18 in the context of both the individual and society.

 

Si17. World’s wisdom is foolishness to God

 

1 Corinthians 3:19a

 

^^^

 

Si18. Cross/resurrection is foolish to the world

 

From the Council of Nicea I to the Council of Ephesus (325-431 A.D.)

Athanasius of Alexandria (356-360 A.D.) says the cross is foolishness to the world. Four Discourses Against the Arians discourse 1 ch.43 p.331

 

Si19. People deceive others

 

^^^

 

Si20. Some people deceive themselves

 

^^^

 

Si21. People themselves have broken cisterns

 

Jeremiah 2:12-13

 

Athanasius of Alexandria (368-372 A.D.) discuses heretics who are like the people with broken cisterns in Jeremiah’s time. Letter to the Bishops of Africa ch.4 p.490.

Athanasius of Alexandria (356-360 A.D.) mentions broken cisterns. Four Discourses Against the Arians Discourse 1 ch.19 p.317

 

Si22. People are enslaved by sin / lust / the devil

 

^^^

 

Si23. Kept from the wise/prudent and given to babes

 

Luke 10:21-22

 

From the Council of Nicea I to the Council of Ephesus (325-431 A.D.)

Rufinus (374-406 A.D.) translating Origen (225-253/254 A.D.) "And observe, that for this reason divine things have been concealed from the" de Principiis book 3 ch.&&&

 

Si24. Don’t be double-minded / double-hearted

 

Double-tongued and double-dealing are not included here

 

James 1:8

 

From The Council of Nicea I to the Council of Ephesus (325-431 A.D.)

Athanasius of Alexandria (346-356 A.D.) quotes James 1:8 about not being double-minded. Defence of the Nicene Definition ch.4 p.152

 

Si25. [Many] Jews rejected Jesus as the Messiah

 

^^^

 

Among heretics

Rev. Moon (b.1954-) The Divine Principle p.&&&

 

 

Salvation

 

S1. O.T. pointed to salvation in Christ in New

 

Isaiah 53; Luke 2:29-32; 3:4-6; 4:18-19,21

 

Sinaitic Syriac (SyrS) (3rd/4th century) Matthew 1:1-6:10, 7:3-12:4; 12:6-25; 12:29-16:15; 18:11-20:24; 21:20-25:15; 25:17-20,25-26; 25:32-28:7; Mark 1:12-44; 2:21-4:17; 5:1-26; 6:5-16:18; Luke 1:36-5:28; 6:12-24:52; John 1:25-47; 2:16-4:37; 5:6-25; 5:46-18:31; 19:40-end. Luke 2:29-32; 3:4-6; 4:18-19,21

Vaticanus (B) Most of the Old Testament and all of New Testament up to Hebrews 9:15 (325-350 A.D.) Luke 2:29-32; 3:4-6; 4:18-19,21

Sinaiticus (340-350 A.D.) Luke 2:29-32; 3:4-6; 4:18-19,21

 

^^^

 

S2. Salvation is a gift of God’s grace

 

(implied) John 1:14-17; Romans 5:17; 1 Peter 1:14; 5:10

 

From the Council of Nicea I to the Council of Ephesus (325-431 A.D.)

Pacian of Barcelona (342-379/392 A.D.) Grace is remission of sin, and a gift. On Baptism ch.3.1 p.89

Rufinus (374-406 A.D.) freely translating Origen (225-253/254 A.D.) "lest he should be ignorant that what he possesses has been bestowed on him by favour, but should consider as his own property what flows from the divine liberality, which idea undeobtedly generates arrogance of mind and pride, and finally becomes the cause of the individual’s ruin." [Latin] de Principiis book 3 ch.1.12 p.313

 

From the Council of Ephesus to the start of Muslim conquests (431-634 A.D.)

Nestorius (451/452 A.D.) "gave the grace of the Gospel unto all men" The Bazaar of Heracleides book 2 ch.1 p.86

 

S3. Jesus’ death paid for our sins

 

Matthew 20:28; Mark 10:45; Acts 20:28; Romans 5; 1 Timothy 2:6; Hebrews 9:15; 1 Peter 2:24; Revelation 5:9

 

Sinaitic Syriac (SyrS) (3rd/4th century) Matthew 1:1-6:10, 7:3-12:4; 12:6-25; 12:29-16:15; 18:11-20:24; 21:20-25:15; 25:17-20,25-26; 25:32-28:7; Mark 1:12-44; 2:21-4:17; 5:1-26; 6:5-16:18; Luke 1:36-5:28; 6:12-24:52; John 1:25-47; 2:16-4:37; 5:6-25; 5:46-18:31; 19:40-end. Mark 10:45

Vaticanus (B) Most of the Old Testament and all of New Testament up to Hebrews 9:15 (325-350 A.D.) Matthew 20:28; Mark 10:45; Acts 20:28

Sinaiticus (340-350 A.D.) Matthew 20:28; Mark 10:45; Acts 20:28

 

From the Council of Nicea I to the Council of Ephesus (325-431 A.D.)

Athanasius of Alexandria (356-360 A.D.) says Jesus "redeeming all by the cross" Four Discourses Against the Arians discourse 2 ch.15.13 p.355 and "in this body offering Himself for all" ch.15.14 p.355

Ambrose of Milan (370-390 A.D.) Jesus’ blood atoned for out sins. &&&

Cyril of Jerusalem (349-386 A.D.) says that Jesus was crucified for our sins. First Catechetical Lecture 4 ch.10 Nicene & Post-Nicene Fathers p.21

Augustine of Hippo (388-430 A.D.) says Christ reconciled us by His cross. The Enchiridion ch.62 p.257

 

S4. Saved by Jesus’ blood or dying for us

 

Mark 4:24; 14:24; Luke 22:20; Acts 20:28; Romans 3:29; 5:9; 1 Corinthians 11:25; Ephesians 1:7; 2:13; Colossians 1:20; Hebrews 9:12-14,22; 10:19; 1 Thessalonians 5:10; 1 Peter 1:2,19; 1 John 1:7; Revelation 1:5; 5:9

 

Sinaitic Syriac (SyrS) (3rd/4th century) Matthew 1:1-6:10, 7:3-12:4; 12:6-25; 12:29-16:15; 18:11-20:24; 21:20-25:15; 25:17-20,25-26; 25:32-28:7; Mark 1:12-44; 2:21-4:17; 5:1-26; 6:5-16:18; Luke 1:36-5:28; 6:12-24:52; John 1:25-47; 2:16-4:37; 5:6-25; 5:46-18:31; 19:40-end. Mark 14:24; Luke 22:20

Vaticanus (B) Most of the Old Testament and all of New Testament up to Hebrews 9:15 (325-350 A.D.) Mark 4:24; 14:24; Luke 22:20; Acts 20:28

Sinaiticus (340-350 A.D.) Mark 4:24; 14:24; Luke 22:20; Acts 20:28

 

From the Council of Nicea I to the Council of Ephesus (325-431 A.D.)

&&&Athanasius of Alexandria (331 A.D.) "cleansed all of our sins in His own blood." &&&

Constitutions of the Holy Apostles (=Apostolic Constitutions) (3rd-5th century, compiled c.380/390 A.D.) book 5 section 3 ch.16 p.446 "‘for you are not your won, but His that bought you’ with His own blood."

Gregory of Nyssa (382-383 A.D.) said that Jesus’ blood made propitiation for our sins. Against Eunomius book 6 ch.2 p.184

Pacian of Barcelona (342-379/392 A.D.) "…the blood of the Lord has delivered us, redeemed as we are" On Penitents ch.3.2 p.74

Ambrose of Milan (370-390 A.D.) "For the Spirit made us children by adoption, the waterof the sacred Font washed us, the blood of the Lord redeemed us." Of the Holy Spirit book 3 ch.10.67 p.144

Rufinus (410 A.D.) freely translated Origen (240 A.D.) says that Christ made peace through His blood. Commentary on the Song of Songs prologue p.52

Augustine of Hippo (388-430 A.D.) mentions being justified in the blood of Christ and being "reconciled to God by the death of His Son." On the Trinity ch.13 ch.2 p.175

Augustine of Hippo (413-426 A.D.) "…the grace of Christ, who redeemed us by His blood." The City of God book 22 ch.30 p.511

 

From the Council of Ephesus to the start of Muslim conquests (431-634 A.D.)

Pope Celestine to the Synod of Ephesus Letter 18 (432 A.D.) p.221 mentions Jesus purchasing the church with His blood.

Nestorius (451/452 A.D.) Christ died for us. The Bazaar of Heracleides book 1 ch.1.40 p.32

Nestorius (451/452 A.D.) Jesus died on our behalf. The Bazaar of Heracleides book 1 ch.1.80 p.73

 

Among heretics

Pelagian heretic Theodore of Mopsuestia (392-423/429 A.D.) "Christ the Lord would similarly rescue us, not from the slavery of Egypt but from that of death and sin. This he secured for us by the anointing of his own blood: by shedding it for all and undergoing death for us, he effected the resurrection of the dead…" Commentary on Jonah preface p.186

 

S5. Even Jews who reject Jesus will perish

 

John 3:36; 5:40,43; 6:45; 8:24; 12:47-48; Acts 3:22-23; 13:45-46+48; 20:21; Romans 9:1-22; 10:1-4; 11:23

 

Sinaitic Syriac (SyrS) (3rd/4th century) Matthew 1:1-6:10, 7:3-12:4; 12:6-25; 12:29-16:15; 18:11-20:24; 21:20-25:15; 25:17-20,25-26; 25:32-28:7; Mark 1:12-44; 2:21-4:17; 5:1-26; 6:5-16:18; Luke 1:36-5:28; 6:12-24:52; John 1:25-47; 2:16-4:37; 5:6-25; 5:46-18:31; 19:40-end. John 3:36; 6:45; 8:24; 12:47-48

Vaticanus (B) Most of the Old Testament and all of New Testament up to Hebrews 9:15 (325-350 A.D.) John 3:35; 5:40; 6:45; 8:24; 12:47-48; Acts 3:22-23; 13:45-46+48, 20:21

Sinaiticus (340-350 A.D.) John 3:35; 5:40; 6:45; 8:24; 12:47-48; Acts 3:22-23; 13:45-46+48, 20:21

 

^^^

 

S6. Believers God’s Elect

 

Matthew 24:22,31; Mark 13:20,27; Romans 8:33; 11:7; Colossians 3:12; 1 Thessalonians 1:4; 2 Timothy 2:10; Tt 1:1; 1 Peter 1:2; 5:13

(implied) Luke 18:7

 

Vaticanus (B) Most of the Old Testament and all of New Testament up to Hebrews 9:15 (325-350 A.D.) Matthew 24:22,31; Mark 13:20.27; Luke 18:8

Sinaiticus (340-350 A.D.) Matthew 24:22,31; Mark 13:20-27; Luke 18:8

 

From the Council of Nicea I to the Council of Ephesus (325-431 A.D.)

Orosius/Hosius of Braga (414-418 A.D.) speaks of our election. And refers to Acts 9:15. Defense Against the Pelagians ch.27 p.154

There are others too.

 

S7. The reprobate (non-elect) will be lost

 

Romans 9:22

 

From the Council of Nicea I to the Council of Ephesus (325-431 A.D.)

Hegemonius of Sirmium (4th century) says that Jannes and Jambres were reprobate concerning the faith. Archelaus Disputation with Manes ch.45 p.220.

 

S8. Some elect died before knowing Savior

 

John 8:56; (partial) Hebrews 9:18-10:10

 

Vaticanus (B) Most of the Old Testament and all of New Testament up to Hebrews 9:15 (325-350 A.D.) John 8:56

Sinaiticus (340-350 A.D.) John 8:56

 

^^^

 

S9. Some follow Christ for a time, yet perish

 

Matthew 7:19-23; 13:5-7 + 13:20-22; (implied) Matthew 24:13; Mark 4:4-7 + 4:16-19; Luke 8:6-7 + 8:13-14; 2 Peter 2:20-22

Hebrews 6:4-11

 

Vaticanus (B) Most of the Old Testament and all of New Testament up to Hebrews 9:15 (325-350 A.D.) Matthew 7:19-23; 13:5-7 + 13:20-22; (implied) Matthew 24:13; Mark 4:4-7 + 4:16; Luke 8:6-7 + 8:13-14

Sinaiticus (340-350 A.D.) Matthew 7:19-23; 13:5-7 + 13:20-22; (implied) Matthew 24:13; Mark 4:4-7 + 4:16; Luke 8:6-7 + 8:13-14

 

From the Council of Nicea I to the Council of Ephesus (325-431 A.D.)

Athanasius of Alexandria (335 A.D.) says that those who have been counted worthy of the heavenly calling, when they grow negligent, become defiled and become like Judas. He refers to Hebrews 10:29 and Matthew 22:12. Easter Letter 9 ch.10 p.527

Sozomen’s Ecclesiastical History book 2 ch.10 p.266 (370/380-425 A.D.) bishop Symeon showed other Christians about to be martyred from the sacred scriptures that their death would be true life, but to live in fear and deny God would be true death.

 

S10. Not saved if living in sin

 

Matthew 7:22-23; Matthew 25:31-46

 

Sinaitic Syriac (SyrS) (3rd/4th century) Matthew 1:1-6:10, 7:3-12:4; 12:6-25; 12:29-16:15; 18:11-20:24; 21:20-25:15; 25:17-20,25-26; 25:32-28:7; Mark 1:12-44; 2:21-4:17; 5:1-26; 6:5-16:18; Luke 1:36-5:28; 6:12-24:52; John 1:25-47; 2:16-4:37; 5:6-25; 5:46-18:31; 19:40-end. Matthew 7:22-23; 25:32-46

Vaticanus (B) Most of the Old Testament and all of New Testament up to Hebrews 9:15 (325-350 A.D.) Matthew 7:22-23; 25:31-46

Sinaiticus (340-350 A.D.) Matthew 7:22-23; 25:31-46

 

From the Council of Nicea I to the Council of Ephesus (325-431 A.D.)

Athanasius of Alexandria (335 A.D.) says that those who have been counted worthy of the heavenly calling, when they grow negligent, become defiled and become like Judas. He refers to Hebrews 10:29 and Matthew 22:12. Easter Letter 9 ch.10 p.527

 

S11. Adoption as sons of God

 

Romans 8:23; 9:4; Ephesians 1:5; Hosea 1:10

 

From the Council of Nicea I to the Council of Ephesus (325-431 A.D.)

&&&Athanasius of Alexandria (356-360 A.D.) (implied) Four Discourses Against the Arians discourse 2 &&&

 

S12. We need to have faith

 

Just calling people "faithful" is not counted here, because that could refer to just obedient practice as well as faith.

 

(implied) Matthew 8:10,26; 9:2; 15:28

Matthew 6:30; 9:22; Mark 4:40; 11:22; John 2:11; 7:31; 8:30; 11:45; 12:11; 14:12; Acts 3:16; 20:21; Hebrews 4:3; 5:5; 10:22; 11:1; 11:13; James 2:17; 2 Peter 1:1

Sincere faith 2 Timothy 1:5

Without faith it is impossible to please God Hebrews 11:6

 

Sinaitic Syriac (SyrS) (3rd/4th century) Matthew 1:1-6:10, 7:3-12:4; 12:6-25; 12:29-16:15; 18:11-20:24; 21:20-25:15; 25:17-20,25-26; 25:32-28:7; Mark 1:12-44; 2:21-4:17; 5:1-26; 6:5-16:18; Luke 1:36-5:28; 6:12-24:52; John 1:25-47; 2:16-4:37; 5:6-25; 5:46-18:31; 19:40-end. Matthew 9:22; Mark 11:22; John 7:31; 8:30; 11:45; 12:11; 14:12

 

From the Council of Nicea I to the Council of Ephesus (325-431 A.D.)

Nicene Creed (325 A.D.) starts out as "we believe" and anathematizes those who do not believe the same. p.3

Hegemonius of Sirmium (4th century) "remarkable and singular measure his devotion to the faith, building up his own heart upon the rock that shall not be moved." Archelaus Disputation with Manes ch.3 p.181

Athanasius of Alexandria (339 A.D.) says, "For faith and godliness are allied to each other, and sisters; and he who believes in Him is godly" Easter Letter 11 ch.9 p.536

Life of Antony (355 A.D.) ch.76 p.216 "We Christians therefore hold the mystery not in the wisdom of Greek arguments, but in the power of faith richly supplied to us by God through Jesus Christ."

Ambrose of Milan (c.384 A.D.) "And the disciples say to the Lord: ‘Increase our faith.’" Concerning Repentance book 1 ch.11 no.48 p.337

John Chrysostom (before 407 A.D.) mentions that we are to have "true faith" Commentary on Philippians Introductory discourse p.183. He also speaks that we are to have faith, but not faith alone but also love in Commentary on Philippians homily 5 verse 2 p.203

 

S13. Live by faith

 

Galatians 2:20; 3:8; Habakkuk 2:4; Romans 5:1; Acts 13:39

 

From the Council of Nicea I to the Council of Ephesus (325-431 A.D.)

Life of Antony (355 A.D.) ch.80 p.217 "Believe, therefore, also yourselves, and you shall see that with us here is no trick of words, but faith through love which is wrought in us towards Christ ... will consider faith in Christ sufficient."

 

S14. We are God’s chickens

 

(implied) Psalm 91:4

 

^^^

 

S15. Shipwrecked faith/salvation

 

1 Timothy 1:19

 

^^^

 

S16. Confidence or assurance of salvation

 

(False assurance, confidence in yourself, or confident of some facts is not counted.)

 

Hebrews 10:35 "So do not throw away your confidence, it will be richly rewarded." (NIV)

1 John 5:13-14

 

From the Council of Nicea I to the Council of Ephesus (325-431 A.D.)

Rufinus (374-406 A.D.) freely translating Origen (225-253/254 A.D.) "For I do not think that human nature can alone of itself maintain a contest with angels, and with the powers of the height and of the abyss, and with any other creature; but when it feels the presence of the Lord dwelling within it, confidence in the divine help will lead it to say, "The Lord is my light, and my salvation; whom shall I fear? The Lord is the protector of my life; of whom shall I be afraid? When the enemies draw near to me, to eat my flesh, my enemies who trouble me, they stumbled and fell. Though an host encamp against me, my heart shall not fear; though war should rise against me, in Him shall I be confident." de Principiis book 3 ch.2.5 p.333

 

S17. Hope in God or Christ

 

Job 13:15; Psalm 25:3; 42:5; 62:5; 119:74; 130:5,7; 146:5,11; Isa 40:31; Jer 29:11; Lam 3:21; Romans 8:25; 15:13; 1 Corinthians 15:19; Colossians 1:27; 1 Timothy 4:10; 6:17; Tt 2:13; Hebrews 6:19

hope is an anchor for our soul. Hebrews 6:19

 

From the Council of Nicea I to the Council of Ephesus (325-431 A.D.)

Basil of Cappadocia (357-378/379 A.D.) "You hope to ‘reign with’ Christ" On the Spirit ch.28 p.44

Poem on the Passion of the Lord (315-350 A.D.) "But, truly, if you thus regard this perishable world, and through your love of a better country deprive yourself of earthly riches and the enjoyment of present things, the prayers of the pious will bring you up in sacred habits, and in the hope of a happy life, amidst severe punishments, will cherish you with heavenly dew, and feed you with the sweetness of the promised good. Until the great favour of God shall recall your happy soul to the heavenly regions, your body being left after the fates of death. Then freed from all labour, then joyfully beholding the angelic choirs, and the blessed companies of saints in perpetual bliss, it shall reign with me in the happy abode of perpetual peace."

 

Among heretics

Ebionite Gospel of pseudo-Matthew (600-625 A.D.) ch.13 p.375 says we are to hope in Christ.

 

S18. Our faith is precious

 

Colossians 1:22-23

2 Peter 1:1; and of greater worth than gold 1 Peter 1:7

 

From the Council of Nicea I to the Council of Ephesus (325-431 A.D.)

Life of Antony (355 A.D.) ch.76 p.216 "We Christians therefore hold the mystery not in the wisdom of Greek arguments, but in the power of faith richly supplied to us by God through Jesus Christ."

 

S19. God’s great, glorious, precious promises

 

Galatians 3:21; 2 Peter 1:4; 2 Corinthians 1:18-21; 1 Timothy 4:8

 

^^^

 

S20. Mystery of the Lord/faith

 

Ephesians 3:8-9 "this mystery"

1 Timothy 2:9 "mystery of the faith"

Romans 11:25; 16:25

Ephesians 3:3,4,6; 5:32; 6:19

Colossians 1:26,27; 2:2; 4:3

Revelation 10:7

 

From the Council of Nicea I to the Council of Ephesus (325-431 A.D.)

Life of Antony (355 A.D.) ch.78 p.216 "We Christians therefore hold the mystery not in the wisdom of Greek arguments, but in the power of faith richly supplied to us by God through Jesus Christ."

 

S21. Be born again

 

John 3:3,7

 

From the Council of Nicea I to the Council of Ephesus (325-431 A.D.)

Ambrose of Milan (370-390 A.D.) quotes John 3:7,9. Of the Holy Spirit book 3 ch.10.63 p.144. See also ibid ch.10.65 p.144

 

S22. The precious blood of Christ

 

1 Peter 1:19

 

(Saved by the blood of Christ is a different topic and not included here)

 

From the Council of Nicea I to the Council of Ephesus (325-431 A.D.)

Athanasius of Alexandria (329 A.D.) mentions Jesus as the sheep and lamb. His sacrifice was purified by His precious blood. Easter Letter 1 ch.9 p.509

Genuine Acts of Peter of Alexandria (after 384 A.D.) p.264 "he feared not to rend asunder the holy Church, which the Son of God redeemed with His precious blood, and to deliver which from the tyranny of the devil He hesitated not to lay down His life."

John Chrysostom (-407 A.D.) "If we can drink a potion that is able to kill the worms within us and the serpents. ‘And of what nature,’ it will be asked, ‘may this potion be, that hath such power?’ The precious Blood of Christ, if it be received with full assurance," Homilies on Matthew homily 4 ch.15 p.&&&

 

S23. Heirs of salvation / Christ / the Lord

 

From the Council of Ephesus to the start of Muslim conquests (431-634 A.D.)

The Didascalia (after 431 A.D.) (towards the top) "who have received boldness to call the Almighty God Father, as joint heirs and partakers with His Son and His beloved"

 

S24. God has called us

 

(God calling us a particular name or title is not included here)

 

Acts 2:39; Romans 1:6-7; 8:28,30; 11:29; 1 Corinthians 1:2,24,26; 7:15,17; Galatians 1:6; 5:13; Ephesians 1:18; 4:1,4; ~Colossians 3:15; 1 Timothy 6:12; 2 Timothy 1:9; 1 Thessalonians 4:7; 2 Thessalonians 2:14; Hebrews 9:15; 1 Peter 1:15; 2:9; 3:9; 5:10; 2 Peter 1:3,10; Jude 1

 

^^^

 

S25. Predestined or predestination

 

From the Council of Nicea I to the Council of Ephesus (325-431 A.D.)

Augustine of Hippo (388-430 A.D.) quotes Romans 8:28-39. On Christian Doctrine book 4 ch.21.43 NPNF first series vol.2 p.589-590

 

S26. God can raise Abraham’s kids from stones children

 

^^^

 

S27. Jesus bestowed remission of sins

 

Hegemonius of Sirmium (4th century) "But if there is no baptism, neither will there be any remission of sins, but every man will die in his own sins. Manes said: Is baptism, then, given on account of the remission of sins? Archelaus said: Certainly." Archelaus Disputation with Manes ch.50 p.228

Cyril of Jerusalem (349-386 A.D.) "Cleanse thy vessel, that thou mayest receive grace more abundantly. For though remission of sins is given equally to all, the communion of the Holy Ghost is bestowed in proportion to each man’s faith" (First Catechetical Lecture 1 Nicene & Post-Nicene Fathers p.7 also Lecture 6 ch.6 p.34)

Pacian of Barcelona (342-379/392 A.D.) (partial) Grace is remission of sin, and a gift. On Baptism ch.3.1 p.89

 

From the Council of Ephesus to the start of Muslim conquests (431-634 A.D.)

Peter Chrysologus of Ravenna (406-450 A.D.) "‘Go’, he [Jesus] says, ‘and baptize all nations in the name of the Father, and of the Son, and of the Holy Spirit’ [Matthew 28:19] in remission of sins. If in the remission of sins the Trinity is united in showing mercy, how is the whole Trinity not one in will in the Passion of the Son?" Sermon 72A ch.4 p.4-5

 

Balsamon (in Peter of Alexandria) "For we know that many have obtained the goodness and compassion of God by the prayers of others. Therefore we will pray for them that remission of their sins be granted them by God; and with the others who have lapsed, and have afterwards recanted their error, and confessed godliness, we will communicate, being mindful of those contests which before their fall they sustained for God’s sake, and also of their subsequent worthy repentance, and that they testify that on account of their sin they have been as it were aliens from their city; and we will not only communicate with them, but pray also for their reconciliation, together with other things that are convenient, either with the good works which ought to be done by them-fasting, for instance, almsgiving, and penance; by which things He who is our Advocate makes the Father propitious towards us. Then he makes use of a passage of Holy Scripture, and this is taken from the first catholic epistle of the holy apostle and evangelist John."

 

S28. Many are called but few are chosen

 

Matthew 8:1; Luke 13:29

 

^^^

 

S29. Narrow is the gate to life

 

^^^

 

S30. No way of salvation apart from Christ

 

Matthew 20:28; John 5:40-43; 6:45; 8:24; 10:8; 12:47-48; 14:6; Acts 4:12; 1 Corinthians 15:1-7; 1 Timothy 2:3-6; 1 Peter 1:18-19

 

Sinaitic Syriac (SyrS) (3rd/4th century) Matthew 1:1-6:10, 7:3-12:4; 12:6-25; 12:29-16:15; 18:11-20:24; 21:20-25:15; 25:17-20,25-26; 25:32-28:7; Mark 1:12-44; 2:21-4:17; 5:1-26; 6:5-16:18; Luke 1:36-5:28; 6:12-24:52; John 1:25-47; 2:16-4:37; 5:6-25; 5:46-18:31; 19:40-end. John 6:45; 8:24; 10:8; 12:47-48; 14:6

Vaticanus (B) Most of the Old Testament and all of New Testament up to Hebrews 9:15 (325-350 A.D.) John 5:40-43; 6:45; 8:24; 10:8; 12:47-48; 14:6; Acts 4:12

Sinaiticus (340-350 A.D.) John 5:40-43; 6:45; 8:24; 10:8; 12:47-38; 14:6; Acts 4:12

 

From the Council of Nicea I to the Council of Ephesus (325-431 A.D.)

Life of Antony (355 A.D.) ch.80 p.217 "And these signs are sufficent to prove that the faith of Christ alone is the true religion."

Athanasius of Alexandria (356-360 A.D.) "For in It the Lord becomes our guide to the Kingdom of Heaven and to His own Father, saying, ‘I am the way’ and ‘the door,’ and ‘through me all must enter.’" Four Discourses Against the Arians discourse 2 ch.61 p.381

 

From the Council of Ephesus to the start of Muslim conquests (431-634 A.D.)

Prosper of Aquitaine (425-465 A.D.)

 

S31. Salvation/church for all kinds of people

 

Romans 10:12-13; Galatians 3:28; James 2:1-9

 

From the Council of Nicea I to the Council of Ephesus (325-431 A.D.)

Eusebius’ Ecclesiastical History (323-339/340 A.D.) book 5 ch.21.1 p.239 says that the word of salvation was for every race of man.

Hegemonius of Sirmium (4th century) "But away with such a supposition in the case of our Lord Jesus Christ, the Saviour of every soul." (Archelaus is speaking) Archelaus Disputation with Manes ch.27 p.200

Athanasius of Alexandria (350 A.D.) "Where our Lord Jesus Christ, who took upon Him to die for all, stretched forth His hands, not somwhere on the earth beneath, but in the air itself, in order that the Salvation effected by the Cross might be shewn to be for all men everywhere;" Easter Letter 22 p.549

Cyril of Jerusalem (349-386 A.D.) says that the souls of men and women are alike. First Catechetical Lecture 4 ch.20 Nicene & Post-Nicene Fathers p.24

Augustine of Hippo (388-430 A.D.) says that salvation is for male, female, slave, free, etc. [Galatians 3:26-28]. On the Trinity book 7 ch.9.12 p.160

 

End Times

 

E1. The AntiChrist will come -after 125 A.D.

 

2 Thessalonians 2:9

 

From the Council of Nicea I to the Council of Ephesus (325-431 A.D.)

Eusebius (323-339/340 A.D.) mentions that the Christian writer Judas, discoursed on the AntiChrist and the seventy weeks of Daniel. Eusebius’ Ecclesiastical History book 6 ch.7 p.254

Hegemonius of Sirmium (4th century) (partial) calls Manes the vessel of the Antichrist, and says Manes’ king is the Antichrist. Archelaus Disputation with Manes ch.36 p.210

Cyril of Jerusalem (c.349-386 A.D.) discuess the end times, Gabriel’s message, the fourth beast will speak blasphemous words against the Most High. In ch.14 he refers to 2 Thessalonians 2:9 as by Paul. These false signs by Satan and the AntiChrist will abhor idols and be seated in the Temple of God. Catechetical Lectures Lecture 15 ch.13-15 p.108

Rufinus (374-406 A.D.) quotes 2 Thessalonians 2:3,4,8,9 as by the Apostle. Commentary on the Apostles’ Creed ch.34 p.556

Orosius/Hosius of Braga (414-418 A.D.) (partial) refers to the AntiChrist and quotes 2 Thessalonians 2:3-4. Defense Against the Pelagians ch.16 p.134

 

Cassiodorus (520-560/580 A.D.) translating Clement of Alexandria (193-217/220 A.D.) very briefly mentions the antichrist in discussing 1 John 2:22 in Fragments from Cassiodorus (fragment 3) p.576

 

E2. Heresies and persecution come before Antichrist or Christ’s return

 

Matthew 24:5,9-11,23-26; Luke 21:1-9,12,16-17

 

Sinaitic Syriac (SyrS) (3rd/4th century) Matthew 1:1-6:10, 7:3-12:4; 12:6-25; 12:29-16:15; 18:11-20:24; 21:20-25:15; 25:17-20,25-26; 25:32-28:7; Mark 1:12-44; 2:21-4:17; 5:1-26; 6:5-16:18; Luke 1:36-5:28; 6:12-24:52; John 1:25-47; 2:16-4:37; 5:6-25; 5:46-18:31; 19:40-end. Matthew 24:5,9-11,23-26; Luke 21:1-9,12,16-17

 

From the Council of Nicea I to the Council of Ephesus (325-431 A.D.)

Hegemonius of Sirmium (4th century) says that many will come in Christ’s name. Many will be false Christs and false apostles. Archelaus Disputation with Manes ch.35 p.209

 

E3. Before this will be many lesser antichrists

 

2 John 7

(implied) Matthew 24:5,23; (implied) Luke 21:8

 

From the Council of Nicea I to the Council of Ephesus (325-431 A.D.)

Athanasius of Alexandria (after 347 A.D.) (partial, singular) says that Arians are a forerunner of the antichrist. Defence Against the Arians part 5 ch.89 p.147

Hegemonius of Sirmium (4th century) says that many will come in Christ’s name. Many will be false Christs and false apostles. Archelaus Disputation with Manes ch.35 p.209

Hegemonius of Sirmium (4th century) calls Manes the vessel of the Antichrist, and says Manes’ king is the Antichrist. Archelaus Disputation with Manes ch.36 p.210

 

From the Council of Ephesus to the start of Muslim conquests (431-634 A.D.)

Leo I of Rome (422-461 A.D.) quotes 1 John 4:2,3 about the AntiChrist as by the Apostle John. Sermon 34.5 p.149

Cassiodorus (520-560/580 A.D.) translating Clement of Alexandria (193-217/220 A.D.) refers to 1 John 2:22 about anyone who comes out is a liar and an antichrist, who denies Jesus is the Christ. He is the Savior, Redeemer, and King. Fragments from Cassiodorus ch.3 p.576

 

E4. Jesus will return in glory -after 125 A.D.

 

Acts 1:9-11; Revelation 1:7; Matthew 24:26-27, 30; Luke 21:27

(implied) 1 Thessalonians 1:10

p47 (=Chester Beatty III) Revelation 9:10-11:3; 11:5-16:15; 16:17-17:2 (125 verses) (partial) Revelation 16:15 One will come like a thief.

 

Sinaitic Syriac (SyrS) (3rd/4th century) Matthew 1:1-6:10, 7:3-12:4; 12:6-25; 12:29-16:15; 18:11-20:24; 21:20-25:15; 25:17-20,25-26; 25:32-28:7; Mark 1:12-44; 2:21-4:17; 5:1-26; 6:5-16:18; Luke 1:36-5:28; 6:12-24:52; John 1:25-47; 2:16-4:37; 5:6-25; 5:46-18:31; 19:40-end. Matthew 24:26-27; Luke 21:27

 

From the Council of Nicea I to the Council of Ephesus (325-431 A.D.)

Hegemonius of Sirmium (4th century) says that Jesus Christ’s Advent will not be obscure or ignoble. Archelaus Disputation with Manes ch.37 p.211

Coming again Philo of Carpasia (4th century) "Until the coming of Christ again, he will live as God has hidden and concealed him, until he dies, according to his (God’s) will."

 

E5. Rapture of believers

 

Matthew 24:31,34-42; 1 Thessalonians 4:16-18

 

From the Council of Nicea I to the Council of Ephesus (325-431 A.D.)

Rufinus (374-406 A.D.) freely translating Origen (225-253/254 A.D.) quotes 1 Thessalonians 4:17. de Principiis book 2 ch.11.5 p.299

 

E6. Resurrection of believers / all

 

Isaiah 25:7; 26:19

Matthew 22:30-32; Luke 20:34-38; 1 Thessalonians 4:16-17; 5:3; 2 Thessalonians 2:1

John 11:24-27 (implied)

 

Sinaitic Syriac (SyrS) (3rd/4th century) Matthew 1:1-6:10, 7:3-12:4; 12:6-25; 12:29-16:15; 18:11-20:24; 21:20-25:15; 25:17-20,25-26; 25:32-28:7; Mark 1:12-44; 2:21-4:17; 5:1-26; 6:5-16:18; Luke 1:36-5:28; 6:12-24:52; John 1:25-47; 2:16-4:37; 5:6-25; 5:46-18:31; 19:40-end. Matthew 22:30-32; Luke 20:34-38

 

From the Council of Nicea I to the Council of Ephesus (325-431 A.D.)

Council of Nicea (325 A.D.) Creed p.3 "mentions the resurrection of the dead."

Private Creed of Arius (328 A.D.) "And in the Holy Ghost; and in the resurrection of the flesh; and in the life of the world to come; and in a kingdom of heaven; and in one Catholic Church of God which extends to the ends of the earth."

Hegemonius of Sirmium (4th century) (implied) If Jesus is not risen, the no one else will rise either. Archelaus Disputation with Manes ch.49 p.225-226

Constitutions of the Holy Apostles (c.380 A.D.) book 5 ch.7 p.439 "For the Almighty God Himself will raise us up through our Lord Jesus Christ,…"

Gregory of Nyssa (382-383 A.D.) says that we are resurrected. Against Eunomius book 4 ch.3 p.158

Orosius/Hosius of Braga (414-418 A.D.) mentions the resurrection of the dead. Defense Against the Pelagians ch.27 p.154

Augustine of Hippo (388-430 A.D.) says that we are resurrected. City of God book 1 ch.12 p.10

 

From From the Council of Ephesus to the start of Muslim conquests (431-634 A.D.)

Nestorius (451/452 A.D.) looked forward to being resurrected. The Bazaar of Heracleides book 2 ch.2 p.380

 

After Muslim conquests

Photius (c.858-891 A.D.) commenting on Methodius (c.260-312 A.D.) "And when Origen allegorises that which is said by the prophet Ezekiel concerning the resurrection of the dead, and perverts it to the return of the Israelites form their captivity in Babylon," Discourse on the Resurrection ch.19 p.377. from Bibliotheca cod. 234.

 

Among heretics

The Vision of Paul (c.388 A.D. – after Nicea) ch.41 p.162 mentions special punishments in Hell for those who said Christ did not rise from the dead and that the flesh will not rise again.

Pelagian heretic Theodore of Mopsuestia (392-423/429 A.D.) "Christ the Lord would similarly rescue us, not from the slavery of Egypt but from that of death and sin. This he secured for us by the anointing of his own blood: by shedding it for all and undergoing death for us, he effected the resurrection of the dead…" Commentary on Jonah preface p.186

 

E7. Christ will judge all / quick and dead

 

Matthew 21:32; Mark 8:38; 2 Corinthians 5:10

 

Sinaitic Syriac (SyrS) (3rd/4th century) Matthew 1:1-6:10, 7:3-12:4; 12:6-25; 12:29-16:15; 18:11-20:24; 21:20-25:15; 25:17-20,25-26; 25:32-28:7; Mark 1:12-44; 2:21-4:17; 5:1-26; 6:5-16:18; Luke 1:36-5:28; 6:12-24:52; John 1:25-47; 2:16-4:37; 5:6-25; 5:46-18:31; 19:40-end. Matthew 21:32; Mark 8:38

 

From the Council of Nicea I to the Council of Ephesus (325-431 A.D.)

The Nicene Creed (325 A.D.) Jesus will come to judge the quick and the dead.

Private Creed of Arius (328 A.D.) "And in the Lord Jesus Christ, his Son, who was begotten of him before all ages, the Divine Logos, through whom all things were made, both those in the heavens and those on the earth; who came down and was made flesh; and suffered; and rose again; and ascended to the heavens; and shall come again to judge the quick and the dead."

Eusebius of Caesarea (323-339/340 A.D.) says that Christ will judge all the earth. Eusebius’ Ecclesiastical History book 2 ch.2.8 p.83

Synod of Antioch in Encaeniis (341 A.D.) (implied by Nicea) Canon 1 p.108 says to excommunicate people who presume to set Nice[a] under Constantine.

Athanasius of Alexandria (326-372/373 A.D.) says that Jesus will judge the world On the Opinion of Dionysius ch.7 p.178

Athanasius of Alexandria (335-342 A.D.) says the Father has given all judgment to the Son. On Luke 10:22 ch.3 p.88

Council of Sirmium (Greek creed) 351 A.D. says that Christ judges the living and the dead. Socrates Ecclesiastical History book 2 ch.30 in Nicene and Post-Nicene Fathers 2nd Series vol.2 p.56-57.

Cyril of Jerusalem (349-386 A.D.) says that Christ will judge both the quick and the dead. First Catechetical Lecture 4 ch.15 Nicene & Post-Nicene Fathers p.22

Gregory Nazianzen (330-391) says that Jesus ascends to Heaven and will return to judge the quick and the dead. On the Son - Third Theological Oration ch.20 p.309

Epiphanius of Salamis (360-403 A.D.) "We must also understand in this sense the passage, He [the Father] has given all judgment to the Son [John 5:22]" Panarion 2.2 as quoted in The Two Natures in Christ, p.357

Augustine of Hippo (388-430 A.D.) says the Christ will come to judge the quick and the dead. The City of God book 17 ch.18 p.356

Council of Ephesus (431 A.D.) He [Jesus] suffered, and rose again the third day. He ascended into the heavens, from thence he shall come to judge both the quick and the dead." Letter from Cyril of Nestorius p.202

 

From From the Council of Ephesus to the start of Muslim conquests (431-634 A.D.)

Nestorius (451/452 A.D.) Christ suffered and died and rose and is ready to come to judge the quick and the dead. The Bazaar of Heracleides book 2 ch.1 p.177

Nestorius (451/452 A.D.) Jesus Christ is a just judge. The Bazaar of Heracleides book 2 ch.1 p.135

 

E8. Believers will judge the world or angels

 

1 Corinthians 6:2-3

 

^^^

 

E9. Believers are sons of God

 

Hosea 1:10; Matthew 5:9; John 1:12-15; Romans 8:14; 9:26; 2 Corinthians 6:18; Galatians 3:26; 4:6-7; Hebrews 12:7; 1 John 3:1

Implied Luke 6:35

 

From the Council of Nicea I to the Council of Ephesus (325-431 A.D.)

Hegemonius of Sirmium (4th century) says that believers are sons of God. Archelaus Disputation with Manes ch.25 p.201

Many others

 

From From the Council of Ephesus to the start of Muslim conquests (431-634 A.D.)

Nestorius (451/452 A.D.) We are Sons of God. The Bazaar of Heracleides book 1 ch.1.59 p.56-57

 

Among corrupt or spurious works

pseudo-Ignatius (after 117 A.D.) mentions that we are children of God. Longer version of the Letter to the Philadelphians ch.3 p.&&&

 

E10. Believers will reign with Christ

 

2 Timothy 2:12; Revelation 2:26,27; 20:4,6;

Implied Revelation 22:5

Ephesians 2:6; Revelation 3:21 We will sit with Christ on His throne

 

From the Council of Nicea I to the Council of Ephesus (325-431 A.D.)

A Poem on the Passion of the Lord (315-350 A.D.) ANF vol.7 p.328 (near the end). "your body being left after the fates of death. Mentions saints you died joyfully seeing the angelic chors, and being in perpetural bless, and reigning with Christ."

Basil of Cappadocia (357-378/379 A.D.) "You hope to ‘reign with’ Christ" On the Spirit ch.28 p.44

 

From the Council of Ephesus to the start of Muslim conquests (431-634 A.D.)

Leo I of Rome (440-461 A.D.) quotes 2 Timothy 2:12. Sermons of Leo the Great Sermon 91 ch.2 p.200

 

E11. Jesus returns in [literal] clouds

 

Acts 1:9-11; Revelation 1:7; 19:11-16

 

^^^

 

E12. The Tree of Life

 

Genesis 2:9; Revelation 2:7; 22:2

(partial) Proverbs 3:18

 

From the Council of Nicea I to the Council of Ephesus (325-431 A.D.)

Hilary of Poitiers (355-367/368 A.D.) mentions the Tree of Life. Commentary on Psalms Psalm 1 ch.14 p.239

Gregory Nazianzen (330-391 A.D.) mentions the tree of life, and the tree of knowledge. In Defense of His Flight to Pontus ch.25 p.210

 

E13. Fulfillment of the Cosmos has come to us

 

1 Corinthians 10:11

 

From the Council of Nicea I to the Council of Ephesus (325-431 A.D.)

Macrostitch Creed (344/345 A.D.) (partial, shall come) "and [Jesus] is seated at the right hand of the Father, and shall come at the consummation of the ages, to judge the living and the dead,…" Socrates Ecclesiastical History book 2 ch.19 in Nicene and Post-Nicene Fathers 2nd Series vol.2 p.44

Rufinus (374-406 A.D.) freely translating Origen (225-253/254 A.D.) quotes 1 Corinthians 10:11. de Principiis book 4 ch.1.13 p.361

Jerome (373-420 A.D.) quotes 1 Corinthians 10:11 "They [Old Testament blood sacrifices] were figures typifying things still future and were ‘written for our admonition upon whom the ends of the world are come.’" Letter 52 ch.10 p.94

 

E14. The Endtimes tribulation

 

Matthew 24:3-43; Mark; Luke, Revelation

 

^^^

 

E15. Every Knee will bow to Jesus

 

Philippians 2:10

 

From the Council of Nicea I to the Council of Ephesus (325-431 A.D.)

Basil of Cappadocia (357-379 A.D.) quotes Philippians 2. On the Spirit ch.17 p.11

 

E16. Moon will turn to blood

 

Joel 2:31; Acts 2:20; Revelation 6:12

 

^^^

 

E17. Abomination that causes desolation

 

Daniel 9:27; 11:31b; 12:11; Matthew 24:15

 

^^^

 

E18. God’s future temple on earth/in Jerusalem

 

From the Council of Nicea I to the Council of Ephesus (325-431 A.D.)

Cyril of Jerusalem (c.349-386 A.D.) discuess the end times, Gabriel’s message, the fourth beast will speak blasphemous words against the Most High. In ch.14 he refers to 2 Thessalonians 2:9 as by Paul. These false signs by Satan and the AntiChrist will abhor idols and be seated in the Temple of God. Catechetical Lectures Lecture 15 ch.13-15 p.108

 

E19. Christ’s coming like the days of Noah

 

Matthew 24:37

 

^^^

 

E20. Meeting the Lord in the clouds

 

^^^

 

Revelation Specific

 

R1. Seven churches in Revelation

 

Revelation 2-3

 

From the Council of Nicea I to the Council of Ephesus (325-431 A.D.)

Pacian of Barcelona (342-379/392 A.D.) discusses the seven churches in Revelation Letter 1 ch.5.4 p.24

Rufinus (410 A.D.) freely translated Origen (225-253/254 A.D.) mentions John writing to the seven churches. Commentary on the Song of Songs book 3 ch.3 p.175

Jerome (373-420 A.D.) quotes Revelation 2:2 and on in Against Jovinianus book 2 ch.3 p.390

 

R2. Two witnesses come before Christ returns

 

Revelation 11:3-12

 

From the Council of Nicea I to the Council of Ephesus (325-431 A.D.)

Jerome (373-420 A.D.) quotes Revelatoin 11:7,8 and discusses the two witnesses who are killed. Letter 46 ch.6 p.62

 

R3. The Book of Book of Life / the Living

 

Revelation 3:5; 20:15

 

From the Council of Nicea I to the Council of Ephesus (325-431 A.D.)

Ephraim the Syrian (350-378 A.D.) mentions the books of life in Nisibine Hymns hymn 20 no.3 p.190 and Nisibine Hymns hymn 58 no.20 p.212

Orosius/Hosius of Braga (414-418 A.D.) the Father has given all judgment to the Son. Defense Against the Pelagians ch.15 p.134

 

R4. The Beast or his mark

 

Revelation 13, 15:2; 17

 

^^^

 

R5. The Millennium or the 1,000 years

 

Revelation 20:1-10

 

^^^

 

R6. Devil and followers cast in Lake of Fire

 

Revelation 20:10 (no other places)

 

From the Council of Nicea I to the Council of Ephesus (325-431 A.D.)

Hegemonius of Sirmium (4th century) (partial) says that some demons had relations with women, "and brought on themselves the merited award of the punishment of eternal fire." Archelaus Disputation with Manes ch.32 p.205

Rufinus (374-406 A.D.) freely translating Origen (225-253/254 A.D.) quotes Ezekiel 28:11-19 and refers this to not just Tyre but Lucifer in de Principiis book 1 ch.5.4-5 p.258-259

Rufinus (374-406 A.D.) freely translating Origen (225-253/254 A.D.) do they not rather hear the Father of our Lord Jesus Christ in the Gospels, preparing fire for the devil and his angels? And how shall that proceeding" de Principiis book 2 ch.5.2 p.279

 

R7. Heavenly (24) elders in Revelation

 

Revelation 4:4,10-11, 5:14; 7:11,13; 11:16-18; 19:4

 

From the Council of Nicea I to the Council of Ephesus (325-431 A.D.)

Ambrose of Milan (378-381 A.D.) quotes Revelation 4:4 as "in the Revelation of John" On the Christian Faith book 5 ch.6.74 p.294

John Cassian (410-430 A.D.) quotes Revelation 4:4 about the 24 elders in the holy Apocalypse. Cassian’s Conferences Conference 24 of the Abbot Abraham ch.1 p.531

 

R8. Woman Babylon in Revelation

 

Revelation 17:1-18

 

^^^

 

R9. Two-edged sword out of Christ’s mouth

 

^^^

 

 

Ultimate Things - Heaven and Hell

 

U1. The Kingdom of God

 

Matthew 4:17; 5:5,10; John 3:3,5; Romans 14:7; 1 Corinthians 4:12; 2 Thessalonians 1:5

 

Sinaitic Syriac (SyrS) (3rd/4th century) Matthew 1:1-6:10, 7:3-12:4; 12:6-25; 12:29-16:15; 18:11-20:24; 21:20-25:15; 25:17-20,25-26; 25:32-28:7; Mark 1:12-44; 2:21-4:17; 5:1-26; 6:5-16:18; Luke 1:36-5:28; 6:12-24:52; John 1:25-47; 2:16-4:37; 5:6-25; 5:46-18:31; 19:40-end. Matthew 4:17; 5:5,10; John 3:3,5

 

From the Council of Nicea I to the Council of Ephesus (325-431 A.D.)

Eusebius’ Ecclesiastical History (323-339/340 A.D.) book 1 ch.2.24 p.85 discusses the Book of Daniel, including God’s kindgom, His throne, the river of fire, and ten thousand time sten thousand angels serving God.

Council of Sardica (Greek version) (343/344 A.D.) mentions that Christ’s kingdom remains for ever. Hilary of Poitiers de Synodis ch.34 p.14

Hegemonius of Sirmium (4th century) (implied) "Besides, he [the heretic Manes] added to this another passage out of the first epistle, on which he based his affirmation that the disciples of the Old Testament were earthly and natural; and in accordance with this, that flesh and blood could not possess the kingdom of God." Archelaus Disputation with Manes ch.40 p.214

 

U2. Inheriting the Kingdom of God

 

From the Council of Nicea I to the Council of Ephesus (325-431 A.D.)

Rufinus (374-406 A.D.) freely translating Origen (225-253/254 A.D.) &&& de Principiis book &&&

 

U3. Description of God’s throne

 

Isaiah 6:1-7; Ezekiel 1,10; Revelation 4-9

(partial) Revelation 1:4

 

From the Council of Nicea I to the Council of Ephesus (325-431 A.D.)

Eusebius’ Ecclesiastical History (323-339/340 A.D.) book 1 ch.2.24 p.85 discusses the Book of Daniel, including God’s kindgom, His throne, the river of fire, and ten thousand time sten thousand angels serving God.

&&&Athanasius of Alexandria (&&&)

Gregory of Nyssa (382-383 A.D.) says the cherubim are thrones, and that God sits upon them. Gregory discusses the Seraphim in Isaiah, that they say "Holy, Holy , Holy". Against Eunomius book 1 ch.23 p.64

Rufinus (374-406 A.D.) freely translating Origen (225-253/254 A.D.) mentions Isaiah’s vision with two seraphim. de Principiis book 4 ch.1.26 p.375-376

 

Among heretics

Ebionite Gospel of pseudo-Matthew (600-625 A.D.) ch.3 p.370; ch.6 p.371 mentions angels as servants of God.

 

U4. Paul went up to the third heaven

 

2 Corinthians 12:2

 

From the Council of Nicea I to the Council of Ephesus (325-431 A.D.)

&&&Athanasius of Alexandria (326-372/373 A.D.) &&&

Life of Antony (355 A.D.) ch.65 p.213 "Wherefore most earnestly he exhorted, ‘Take up the whole armour of God, that ye may be able to withstand in the evil day,’ that the enemy, ‘having no evil thing to say against us, may be ashamed.’ And we who have learned this, let us be mindful of the Apostle when he says, ‘whether in the body I know not, or whether out of the body I know not; God knoweth.’ But Paul was caught up unto the third heaven,"

Hilary (355-367/368 A.D.)

Pacian of Barcelona (342-379/392 A.D.) Paul was carried up to the third heaven. Letter 2 ch.8.2 p.37

John Chrysostom (-407 A.D.) On the Statues homily 1 ch.&&&

 

U6. All who die rejecting Jesus go to Hell

 

Matthew 21:46; John 3:36; 5:40-43; 6:45; 8:24; 10:8; 12:47-48; 14:6; (implied) Acts 4:12; 2 Thessalonians 1:8-9

 

Sinaitic Syriac (SyrS) (3rd/4th century) Matthew 1:1-6:10, 7:3-12:4; 12:6-25; 12:29-16:15; 18:11-20:24; 21:20-25:15; 25:17-20,25-26; 25:32-28:7; Mark 1:12-44; 2:21-4:17; 5:1-26; 6:5-16:18; Luke 1:36-5:28; 6:12-24:52; John 1:25-47; 2:16-4:37; 5:6-25; 5:46-18:31; 19:40-end. Matthew 21:46; John 3:36; 6:45; 8:24; 10:8; 12:47-48; 14:6

 

From the Council of Nicea I to the Council of Ephesus (325-431 A.D.)

Rufinus (374-406 A.D.) freely translating Origen (225-253/254 A.D.) taught that non-believers are cast "into everlasting fire". But see the next quote. Origen believed the fire was everlasting, but a person’s stay in it was not. de Principiis book 3 ch.1.6 p.305

Rufinus (374-406 A.D.) freely translating Origen (225-253/254 A.D.) Origen’s teaching was eventually rejected by the church because he taught universalism. Origen taught that the lost go to Hell, but that they eventually are redeemed and go to heaven. de Principiis book 1 ch.6.1-2 p.260

 

U5. Reincarnation (transmigration) is wrong

 

Hebrews 9:27

(implied) 2 Samuel 12:23

 

From the Council of Nicea I to the Council of Ephesus (325-431 A.D.)

Gregory of Nyssa (382-383 A.D.) has an entire chapter against transmigration of souls (reincarnation) Against Eunomius book 1 ch.28 p.419-420

Epiphanius of Salamis (360-403 A.D.) Against transmigration (reincarnation) The Panarion section 1.5 p.21

Augustine of Hippo (388-430 A.D.) speaks against reincarnation and "cycles". The City of God book 12 ch.10 p.240.

Augustine of Hippo (388-430 A.D.) has an interesting argument that Greeks believed transmigration, mortal bodies are bad things souls should want to escape, and they should revere and worshp the gods who created them and trapped them in mortal bodies. The City of God book 12 ch.26 p.243

 

From From the Council of Ephesus to the start of Muslim conquests (431-634 A.D.)

Socrates’ Ecclesiastical History book 3 ch.21 p.90 (c.400-439 A.D.) speaks of Pythagoras and Plato’ teaching on the transmigration of souls as a "ridiculous fancy" that deluded the pagan Emperor Julian.

Socrates’ Ecclesiastical History book 1 ch.22 p.25 (c.400-439 A.D.) says Manes (founder of the Manichaeans) believed in transmutation of bodies, as did Empedocles, Pythagoras, and the Egyptians. He also rejected Christi coming in the flesh, and rejected the law and prophets.

 

U7. Unquenchable/eternal fire

 

Isaiah 66:24; Mark 9:48; Luke 3:17; Jude 7

(implied) Revelation 20:10

 

In the apocrypha in Judith 16:17 "The Lord Almighty will punish them. He will send fire and worms into their flesh and they shall burn and suffer forever."

 

From the Council of Nicea I to the Council of Ephesus (325-431 A.D.)

Rufinus (374-406 A.D.) freely translating Origen (225-253/254 A.D.) taught that non-believers are cast "into everlasting fire". But see the next quote. Origen believed the fire was everlasting, but a person’s stay in it was not. de Principiis book 3 ch.1.6 p.305

 

U8. The worm of the lost does not die

 

Isaiah 66:24; Mark 9:44-48

 

In the apocrypha in Judith 16:17 (partial) "The Lord Almighty will punish them. He will send fire and worms into their flesh and they shall burn and suffer forever."

 

U9. Some lost have more severe judgment

 

Matthew 10:15; 11:22-24; Mark 12:40; Luke 12:47-48

 

From the Council of Nicea I to the Council of Ephesus (325-431 A.D.)

Rufinus (374-406 A.D.) freely translating Origen (225-253/254 A.D.) "If one, however, were to object to our statement, that the word of preaching was purposely put aside by certain men of wicked and worthless character, and (were to inquire) why the word was preached to those over whom the Tyrians, ... and that it may, at the same time, be understood and recognised that he receives a heavier sentence of condemnation who has despised the divine benefits conferred upon him than he who has not deserved to obtain or hear them, and that it is a peculiarity of divine compassion, and a mark of the extreme justice of its administration, that it sometimes conceals from certain individuals the opportunity of either seeing or hearing the mysteries of divine power, lest, after beholding the power of the miracles, and recognising and hearing the mysteries of its wisdom, they should, on treating them with contempt and indifference, be punished with greater severity for their impiety." de Principiis [Latin] book 3 ch.1.16 p.320

 

U10. Those who die are with Christ

 

Philippians 1:23

From the Council of Nicea I to the Council of Ephesus (325-431 A.D.)

Rufinus (374-406 A.D.) freely translating Origen (225-253/254 A.D.) quotes Philippians 1:23 about Paul desiring to depart and be with Christ. de Principiis book 2 ch.11.5 p.298.

 

U11. Believers who die have eternal life

 

Implied John 6:37

Partial John 11 (Says never die, but does not say with God forever)

1 Corinthians 9:25; 1 Peter 1:4; Revation 22:5

1 Thessalonians 4:17; 1 John 2:17; (implied) 1 Corinthians 9:25

 

Sinaitic Syriac (SyrS) (3rd/4th century) Matthew 1:1-6:10, 7:3-12:4; 12:6-25; 12:29-16:15; 18:11-20:24; 21:20-25:15; 25:17-20,25-26; 25:32-28:7; Mark 1:12-44; 2:21-4:17; 5:1-26; 6:5-16:18; Luke 1:36-5:28; 6:12-24:52; John 1:25-47; 2:16-4:37; 5:6-25; 5:46-18:31; 19:40-end. (implied) John 6:37

 

From the Council of Nicea I to the Council of Ephesus (325-431 A.D.)

Life of Antony (355 A.D.) ch.16 p.200 For the whole life of man is very short, measured by the ages to come, wherefore all our time is nothing compared with eternal life. And in the world everything is sold at its price, and a man exchanges one equivalent for another; but the promise of eternal life is bought for a trifle."

Augustine of Hippo (388-430 A.D.) says that we will never fall in heaven. The City of God book 11 ch.13 p.213

 

U12. Believers have rewards in Heaven

 

1 Corinthians 3:10-15; Ephesians 6:8; Revelation 22:12

(implied) 2 John 8

(partial) Matthew 5:12; Luke 6:23,35 (Could interpret as a varying reward or salvation)

 

From the Council of Nicea I to the Council of Ephesus (325-431 A.D.)

Constitutions of the Holy Apostles book 5 ch.6 p.439 (implied) "believing in the one and the only true God and Father, through Jesus Christ, the great High Priest, and Redeemer of our souls, and rewarder of our sufferings."

 

U13. Believers have crowns

 

Philippians 4:1

 

Hegemonius of Sirmium (4th century) "And after all these matters have been thus carefully set forth, the blessed apostle, like a father speaking to his children, adds the following words, which serve as a sort of seal to his testament: ‘I have fought a good fight, I have finished my course, I have kept the faith: henceforth there is laid up for me a crown of righteousness, which the Lord, the righteous Judge, shall give me at that day; and not to me only, but unto all them also that love His appearing." Archelaus Disputation with Manes ch.35 p.209

 

From the Council of Ephesus to the start of Muslim conquests (431-634 A.D.)

Venantius (lived ca.530-609 A.D.) "May one crown be bestowed on you from on high gained from yourself, may another flourish gained from your people." Poem on Easter p.330

 

U14. Flesh & blood not inherit God’s kingdom

 

1 Corinthians 15:50

 

From the Council of Nicea I to the Council of Ephesus (325-431 A.D.)

Augustine of Hippo (388-430 A.D.) "The Apostle having regard to the very sins which come of the corruption of flesh and blood, saith, ‘Flesh and blood shall not posses the kingdom of God.’" Expositions on Psalms Psalm 51.19 p.196

 

U15. We will put on incorruption

 

^^^

 

U16. Church/Believers are Christ’s bride

 

(implied) Mark 2:19-20; Luke 5:35,36; (implied) Ephesians 5:22-33

 

From the Council of Nicea I to the Council of Ephesus (325-431 A.D.)

Hegemonius of Sirmium (4th century) shows that Christ is our bridegroom. Archelaus Disputation with Manes ch.42 p.217.

Ephraim the Syrian (350-378 A.D.) (implied) says that Jesus is the bridegroom. Nisibine Hymns hymn 19 no.13 p.190

Rufinus (410 A.D.) freely translated Origen (240 A.D.) "And this is what is meant by the Bridegroom looking at her through the nets of the windows. If, however, we are to expound the passage with reference to Christ and the Church..." Commentary on the Song of Songs book 3 ch.13 p.234-235. See also Commentary on the Song of Songs prologue p.44

U17. The wedding banquet

 

^^^

 

U18. The earth shall pass away

 

From the Council of Nicea I to the Council of Ephesus (325-431 A.D.)

Gregory of Nyssa (c.356-397 A.D.) Heaven and earth shall pass away." On Virginity ch.4 p.349.

 

U19. New Heaven and New earth

 

Isaiah 65:17-18; Revelation 21

 

From the Council of Nicea I to the Council of Ephesus (325-431 A.D.)

&&&Rufinus translating Origen (225-253/254 A.D.)

 

U20. New/heavenly Jerusalem

 

Revelation 21: 2; Isaiah 65:17-18

 

^^^

 

U21. Abraham’s Bosom

 

Luke

 

^^^

 

U22. Outer darkness

 

^^^

 

U23. Gates of Hell/Death/Hades

 

Matthew 16:18

 

From the Council of Nicea I to the Council of Ephesus (325-431 A.D.)

Hegemonius of Sirmium (268-272 A.D.) (partial) "Where will be the Gehenna of fire? where the outer darkness? where the weeping? Shall I say in Himself? God forbid; else He Himself will also be made to stiffer in and with these." Manes is questioning these, and Hegemonius of Sirmium is not denying them. Archelaus Disputation with Manes ch.14 p.188

Athanasius of Alexandria (356-360 A.D.) mentions "hell’s gates" Four Discourses Against the Arians Discourse 3 ch.29 p.424

 

U24. Souls under the altar [in Revelation]

 

^^^

 

U25. Entering the Kingdom of God

 

^^^

 

 

ANGELS

 

Ua1. Angels are servants of God

 

Matthew 25:31; Mark 12:25; Luke 9:26; John 1:51; Hebrews 1:6-7; Jude 9; Revelation 9:13; 10:1,7,15

 

Sinaitic Syriac (SyrS) (3rd/4th century) Matthew 1:1-6:10, 7:3-12:4; 12:6-25; 12:29-16:15; 18:11-20:24; 21:20-25:15; 25:17-20,25-26; 25:32-28:7; Mark 1:12-44; 2:21-4:17; 5:1-26; 6:5-16:18; Luke 1:36-5:28; 6:12-24:52; John 1:25-47; 2:16-4:37; 5:6-25; 5:46-18:31; 19:40-end. Mark 12:25; Luke 9:26

 

From the Council of Nicea I to the Council of Ephesus (325-431 A.D.)

Eusebius’ Ecclesiastical History (323-339/340 A.D.) book 1 ch.2 p.83 discusses subordinate angels, angels, and archangels.

Eusebius’ Ecclesiastical History (323-339/340 A.D.) book 1 ch.2.24 p.85 discusses the Book of Daniel, including God’s kindgom, His throne, the river of fire, and ten thousand time sten thousand angels serving God.

Hegemonius of Sirmium (4th century) discusses angels of God. Archelaus Disputation with Manes ch.32 p.204-205

Life of Antony (355 A.D.) ch.35 p.205-206 (implied) "and as the angel did who appeared to the women at the holy sepulchre, and as He did who said to the shepherds in the Gospel, ‘Fear not.’ For their fear arose not from timidity, but from the recognition of the presence of superior beings. Such then is the nature of the visions of the holy ones."

Athanasius of Alexandria (356-360 A.D.) says that even the angels worship Jesus and quotes Hebrews 1:6. Four Discourses Against the Arians discourse 2 ch.16.23 p.361

Athanasius of Alexandria (356-360 A.D.) discusses God’s angels, incluing Angels, Archangels, Dominions, Powers, Thrones. Four Discourses Against the Arians discourse 3 ch.28.51 p.421

Hilary of Poitiers (355-367/368 A.D.) write of the Law, Moses, Jesus being our mediator, and angels in On the Trinity book 5 ch.23 p.91

Ephraim the Syrian (350-378 A.D.) (implied) says that angels surrounded Jesus. Nativity Hymns hymn 3 p.234

Gregory of Nyssa (382-383 A.D.) quotes Hebrews 1:6 "Let all God’s angels worship him." referring to Jesus. Against Eunomius book 2 ch.8 p.112

Cyril of Jerusalem (c.349-386 A.D.) "God’s divine and blessed Angels do the will of God, as David said in his Psalm…" and then he quotes Psalm 103:20. Catechical Lectures Lecture 23 no.14 p.155

Gregory of Nazianzen (330-391 A.D.) mentions angels with Jesus. Oration on Pentecost ch.5 p.381

Ambrose of Milan (378-381 A.D.) mentions angels in On the Christian Faith book 5 ch.6.73 p.2930294

Augustine of Hippo (388-430 A.D.) says children have angels that behold the face of the Father [Matthew 18:10]. The City of God book 11 ch.32 p.224

Augustine of Hippo (388-430 A.D.) describes different classes of angels. The Enchiridion ch.58 p.256

 

Ua2. Holy angel[s]

 

From the Council of Nicea I to the Council of Ephesus (325-431 A.D.)

John Chrysostom (died 407 A.D.) "For the Son of Man shall come," saith He, "in the glory of His Father with His holy angels, and then He shall reward every man according to his works." [Mt 16:37]." Homilies on Matthew Homily 55 ch.5 p.&&&

 

From From the Council of Ephesus to the start of Muslim conquests (431-634 A.D.)

The Didascalia (after 431 A.D.)

Patrick of Ireland (&&&)

 

Among corrupt or spurious works

The Book of Enoch (Ethiopic translation) mentions lots of angels. It mentions the good angels Michael, Surafel, and Gabriel in 1 Enoch 9:1, Asuryal in 1 Enoch 10:1; and Uriel in 1 Enoch 19:1. It lists "the holy angels who watch:" Suru’el, Raphael, Raguel, Michael, Saraqa’el, and Gabriel in 1 Enoch 20.

 

Ua3. The heavenly host

 

^^^

 

Ua4. The archangel Michael

 

Daniel 10:13,21; Jude 9; Revelation 12:7

 

Cassiodorus (520-560/580 A.D.) translating Clement of Alexandria (193-217/220 A.D.) "When Michael, the archangel, disputing with the devil, debated about the body of Moses." Here he confirms the assumption of Moses. He is here called Michael, who through an angel near to us debated with the devil." Fragment 2 Comments on the Letter of Jude p.573

 

Ua5. The angel Gabriel

 

Daniel 8:16; 9:21; Luke 1:19,26

 

From the Council of Nicea I to the Council of Ephesus (325-431 A.D.)

Life of Antony (355 A.D.) ch.37 p.206 "For the demons do not take away the fear of their presence as the great archangel Gabriel did for Mary and Zacharias, and as he did who appeared to the women at the tomb; but rather whenever they see men afraid they increase their delusions that men may be terrified the more; and at last attacking they mock them, saying, ‘fall down and worship.’ Thus they deceived the Greeks, and thus by them they were considered gods, falsely so called."

Athanasius of Alexandria (326-372 A.D.) "Is not this like what Gabriel said, Hail, thou that art full of grace, the Lord is with thee? [Lk 1:28] For the Psalmist, having called Him the Anointed One, that is Messiah or Christ, fortwith declares His human birth by saying, Harken, O daughter, and see; the only difference being that Gabriel addresses Mary by an epithet, because he is of another race from her, while David fitly calls her his own daughter, because it was from him that she should spring." Athanasius on Psalms

Cyril of Jerusalem (c.349-386 A.D.) discuess the end times, Gabriel’s message, the fourth beast will speak blasphemous words against the Most High. In ch.14 he refers to 2 Thessalonians 2:9 as by Paul. These false signs by Satan and the AntiChrist will abhor idols and be seated in the Temple of God. Catechetical Lectures Lecture 15 ch.13-15 p.108

John Chrysostom (died 407 A.D.) "Now the star from heaven which called the wise men to worship Him, the vast throng pouring everywhere of angels attending the Lord, and hymning His praise, and besides them, many other heralds sprang up on a sudden, and all, as they met declared to one another the glad tidings of this ineffable mystery; the angels to the shepherds; the shepherds to those of the city; Gabriel to Mary and Elisabeth; Anna and Simeon to those who came to the Temple. Nor were men and women only lifted up with pleasure, but the very infant who had not yet come forth to light, I mean the citizen of the wilderness, the namesake of this Evangelist, leaped while yet in his mother’s womb, and all were soaring with hopes for the future." Homilies on John homily 12 p.&&&

 

Ua6. Four Living Creatures / Seraphim

 

Ezekiel 1:5-24; Revelation 4:6-9; 5:8; 6:1-7; 19:4

 

From the Council of Nicea I to the Council of Ephesus (325-431 A.D.)

Cyril of Jerusalem (c.349-386 A.D.) mentions the principaliteis, power, thrones, Cherubim, and Seraphim. Catechical Lectures Lecture 23 no.6 p.154

Augustine of Hippo (388-430 A.D.) mentions Seraphim. On the Psalms Psalm 5 ch.4 p.179

 

Ua7. Cherubim

 

From the Council of Nicea I to the Council of Ephesus (325-431 A.D.)

Gregory of Nyssa (382-383 A.D.) says the cherubim are thrones, and that God sits upon them. Gregory discusses the Seraphim in Isaiah, that they say "Holy, Holy , Holy". Against Eunomius book 1 ch.23 p.64

Ephraim/Ephrem, Syrian hymn-writer (350-378 A.D.) mentions Cherubim who bore the Son up in glory. Hymns on the Nativity Hymn 13.6 p.248

Cyril of Jerusalem (c.349-386 A.D.) mentions the principaliteis, power, thrones, Cherubim, and Seraphim. Catechical Lectures Lecture 23 no.6 p.154

 

Ua8. Guardian angels

 

Psalm 34:7; Matthew 18:10

Acts 12:15 (partial)

 

^^^

 

Ua9. Angelic / Heavenly powers

 

^^^

 

Ua10. Angels worship/praise God/Jesus

 

^^^

 

Ua11. Angels rejoice

 

From the Council of Nicea I to the Council of Ephesus (325-431 A.D.)

Pacian of Barcelona (342-379/392 A.D.)

 

Ua12. Angelic hymns / choir(s)

 

From the Council of Ephesus to the start of Muslim conquests (431-634 A.D.)

Poem on the Passion of the Lord (350-350 A.D.) p.328 "Then freed from all labour, then joyfully beholding the angelic choirs, and the blessed companies of saints in perpetual bliss, it shall reign with me in the happy abode of perpetual peace."

 

Ua13. Angels visit shepherds at Christ’s birth

 

^^^

 

Ua14. Angels announce/preach the gospel

 

^^^

 

Ua15. An angel spoke with Cornelius before he was a believer

 

Acts 10:3-7,22, 30-33

 

^^^

 

DEMONS

 

Ud1. Satan / Lucifer / the Devil

 

Satan: 1 Chronicles 21:1; Job 1:6-12; 2:1-6; Zechariah 3:1-2; Matthew 12:26; 16:23; Mark 1:13; 3:23,26; 4:15; 8:33; Luke 10:18; 11:18; 13:16; 22:3,31; John 13:27; Acts 5:3; 26:18; Romans 16:20; 1 Corinthians 5:5; 7:5; 2 Corinthians 2:11; 11:14; 12:7; 1 Thessalonians 2:18; 2 Thessalonians 2:9; 1 Timothy 1:20; 5:15; Revelation 2:9,13,24; 12:9; 20:2-3

 

The devil tempted Jesus. Matthew 4:1-11; Luke 4:2-13

 

Devil: Matthew 13:39; 25:41; Luke 8:12; John 8:44; 13:2; Acts 10:38; 13:10; Ephesians 4:27; 6:11; 1 Timothy 3:6-7; 2 Timothy 2:26; Hebrews 2:14; James 4:7; 1 Peter 5:8; 1 John 3:8,10; Jude 9; Revelation 2:10; 12:9-12; 20:2-10

 

From the Council of Nicea I to the Council of Ephesus (325-431 A.D.)

Hegemonius of Sirmium (4th century) discusses that the devil was an angel, and that he fell in transgression, and that the devil is not the same substance with God. Archelaus Disputation with Manes ch.32 p.205.

Hegemonius of Sirmium (4th century) Hence also certain of the angels, refusing to submit themselves to the commandment of God, resisted His will; and one of them indeed fell like a flash of lightning upon the earth, while others, harassed by the dragon, sought their felicity in intercourse with the daughters of men, and thus brought on themselves the merited award of the punishment of eternal fire. Archelaus Disputation with Manes ch.32 p.204-205

Life of Antony (355 A.D.) ch.37 p.206 "But the Lord did not suffer us to be deceived by the devil, for He rebuked him whenever he framed such delusions against Him, saying: "Get behind me, Satan: for it is written, Thou shalt worship the Lord thy God, and Him only shalt thou serve.’"

Athanasius of Alexandria (356-360 A.D.) says the devil is the father of the "Ario-maniacs" Four Discourses Against the Arians discourse 3 ch.30 p.425

Ephraim the Syrian (350-378 A.D.) Nisibine Hymns hymn 35 no.1 p.193

Rufinus (374-406 A.D.) freely translating Origen (225-253/254 A.D.) quotes Isaiah 14:12. de Principiis book 1 ch.5.5 p.259. he also refers to Ezekiel 28:11-19 in de Principiis book 1 ch.5.4 p.258

Rufinus (374-406 A.D.) freely translating Origen (225-253/254 A.D.) discusses the time when Satan was good and walkin in the paradise of God between the cherubim. de Principis book 1 ch.8.3 p.265-266

John Chrysostom (martyred 407 A.D.) discusses the devil and demons in Commentary on Philippians homily 6 p.209.

Augustine of Hippo (388-430 A.D.) discusses Lucifer’s fall and Ezekiel. The City of God book 11 ch.15 p.213

 

From From the Council of Ephesus to the start of Muslim conquests (431-634 A.D.)

Nestorius (451/452 A.D.) Satan wanted to be considered God. The Bazaar of Heracleides book 1 ch.1.84 p.76

Nestorius (451/452 A.D.) mentions Satan. The Bazaar of Heracleides book 1 ch.1.70 p.63-64

 

Ud2. Satan/demons fell from heaven

 

Revelation 12:3-13; 2 Peter 2:4

 

From the Council of Nicea I to the Council of Ephesus (325-431 A.D.)

Hegemonius of Sirmium (4th century) discusses that the devil was an angel, and that he fell in transgression, and that the devil is not the same substance with God. Archelaus Disputation with Manes ch.32 p.205.

Hegemonius of Sirmium (4th century) Hence also certain of the angels, refusing to submit themselves to the commandment of God, resisted His will; and one of them indeed fell like a flash of lightning upon the earth, while others, harassed by the dragon, sought their felicity in intercourse with the daughters of men, and thus brought on themselves the merited award of the punishment of eternal fire. Archelaus Disputation with Manes ch.32 p.204-205

Life of Antony (355 A.D.) ch.22 p.202 "‘First, therefore, we must know this: that the demons have not been created like what we mean when we call them by that name; for God made nothing evil, but even they have been made good. Having fallen, however, from the heavenly wisdom, since then they have been grovelling on earth. On the one hand they deceived the Greeks with their displays, while out of envy of us Christians they move all things in their desire to hinder us from entry into the heavens; in order that we should not ascend up thither from whence they fell."

Athanasius of Alexandria (356 A.D.) says that Satan wanted to ascend above the heights of the clouds, but was instead dishonored. He is a creeping serpent, though he an transform himself into an angel of light. To the Bishop of Egypt ch.2 p.224

Gregory of Nyssa (382-383 A.D.) mentions that Jesus said He saw Satan fall from heaven. Against Eunomius book 1 ch.22 p.61

Rufinus (374-406 A.D.) freely translating Origen (225-253/254 A.D.) quotes Isaiah 14:12. de Principiis book 1 ch.5.5 p.259. he also refers to Ezekiel 28:11-19 in de Principiis book 1 ch.5.4 p.258. See also de Principis book 1 ch.8.3 p.265-266

John Chrysostom (martyred 407 A.D.) (partial) discusses the devil and demons in Commentary on Philippians homily 6 p.209.

Orosius/Hosius of Braga (414-418 A.D.) (partial) mentions demons. Defense Against the Pelagians ch.28(2) p.156-157

Augustine of Hippo (388-430 A.D.) says fallen angels lost their original light. The City of God book 11 ch.12 p.212

Augustine of Hippo (388-430 A.D.) discusses Lucifer’s fall and Ezekiel. The City of God book 11 ch.15 p.213

 

From From the Council of Ephesus to the start of Muslim conquests (431-634 A.D.)

Nestorius (451/452 A.D.) (partial) Satan wanted to be considered God. The Bazaar of Heracleides book 1 ch.1.84 p.76

 

Among heretics

Pelagian heretic Theodore of Mopsuestia (392-423/429 A.D.) (partial) mention of demons. Commentary on Hosea ch.13 p.94

 

Ud3. Satan deceives

 

Genesis 3:13; 2 Corinthians 11:3; Revelation 20:2-3,10

 

From the Council of Nicea I to the Council of Ephesus (325-431 A.D.)

Life of Antony (355 A.D.) ch.7 p.197 "But Antony having learned from the Scriptures that the devices of the devil are many, zealously continued the discipline, reckoning that though the devil had not been able to deceive his heart by bodily pleasure, he would endeavour to ensnare him by other means."

Life of Antony (355 A.D.) ch.22 p.202 (partial, demons deceive) "‘First, therefore, we must know this: that the demons have not been created like what we mean when we call them by that name; for God made nothing evil, but even they have been made good. Having fallen, however, from the heavenly wisdom, since then they have been grovelling on earth. On the one hand they deceived the Greeks with their displays, while out of envy of us Christians they move all things in their desire to hinder us from entry into the heavens; in order that we should not ascend up thither from whence they fell."

Athanasius of Alexandria (356 A.D.) says that Satan deceived Eve. To the Bishop of Egypt ch.3 p.224

Athanasius of Alexandria (326-372/373 A.D.) says of the devil "Thus does the drafty spirit mock men by false display, deluding and drawing each into his own pit of wickedness. When of old he deceived the first man Adam," Letter to the Bishops of Egypt ch.1.2 p.223

Ephraim the Syrian (350-378 A.D.) Nisibine Hymns hymn 55 no.6 p.209

 

Ud4. Serpent beguiled Eve

 

Genesis 3:13b; 2 Corinthians 11:3; 1 Timothy 2:14

 

From the Council of Nicea I to the Council of Ephesus (325-431 A.D.)

Hegemonius of Sirmium (4th century) "he [Paul the apostle] says: "But I fear, lest by any means, as the serpent beguiled Eve through his subtilty, so your minds should be corrupted from the simplicity that is in Christ." Archelaus Disputation with Manes ch.34 p.208

Hegemonius of Sirmium (4th century) quotes 1 Corinthians 15:11 as by Paul. This includes "As the serpent beguiled Eve" Archelaus Disputation with Manes ch.34 p.208

Athanasius of Alexandria (326-372/373 A.D.) says of the devil "Thus he deceived Eve," Letter to the Bishops of Egypt ch.1.2 p.223

Rufinus (374-406 A.D.) freely translating Origen (225-253/254 A.D.) "therefore is it said, ‘This corruptible must put on incorruption, and this mortal must put on immortality.’" de Principiis book 2 ch.3.2 p.372

 

Ud5. Satan is a serpent

 

Revelation 19:9; 20:2-3; Genesis 3:1-15

 

From the Council of Nicea I to the Council of Ephesus (325-431 A.D.)

Hegemonius of Sirmium (4th century) "Even that great serpent himself was not evil previous to man,"

Hegemonius of Sirmium (4th century) (partial) says that Satan was in the serpent, but not completely. Archelaus Disputation with Manes ch.33 p.206

Athanasius of Alexandria (356 A.D.) says that Satan wanted to ascend above the heights of the clouds, but was instead dishonored. He is a creeping serpent, though he an transform himself into an angel of light. To the Bishop of Egypt ch.2 p.224

Athanasius of Alexandria (356 A.D.) "or whereas the inventor of wickedness and great spirit of evil, the devil, is utterly hateful, and as soon as he shews himself is rejected of all men,—as a serpent, as a dragon, as a lion seeking whom he may seize upon and devour,—therefore he conceals and covers what he really is, and craftily personates that Name which all men desire, so that deceiving by a false appearance, he may thenceforth fix fast in his own chains those whom he has led astray." To the Bishops of Egypt ch.1 p.224

Athanasius of Alexandria (356-360 A.D.) says that Satan is a serpent. Four Discourses Against the Arians discourse 1 ch.51 p.336

 

Ud6. The Serpent was cursed at the fall

 

Genesis 3:14-15

 

^^^

 

Ud7. Enmity between serpent and Eve’s seed

 

Genesis 3:15

 

^^^

 

Ud8. Satan is a dragon

 

Revelation 12; 20:2-3

 

From the Council of Nicea I to the Council of Ephesus (325-431 A.D.)

Hegemonius of Sirmium (4th century) Hence also certain of the angels, refusing to submit themselves to the commandment of God, resisted His will; and one of them indeed fell like a flash of lightning upon the earth, while others, harassed by the dragon, sought their felicity in intercourse with the daughters of men, and thus brought on themselves the merited award of the punishment of eternal fire. Archelaus Disputation with Manes ch.32 p.204-205

Life of Antony (355 A.D.) ch.24 p.202 "‘And he said they often appeared as the Lord revealed the devil to Job, saying, "His eyes are as the morning star. From his mouth proceed burning lamps and hearths of fire are cast forth. The smoke of a furnace blazing with the fire of coals proceeds from his nostrils. His breath is coals and from his mouth issues flame." When the prince of the demons appears in this wise, the crafty one, as I said before, strikes terror by speaking great things, as again the Lord convicted him saying to Job, for "he counteth iron as straw, and brass as rotten wood, yea he counteth the sea as a pot of ointment, and the depth of the abyss as a captive, and the abyss as a covered walk." And by the prophet, "the enemy said, I will pursue and overtake," and again by another, "I will grasp the whole world in my hand as a nest, and take it up as eggs that have been left." Such, in a word, are their boasts and professions that they may deceive the godly. But not even then ought we, the faithful, to fear his appearance or give heed to his words. For he is a liar and speaketh of truth never a word. And though speaking words so many and so great in his boldness, without doubt, like a dragon he was drawn with a hook by the Saviour, and as a beast of burden he received the halter round his nostrils, and as a runaway his nostrils were bound with a ring, and his lips bored with an armlet."

Athanasius of Alexandria (356 A.D.) "or whereas the inventor of wickedness and great spirit of evil, the devil, is utterly hateful, and as soon as he shews himself is rejected of all men,—as a serpent, as a dragon, as a lion seeking whom he may seize upon and devour,—therefore he conceals and covers what he really is, and craftily personates that Name which all men desire, so that deceiving by a false appearance, he may thenceforth fix fast in his own chains those whom he has led astray." To the Bishops of Egypt ch.1 p.224

Rufinus (374-406 A.D.) freely translating Origen (225-253/254 A.D.) "Now it is certain that by the dragon is understood the devil himself." de Principis book 1 ch.5.5 p.259

 

Ud9. The prince of this world/air is evil/Satan

 

prince of this world John 12:31; 14:30; 16:11;

ruler of the kingdom of the air Ephesians 2:2

 

Sinaitic Syriac (SyrS) (3rd/4th century) Matthew 1:1-6:10, 7:3-12:4; 12:6-25; 12:29-16:15; 18:11-20:24; 21:20-25:15; 25:17-20,25-26; 25:32-28:7; Mark 1:12-44; 2:21-4:17; 5:1-26; 6:5-16:18; Luke 1:36-5:28; 6:12-24:52; John 1:25-47; 2:16-4:37; 5:6-25; 5:46-18:31; 19:40-end. John 12:31; 14:30

 

From the Council of Nicea I to the Council of Ephesus (325-431 A.D.)

Hegemonius of Sirmium (4th century) says the prince of the world is the wicked one. Archelaus Disputation with Manes ch.30 p.202. See also ibid ch.13 p.187

Life of Antony (355 A.D.) ch.65 p.213 (implied) "And he remembered that this is what the Apostle said, ‘according to the prince of the power of the air.’"

Athanasius of Alexandria (326-372/373 A.D.) "…and once again, stretching out His hands upon the Cross, He overthrew the prince of the power of the air, that now works in the sons of disobedience, and made the way clear for us into the heavens." Letter 60 ch.7 p.577

Orosius/Hosius of Braga (414-418 A.D.) Negatively refers to the Prince of this World. Defense Against the Pelagians ch.15 p.133

Rufinus (374-406 A.D.) freely translating Origen (c.227-c.240 A.D.) "Behold, the prince of this world cometh, and findeth nothing in Me [Jesus]." de Principiis book 2 ch.6.4 p.283

 

Ud10. Satan, a murderer from the beginning

 

John 8:44

 

Sinaitic Syriac (SyrS) (3rd/4th century) Matthew 1:1-6:10, 7:3-12:4; 12:6-25; 12:29-16:15; 18:11-20:24; 21:20-25:15; 25:17-20,25-26; 25:32-28:7; Mark 1:12-44; 2:21-4:17; 5:1-26; 6:5-16:18; Luke 1:36-5:28; 6:12-24:52; John 1:25-47; 2:16-4:37; 5:6-25; 5:46-18:31; 19:40-end. John 8:44

 

From the Council of Nicea I to the Council of Ephesus (325-431 A.D.)

Hegemonius of Sirmium (4th century) "From this [Cain’s murder of Abel’ the devil has been called a murderer from the beginning, and also a liar," Archelaus Disputation with Manes ch.33 p.206

Athanasius of Alexandria (356 A.D.) says that Satan was a murderer and a liar from the beginning. To the Bishop of Egypt ch.3 p.224

Ephraim the Syrian (350-378 A.D.) (partial, does not say from the beginning). Satan was a murderer. Nisibine Hymns hymn 61 no.18 p.214

 

Ud11. Satan looke like an angel of light

 

2 Corinthians 11:14

 

From the Council of Nicea I to the Council of Ephesus (325-431 A.D.)

Hegemonius of Sirmium (4th century) "the devil himself is to be transformed into an angel of light, and that his servants are to make their appearance in similar guise," Archelaus Disputation with Manes ch.36 p.210.

Hegemonius of Sirmium (4th century) "These things, moreover, he has said with the view of showing us that all others who may come alter him will be false apostles, deceitful workers, transforming themselves into the apostles of Christ. And no marvel; for Satan himself is transformed, like an angel of light." Archelaus Disputation with Manes ch.35 p.208

Athanasius of Alexandria (356 A.D.) says that Satan wanted to ascend above the heights of the clouds, but was instead dishonored. He is a creeping serpent, though he an transform himself into an angel of light. To the Bishop of Egypt ch.2 p.224

 

Ud12. Wiles/craftiness of the devil

 

Ephesians 6:11

 

From the Council of Nicea I to the Council of Ephesus (325-431 A.D.)

Hegemonius of Sirmium (4th century) "But subsequently, when man had once been made, and when further he had been deceived by the devil’s lies and craftiness, and when the devil had also introduced himself into the body of the serpent, which was the most sagacious of all the beasts, then from that time the devil was called a liar together with his father, and then also the curse was made to rest not only on himself, but also on his father." (Archelaus is speaking) Archelaus Disputation with Manes ch.33 p.206

Athanasius of Alexandria (326-372/373 A.D.) says of the devil "Thus does the drafty spirit mock men by false display, deluding and drawing each into his own pit of wickedness. When of old he deceived the first man Adam," Letter to the Bishops of Egypt ch.1.2 p.223

 

Ud13. Demons

 

Deuteronomy 32:17; Psalm 106:37; Matthew 7:22; 8:31; 9:34; 10:8; 12:24,27,28; Mark 1:34,39; 3:15,22; 5:12,15; 6:13; 9:38; 16:9,17; Luke 4:41; 8:2,30,32,33,35,38; 9:1,49; 10:17; 11:15,18-20; 13:32; Romans 8:38; 1 Corinthians 1019-21; 1 Timothy 4:1; James 2:19; Revelation 9:20; 16:14; 18:2

 

Vaticanus (B) (325-350 A.D.) contains all of Deuteronomy. It has most of the Old Testament and all of New Testament up to Hebrews 9:15 (325-350 A.D.)

 

From the Council of Nicea I to the Council of Ephesus (325-431 A.D.)

Hegemonius of Sirmium (4th century) says that some demons had relations with women, "and brought on themselves the merited award of the punishment of eternal fire." Archelaus Disputation with Manes ch.32 p.205

Life of Antony (355 A.D.) ch.37 p.206 "For the demons do not take away the fear of their presence as the great archangel Gabriel did for Mary and Zacharias, and as he did who appeared to the women at the tomb; but rather whenever they see men afraid they increase their delusions that men may be terrified the more; and at last attacking they mock them, saying, ‘fall down and worship.’ Thus they deceived the Greeks, and thus by them they were considered gods, falsely so called."

Athanasius of Alexandria (356-360 A.D.) mentions demons Four Discourses Against the Arians discourse 3 ch.29 p.424

Ephraim the Syrian (350-378 A.D.) Nisibine Hymns hymn 35 no.2 p.193

Rufinus (374-406 A.D.) freely translating Origen (225-253/254 A.D.) do they not rather hear the Father of our Lord Jesus Christ in the Gospels, preparing fire for the devil and his angels? And how shall that proceeding" de Principiis book 2 ch.5.2 p.279

John Chrysostom (martyred 407 A.D.) discusses the devil and demons in Commentary on Philippians homily 6 p.209. He also mentions the "river of fire" ibid homily 6 p.212.

Orosius/Hosius of Braga (414-418 A.D.) mentions demons. Defense Against the Pelagians ch.28(2) p.156-157

Palladius (419-420 A.D.) says that three particular demons tempted Evagrius. [Both Greek and Coptic] Lausiac History 38.11 in Four Desert Fathers. (Chapter: Evagrius Debates Three Demons) p.179

(more also)

 

Ud14. Power/principalities of darkness

 

Colossians 1:13

 

^^^

 

Ud15. Demons are worshipped by pagans

 

1 Corinthians 10:19-20

 

From the Council of Nicea I to the Council of Ephesus (325-431 A.D.)

Life of Antony (355 A.D.) ch.37 p.206 "For the demons do not take away the fear of their presence as the great archangel Gabriel did for Mary and Zacharias, and as he did who appeared to the women at the tomb; but rather whenever they see men afraid they increase their delusions that men may be terrified the more; and at last attacking they mock them, saying, ‘fall down and worship.’ Thus they deceived the Greeks, and thus by them they were considered gods, falsely so called."

Athanasius of Alexandria (356-360 A.D.) "And next he [Moses] says, ‘They sacrificed unto devils, nto to God, to gods whom they knew not." Four Discourses Against the Arian discourse 2 ch.58 p.380

Constitutions of the Holy Apostles (c.375/390 A.D.) "But do ye abstrain from things offered to idols; for they offer them I honor of demons, that is, to the dishonor of the one God, that ye may not become partners with demons." book 7 section 2.21 p.469

 

Ud16. Demons deceive / delude people

 

^^^

 

Ud17. Devil/demons tempt people

 

1 Peter 5:8-9; (implied) Revelation 12:17

Satan tempts (1 Corinthians 7:5)

(partial) 1 Thessalonians 3:5b "the tempter tempted"

 

From the Council of Nicea I to the Council of Ephesus (325-431 A.D.)

&&&Athanasius of Alexandria (&&&)

Ambrose of Milan (370-390 A.D.) "The power of his [Satan’s] temptations is shown and made clear [in the Book of Job]" Letter 20 no.14 p.424

John Chrysostom (died 407 A.D.)

Palladius (419-420 A.D.) says that three particular demons tempted Evagrius. [Both Greek and Coptic] Lausiac History 38.11 in Four Desert Fathers. (Chapter: Evagrius Debates Three Demons) p.179

 

From the Council of Ephesus to the start of Muslim conquests (431-634 A.D.)

Fulgentius of Ruspe (503-532/533 A.D.)

 

Ud18. Demons vex/cause harm to people

 

^^^

 

Ud19. Demons tremble at/fear Christ

 

^^^

 

Ud20. Demons subject to Christ

 

^^^

 

Ud21. Satan can have lying wonders

 

From the Council of Nicea I to the Council of Ephesus (325-431 A.D.)

Hegemonius of Sirmium (4th century) "For we are given to understand beforehand that the devil himself is to be transformed into an angel of light, and that his servants are to make their appearance in similar guise, and that they are to work signs and wonders, insomuch that, if it were possible, the very elect should be deceived." (Archelaus is speaking) Archelaus Disputation with Manes ch.36 p.210

Hegemonius of Sirmium (4th century) "The Spirit in the evangelist Matthew is also careful to give note of these words of our Lord Jesus Christ: ‘Take heed that no man deceive you: for many shall come in my name, saying, I am Christ; and shall deceive many. But if any man shall say unto you, Lo, here is Christ, or there; believe it not. For there shall arise false Christs, and false apostles, and false prophets, and shall show great signs and wonders; insomuch that, if it were possible, they shall deceive the very elect.’" (Archelaus is speaking) Archelaus Disputation with Manes ch.35 p.209

 

Ud23. Beelzebub/Baalzebub

 

Matthew 10:25; 12:24-27; Mark 3:22; Luke 11:15-19; 2 Kings 1:2-6,13

 

^^^

 

Ud24. Satan sought to sift Peter as wheat

 

Luke 22:31-32

 

From the Council of Nicea I to the Council of Ephesus (325-431 A.D.)

John Chrysostom (died 407 A.D.) Homilies on Matthew Homily

 

Ud25. Satan entered into Judas

 

Luke 22:3; John 13:27

 

^^^

 

Ud26. The devil / Satan is a personal being

 

Satan, beast, and false prophet will suffer forever in the lake of fire. Luke 21:16+18; 2 Thessalonians 2:8; Revelation 19:20; 20:10.

 

From the Council of Nicea I to the Council of Ephesus (325-431 A.D.)

Hegemonius of Sirmium (4th century) "For we are given to understand beforehand that the devil himself is to be transformed into an angel of light, and that his servants are to make their appearance in similar guise, and that they are to work signs and wonders, insomuch that, if it were possible, the very elect should be deceived." (Archelaus is speaking) Archelaus Disputation with Manes ch.36 p.210

Hegemonius of Sirmium (4th century) discusses that the devil was an angel, and that he fell in transgression, and that the devil is not the same substance with God. Archelaus Disputation with Manes ch.32 p.205.

 

Ud27. There are doctrines of demons / devils

 

1 Timothy 4:1-3

 

From the Council of Nicea I to the Council of Ephesus (325-431 A.D.)

Hegemonius of Sirmium (4th century) "Apostle Paul, that elect vessel, has given us very clear indication when he says: ‘Now in the last times some shall depart from the faith, giving heed to seducing spirits, and doctrines of devils; speaking lies in hypocrisy; having their conscience seared with a hot iron; forbidding to marry, and commanding to abstain from meats, which God hath created to be received with thanksgiving of them which believe and know the truth. For every creature of God is good, and nothing to be refused, if it be received with thanksgiving.’" Archelaus Disputation with Manes ch.35 p.209

 

Ud28. [Demons are] unclean spirits

 

Luke 4:34-36; Luke 8:28-33; Acts 5:16

 

Athanasius of Alexandria (326-372 A.D.) "In the same way Paul commanded the unclean spirits, [Acts 16:18] and daemons were subject to the disciples. [Lk 10:17]" Athanasius on Psalms

 

Ud29. The devil had envy / jealousy

 

^^^

 

PAtriarch Individiuals

 

Pat1. Adam and/or Eve

 

From the Council of Nicea I to the Council of Ephesus (325-431 A.D.)

Hegemonius of Sirmium (4th century) discusses the serpents deceit of Eve and being cast out. Archelaus Disputation with Manes ch.33 p.206

Philo of Carpasia (4th century) "it is because be (God) appointed only him to the grave of our father Adam and its name is Salem"

Athanasius of Alexandria (346-356 A.D.) mentions Adam. Defence of the Nicene Definition ch.5 p.153

 

Pat2. Cain murdered his brother/Abel

 

Genesis 4:1-16

1 John 3:12

(partial) Jude 11; (partial) Hebrews 11:4; (partial) Hebrews 12:24

(partial) Matthew 23:35; Luke 11:51 (Abel’s blood but no mention of Cain)

(partial) Hebrews 11:4

 

From the Council of Nicea I to the Council of Ephesus (325-431 A.D.)

Hegemonius of Sirmium (4th century) that Abel, whom Cain slew, observed the law. Archelaus Disputation with Manes ch.30 p.203

Hegemonius of Sirmium (4th century) (implied) mentions that Cain was the beginning of murder, and so the devil has been called a murderer from the beginning. (Archaeus is speaking) Archelaus Disputation with Manes ch.33 p.206. He mentions the blood of righteous Abel in Archelaus Disputation with Manes ch.28 p.201

Athanasius of Alexandria (338 A.D.) (implied) says that Cain murdered his brother. Easter Letter 10 ch.4 p.529

Athanasius of Alexandria (329 A.D.) (partial) mentions the righteous Abel, but does not say Cain murdered him. Easter Letter 1 ch.9 p.509

Athanasius of Alexandria (329 A.D.) mentions that murderers like Cain fled after the murder. Personal Letter 47 p.555

Athanasius of Alexandria (346-356 A.D.) (partial) mentions Abel, Enoch, and Abraham. Defence of the Nicene Definition ch.5 p.113

Ephraim the Syrian (350-378 A.D.) (partial, mentions Cain and Abel but nothing else) Nisibine Hymns hymn 57 no.3 p.210

Epiphanius of Salamis (360-403 A.D.) Cain killed Abel. The Panarion section 3 ch.39,5,4 p.257

Rufinus (374-406 A.D.) freely translating Origen (225-253/254 A.D.) (implied) mentions the shed blood crying from the ground in Genesis 4:10. de Principiis book 3 ch.5 p.340.

 

Among heretics

Pelagian heretic Theodore of Mopsuestia (392-423/429 A.D.) (partial) mentions Cain and his bad-intention on offering. Commentary on Hosea ch.9 p.77

 

Pat3. Seth [son of Adam and Eve]

 

Genesis 4:25; 5:3-6

 

From the Council of Nicea I to the Council of Ephesus (325-431 A.D.)

Rufinus (374-406 A.D.) freely translating Origen (225-254 A.D. ) "in the same manner as we say, according to the sacred history, that the image of Adam is his son Seth." de Principiis book 1 ch.2.5 p.247

 

Pat4. Enoch

 

Hebrews 11:5; Genesis 5:18-21

 

From the Council of Nicea I to the Council of Ephesus (325-431 A.D.)

Athanasius of Alexandria (356-360 A.D.) says, "Enoch, for instance was thus translated," Four Discourses Against the Arians discourse 3 ch.28.52 p.422

Athanasius of Alexandria (346-356 A.D.) mentions Abel, Enoch, and Abraham. Defence of the Nicene Definition ch.5 p.153

Ephraim the Syrian (350-378 A.D.) says that Enoch and Elijah did not see death. Nisibine Hymns Hymn 36 no.7 p.196

 

Pat5. Noah got drunk

 

Genesis 9:20-23

 

From the Council of Nicea I to the Council of Ephesus (325-431 A.D.)

Philo of Carpasia (4th century) (partial, only mentions Noah) "And for this reason Sem [Shem] too, after stealing from his father and mother, as his father had ordered, because Noah knew from the Holy Spirit, that he would have become priest of the high God inside Salem."

Augustine of Hippo (388-430 A.D.) mentions Noah getting drunk. On Christian Doctrine book 4 ch.21.45 NPNF first series vol.2 p.590

 

Pat6. Ham [son of Noah]

 

Genesis 6:10; 7:13; 9:18

 

From the Council of Nicea I to the Council of Ephesus (325-431 A.D.)

Athanasius of Alexandria (326-372 A.D.) "He showed the words of His signs among them, and of His wonders in the land of Ham." Athanasius on Psalms

Pacian of Barcelona (342-379/392 A.D.) "We know likewise that, being the well of living water, and a fountain sealed, it is defiled with no filth of engulfing heresy, and that it is a garden enclosed and full of herbs great alike and small, vile and precious; that it is the eight souls from the Ark, among whom, however, was Ham also, and those thousands of birds and beasts, in pairs and in sevens, clean alike and unclean." Letter 3 ch.42 p.&&&

John Chrysostom (died 407 A.D.) "For the wickedness of Ham’s disposition overcame the laws of nature, and cast him not only out of the nobility which he had in respect of his father, but also out of his free estate. And what of Esau? Was he not son of Isaac, and had he not his father to stand his friend?" Homilies on Matthew Homily 9 p.&&&

 

From the Council of Ephesus to the start of Muslim conquests (431-634 A.D.)

The Didascalia (after 431 A.D.) "And in the ark, Noah and his two sons who were saved alive, they were blessed; but Ham, his other son, was not blessed, but his seed was cursed; [Gen 9.25] and the animals that went in, animals they came forth."

 

Pat7. Shem [son of Noah]

 

Genesis 6:10; 7:13; 9:18

 

From the Council of Nicea I to the Council of Ephesus (325-431 A.D.)

Aphrahat the Syrian (337-345 A.D.) "For when the children of Japhet held the kingdom, then they slew Darius, the king of Persia. Now the fourth beast has swallowed up the third. And this third consists of the children of Japhet, and the fourth consists of the children of Shem, for they are the children of Esau. Because, when Daniel saw the vision of the four beasts, he saw first the children of Ham, the seed of Nimrod, which the Babylonians are; and secondly, the Persians and Medes, who are the children of Japhet; and thirdly, the Greeks, the brethren of the Medes; and fourthly, the children of Shem, which the children of Esau are. For a confederacy was formed between the children of Japhet and the children of Shem. Then the government was taken away from the children of Japhet, the younger, and was given to Shem, the elder; and to this day it continues, and will continue for ever. But when the time of the consummation of the dominion of the children of Shem shall have come, the Ruler, who came forth from the children of Judah, shall receive the kingdom, when He shall come in His second Advent." Select Demonstrations Demonstration 5 ch.10 p.&&&

Philo of Carpasia (4th century) "And for this reason Sem [Shem] too, after stealing from his father and mother, as his father had ordered, because Noah knew from the Holy Spirit, that he would have become priest of the high God inside Salem."

Ephraem the Syrian (350-378 A.D.) "Shem and Japhet, being gracious, looked for the gracious Son, Who should come and set free Canaan from the servitude of sin." Nativity Hymns hymn 1 p.&&&

 

Pat8. Japheth [son of Noah]

 

Genesis 6:10; 7:13; 9:18

 

From the Council of Nicea I to the Council of Ephesus (325-431 A.D.)

Athanasius of Alexandria (356-360 A.D.) mentions Japheth. Four Discourses Against the Arians Discourse 4 ch.14 p.438

 

Pat9. Canaan [son of Ham]

 

Genesis 9:18,22,25

 

^^^

 

From the Council of Ephesus to the start of Muslim conquests (431-634 A.D.)

Didascalia (after 431 A.D.) ch.6 "And in the ark, Noah and his two sons who were saved alive, they were blessed; but Ham, his other son, was not (p. 17) blessed, but his seed was cursed; [Gen 9.25] and the animals that went in, animals they came forth."

 

Pat10. Job and his sufferings/patience

 

Job

 

From the Council of Nicea I to the Council of Ephesus (325-431 A.D.)

Life of Antony (356-362 A.D.) &&&

Asterius of Amasea (c.410 A.D.) "If you have gotten your wealth justly, use it, as did the blessed Job, for needful purposes; if unjustly, restore it to those who have been defrauded of it, as you would a thing captured in war, giving back either just what you took, or that with something added, as did Zacchaeus." Sermon 3 (Against Covetousness)

 

Nicetas translating Clement of Alexandria (193-217/220 A.D.) mentions Job. Fragment 1 p.577

 

Pat11. Abraham [friend of God]

 

2 Chronicles 20:7; Isaiah 41:8; James 2:23

Hebrews 11:8 (partial, only mentions Abraham)

 

From the Council of Nicea I to the Council of Ephesus (325-431 A.D.)

Eusebius of Caesarea (323-339/340 A.D.) mentions Abraham. Eusebius’ Ecclesiastical History book 1 ch.2 p.83

Macrostitch Creed (344/345 A.D.) says it was Christ who appeared to Abraham. Socrates Ecclesiastical History book 2 ch.19 in Nicene and Post-Nicene Fathers 2nd Series vol.2 p.44-45

Philo of Carpasia (4th century) "And he manifested himself to Abraham to whom the word or prophecy was given, and told him: ‘It is not now, but cross the Jordan and I will manifest to you’. And he told him he encountered Melkisedek and he blessed him. And Malka Sedeq blessed our father Abraham and gave him the typoi of the flesh and blood of Christ. Thus Abraham say in prophecy through the hands of Malka Sedeq, and Abraham rejoiced and gave the tenth from all he received, and gave a tithe to Malka Sedeq, his first interpretation means ‘king of Peace’, who did not have a father and who did not have a mother and whose birth is unknown, and whose life has no end and has no beginning."

Athanasius of Alexandria (346-356 A.D.) mentions Abel, Enoch, and Abraham. Defence of the Nicene Definition ch.5 p.153

Asterius of Amasea (c.410 A.D.) "For Abraham was a minister of Christ, and, beyond other men, received the things of the revelation of Christ, and the mystery of the Trinity was adequately bodied forth in the tent of this old man when he entertained the three angels as wayfaring men. In short, after many mystical enigmas, he became the friend of God, who in after time put on flesh and, through the medium of this human veil, openly associated with men. On this account, Christ says that Abraham’s bosom is a sort of fair haven, and sheltered resting-place for the just. For we all have our salvation and expectation of the life to come, in Christ, who, in his human descent, sprang from the flesh of Abraham. And I think the honor in the case of this old man has reference to the Saviour, who is the judge and rewarder of virtue, and who calls the just with a gracious voice, saying: ‘Come, ye blessed of my Father, inherit the kingdom prepared for you.’" The Rich Man and Lazarus

 

Among heretics

Ebionite Gospel of pseudo-Matthew (600-625 A.D.) ch.13 p.374 mentions Abraham, Isaac, and Jacob.

 

Pat12. Sarai / Sarah

 

Genesis 11:29-31; 16:1-6; 18:6-15

Hebrews 11:11

 

From the Council of Nicea I to the Council of Ephesus (325-431 A.D.)

Athanasius of Alexandria (346-356 A.D.) mentions Sara. Defence of the Nicene Definition ch.7 p.155

 

Pat13. Lot or his wife

 

Genesis 19:15-26

 

From the Council of Nicea I to the Council of Ephesus (325-431 A.D.)

Athanasius of Alexandria (356-360 A.D.) mentions Lot. Four Discourses Against the Arians Discourse 1 ch.63 p.343

Ephraim the Syrian (350-378 A.D.) mentions Lot’s wife. Nisibine Hymns hymn 57 no.9 p.210.

 

Pat14. Hagar

 

Genesis 16

 

From the Council of Nicea I to the Council of Ephesus (325-431 A.D.)

Ephraim the Syrian (350-378 A.D.) "The son of Hagar who was wild, kicked at Isaac. He bore it and was silent, and his mother was jealous. Art Thou the mystery of him, or is not he the type of Thee?" Nativity Hymns hymn 8 p.&&&

 

Pat15. Ishmael

 

Genesis 16:11,15; 17:18,20,23-26

 

From the Council of Nicea I to the Council of Ephesus (325-431 A.D.)

Athanasius of Alexandria (326-372 A.D.) "Yet no one would ever speak the patriarchs’ words as though they were his own, or dare to imitate the utterance of Moses or use the words of Abraham concerning the great Isaac, or about Ishmael and the home-born slave, as though they were his own, even though like necessity oppressed him." Athanasius on Psalms

Ephraim the Syrian (350-378 A.D.) (partial) "The son of Hagar who was wild, kicked at Isaac. He bore it and was silent, and his mother was jealous. Art Thou the mystery of him, or is not he the type of Thee?" Nativity Hymns hymn 8 p.&&&

Asterius of Amasea (c.410 A.D.) "Therefore let the right hand of God be the hope and treasury of men,----the hand that led his people out of Egypt, and in the desert provided abundance of good things, which brought Habakkuk to Daniel, and preserved Ishmael when he had been cast down from his mother’s arms; which provides for those of every generation; and which, finally, multiplied five barley loaves so that they equaled a great harvest, and one loaf supplied a thousand hungry men and filled a basket with fragments besides." On Covetousness p.&&&

 

Pat16. Isaac

 

Genesis 24:62-66

Romans 9:6 "It is not as though God’s word had failed. For not all who are descended from Israel are Israel. Nor because they are his descendants are they all Abraham’s children. On the contrary, ‘It is through Isaac that your offspring will be reckoned."

Hebrews 11:9

 

From the Council of Nicea I to the Council of Ephesus (325-431 A.D.)

Eusebius of Caesarea (323-339/340 A.D.) mentions the God of Abraham, Isaac, and Jacob. Eusebius’ Ecclesiastical History book 1 ch.2.13 p.83

Aphrahat the Syrian (337-345 A.D.) mentions Jacob, Joseph, Isaac, Rebecca, and Reuben. Select Demonstrations Demonstration 7 ch.3 p.377.

Athanasius of Alexandria (357 A.D.) mentions the "patriarch Isaac". Defense of His Flight ch.15 p.262. See also the "Blessed patriarchs in Defense of His Flight ch.20 p.262

Pacian of Barcelona (342-379/392 A.D.) Abraham, Isaac, Jacob, and all saints live for God. On Baptism ch.6.2 p.93

Rufinus (374-406 A.D.) freely translating Origen (225-253/254 A.D.) "Have you not read what was spoken by God to Moses: I am the God of Abraham, and the God of Isaac, and the God of Jacob; He is not a God of the dead, but of the living.’" de Principiis book 2 ch.4.1 p.276

John Chrysostom (died 407 A.D.) "To many he assigned names even from their birth, as to Isaac, and Samson, and to those in Isaiah and Hosea" Homilies on John homily 19

John Chrysostom (died 407 A.D.) "For the wickedness of Ham’s disposition overcame the laws of nature, and cast him not only out of the nobility which he had in respect of his father, but also out of his free estate. And what of Esau? Was he not son of Isaac, and had he not his father to stand his friend?" Homilies on Matthew Homily 9 p.&&&

 

From the Council of Ephesus to the start of Muslim conquests (431-634 A.D.)

The Didascalia (after 431 A.D.) "Lord God of my fathers, the God of Abraham and of Isaac and of Jacob"

 

Among heretics

Ebionite Gospel of pseudo-Matthew (600-625 A.D.) ch.13 p.374 mentions Abraham, Isaac, and Jacob.

 

Pat17. Abraham offered Isaac as a sacrifice

 

Genesis 22; James 2:21

(partial) John 8:33,38; Hebrews 11:2

 

Sinaitic Syriac (SyrS) (3rd/4th century) Matthew 1:1-6:10, 7:3-12:4; 12:6-25; 12:29-16:15; 18:11-20:24; 21:20-25:15; 25:17-20,25-26; 25:32-28:7; Mark 1:12-44; 2:21-4:17; 5:1-26; 6:5-16:18; Luke 1:36-5:28; 6:12-24:52; John 1:25-47; 2:16-4:37; 5:6-25; 5:46-18:31; 19:40-end. (partial) John 8:33

 

From the Council of Nicea I to the Council of Ephesus (325-431 A.D.)

Aphrahat (337-344 A.D.) (implied) Abraham bound Isaac on the altar. Select Demonstrations book 21 ch.5 p.394

Eusebius of Emesa (c.359 A.D.) (partial) "Jesus went forth out of the city, bearing Himself the Tree of His own Cross; like another Isaac carrying the wood for the sacrifice." On the Sufferings and Death of our Lord

Athanasius of Alexandria (334 A.D.) says that Abraham offered Isaac. Easter Letter 8 ch.8 p.522

Ephraim the Syrian (350-378 A.D.) (implied) says that Abraham almost sacrificed his first born son. Nisibine Hymns hymn 63 no.1 p.215

John Chrysostom (died 407 A.D.) extensively discusses Abraham willing to sacrifice Isaac in Homilies on Hebrews homily 25 ch.102 p.477-478.

Rufinus (374-406 A.D.) freely translating Origen (225-253/254 A.D.) (partial, does not say which son) discusses Arabaham’s great faith of not even sparing his son for God. de Principiis book 3 ch.2 p.&&&

 

Pat18. Rebecca [wife of Isaac]

 

Genesis 25:20-21

 

From the Council of Nicea I to the Council of Ephesus (325-431 A.D.)

Aphrahat the Syrian (337-345 A.D.) mentions Jacob, Joseph, Isaac, Rebecca, and Reuben. Select Demonstrations Demonstration 7 ch.3 p.377.

Rufinus (374-406 A.D.) freely translating Origen (225-253/254 A.D.) "in the womb of Rebecca?" de Principiis book 3 ch.&&&

 

Pat19. Laban [Jacob’s father-in-law]

 

Genesis 25:20

 

Athanasius of Alexandria (338 A.D.) mentions Laban. Address to Constantius ch.12 p.242

 

Pat20. Jacob

 

Genesis 25:28; Genesis 27-33; Hebrews 11:9

 

Sinaiticus (Genesis 25:289; 27-33)

Alexandrinus (Hebrews 11:9)

 

From the Council of Nicea I to the Council of Ephesus (325-431 A.D.)

Eusebius of Caesarea (323-339/340 A.D.) mentions Jacob. Eusebius’ Ecclesiastical History book 1 ch.2.0 p.82

Eusebius of Caesarea (323-339/340 A.D.) mentions the God of Abraham, Isaac, and Jacob. Eusebius’ Ecclesiastical History book 1 ch.2.13 p.83

Aphrahat the Syrian (337-345 A.D.) mentions Jacob, Joseph, Isaac, Rebecca, and Reuben. Select Demonstrations Demonstration 7 ch.3 p.377.

Aphrahat the Syrian (337-345 A.D.) "meditate not before the time what ye shall say, and how ye shall make defence; and I will give you a mouth and wisdom, that your enemies may not be able to overcome you, because it is not ye that speak, but the Holy Spirit of your Father; He shall speak in you. This is the spirit which spoke by the mouth of Jacob to Esau, his persecutor; and the spirit of wisdom which spoke before Pharaoh by the mouth of the persecuted Joseph; and the spirit which spoke by the mouth of Moses in all the prodigies which he did in the land of Egypt, and the spirit of knowledge which was given to Joshua, the son of Nun, when Moses laid his hand upon him, so that the nations which persecuted him came to a complete end before him; and the spirit that uttered psalms by the mouth of the persecuted David, by which he used to sing psalms and soothe Saul his persecutor from the evil spirit; and the spirit which clothed Elijah, and through him reproved Jezebel and Ahab his persecutor; and the spirit which spoke in Elisha, and prophesied and made known to the king his persecutor about all that was to happen thereafter; and the spirit which was fervent in the mouth of Micaiah when he reproved Ahab his persecutor saying:—If thou shalt at all return back, the Lord hath not spoken by me; and the spirit which strengthened Jeremiah, so that he stood boldly, and by it reproved Zedekiah; and the spirit that preserved Daniel and his brethren in the land of Babylon; and the spirit that delivered Mordecai and Esther in the place of their captivity." Select Demonstrations demonstration 21 ch.21 p.401

Hilary of Poitiers (355-367/368 A.D.) wrote about "blessed Jacob". On the Trinity book 5 ch.20 p.90-91.

Athanasius of Alexandria (356-360 A.D.) mentions Jacob and Esau. Four Discourses Against the Arians discourse 2 ch.17 p.357

Athanasius of Alexandria (357 A.D.) mentions the "patriarch Jacob". Defense of His Flight ch.18 p.281

Ephraim the Syrian (350-378 A.D.) Nisibine Hymns hymn 18 no.3 p.187

Pacian of Barcelona (342-379/392 A.D.) Abraham, Isaac, Jacob, and all saints live for God. On Baptism ch.6.2 p.93

John Chrysostom (died 407 A.D.) &&&

Rufinus (410 A.D.) freely translated Origen (240 A.D.) "after the knowledge of our mother Rachel, may be found worthy to obtain blessings from our spiritual father Jacob." Commentary on the Song of Songs book 3 ch.13 p.229-230

Augustine of Hippo (388-430 A.D.) &&&

 

Among heretics

Pelagian heretic Theodore of Mopsuestia (392-423/429 A.D.) mentions the blessed Jacob. Commentary on Amos ch.9 p.170

Ebionite Gospel of pseudo-Matthew (600-625 A.D.) ch.13 p.374 mentions Abraham, Isaac, and Jacob.

 

Pat21. Rachel [wife of Jacob]

 

Genesis 29:6,9-31; 30:1-25; 31:4,14,19,32-34; 33:1,2,7; 35:16,19-25; 46:19,22,25; 48:7; Ruth 4:11; Matthew 2:18

1 Samuel 10:2 (Rachel’s sepulchre)

 

From the Council of Nicea I to the Council of Ephesus (325-431 A.D.)

Athanasius of Alexandria (356-360 A.D.) mentions Rachel and Leah. Four Discourses Against the Arians discourse 1 ch.57 p.339

John Chrysostom (died 407 A.D.) "And not only was she herself barren, but also his mother Sarah, who had borne him; not only was his mother barren and his wife, but also his daughter-in-law, the wife of Jacob, Rachel." homily Against Publishing the Errors of Brethren ch.6

Rufinus (410 A.D.) freely translated Origen (240 A.D.) "after the knowledge of our mother Rachel, may be found worthy to obtain blessings from our spiritual father Jacob." Commentary on the Song of Songs book 3 ch.13 p.229-230

 

Pat22. Leah [wife of Jacob]

 

From the Council of Nicea I to the Council of Ephesus (325-431 A.D.)

Athanasius of Alexandria (356-360 A.D.) mentions Rachel and Leah. Four Discourses Against the Arians discourse 1 ch.57 p.339

 

Pat23. Esau

 

Genesis 25:25-34; 26:34; 27:1-42; 28:5-9; 32:3-19; 33:1-16; 35:1,29; 36:1-43; Deuteronomy 2:4-8,12,22,29; Joshua 24:4; 1 Chronicles 1:34-35; Jeremiah 49:8,10; Obadiah 6-21; Malachi 1:2-3; Romans 9:13; Hebrews 11:20; 12:16

 

Vaticanus (B) (325-350 A.D.) contains all of Deuteronomy. It has most of the Old Testament and all of New Testament up to Hebrews 9:15 (325-350 A.D.)

 

From the Council of Nicea I to the Council of Ephesus (325-431 A.D.)

Aphrahat the Syrian (337-345 A.D.) "meditate not before the time what ye shall say, and how ye shall make defence; and I will give you a mouth and wisdom, that your enemies may not be able to overcome you, because it is not ye that speak, but the Holy Spirit of your Father; He shall speak in you. This is the spirit which spoke by the mouth of Jacob to Esau, his persecutor; and the spirit of wisdom which spoke before Pharaoh by the mouth of the persecuted Joseph; and the spirit which spoke by the mouth of Moses in all the prodigies which he did in the land of Egypt, and the spirit of knowledge which was given to Joshua, the son of Nun, when Moses laid his hand upon him, so that the nations which persecuted him came to a complete end before him; and the spirit that uttered psalms by the mouth of the persecuted David, by which he used to sing psalms and soothe Saul his persecutor from the evil spirit; and the spirit which clothed Elijah, and through him reproved Jezebel and Ahab his persecutor; and the spirit which spoke in Elisha, and prophesied and made known to the king his persecutor about all that was to happen thereafter; and the spirit which was fervent in the mouth of Micaiah when he reproved Ahab his persecutor saying:—If thou shalt at all return back, the Lord hath not spoken by me; and the spirit which strengthened Jeremiah, so that he stood boldly, and by it reproved Zedekiah; and the spirit that preserved Daniel and his brethren in the land of Babylon; and the spirit that delivered Mordecai and Esther in the place of their captivity." Select Demonstrations demonstration 21 ch.21 p.401

Athanasius of Alexandria (356-360 A.D.) mentions Jacob and Esau. Four Discourses Against the Arians discourse 2 ch.17 p.357. See also discourse 1 ch.52 p.337.

John Chrysostom (died 407 A.D.) "For the wickedness of Ham’s disposition overcame the laws of nature, and cast him not only out of the nobility which he had in respect of his father, but also out of his free estate. And what of Esau? Was he not son of Isaac, and had he not his father to stand his friend?" Homilies on Matthew Homily 9 p.&&&

 

Pat24. Joseph or his brothers


Genesis 30:24; 37-47

 

From the Council of Nicea I to the Council of Ephesus (325-431 A.D.)

Eusebius’ Ecclesiastical History (323-339/340 A.D.) mentions Joseph in book 1 ch.6 p.90; book 1 ch.7 p.94; book 1 ch.10 p.97

Aphrahat the Syrian (337-344 A.D.) speaks of Joseph and his persecutors (brothers) bowing before him. Select Demonstrations book 21 ch.9 p.395

Aphrahat the Syrian (337-345 A.D.) mentions Jacob, Joseph, Isaac, Rebecca, and Reuben. Select Demonstrations demonstration 7 ch.3 p.377.

Athanasius of Alexandria (356 A.D.) mentions Joseph. Defense before Constantius ch.12 p.242

Ephraim the Syrian (350-378 A.D.) mentions Joseph. Nisibine Hymns hymn 57 no.12 p.210

Syriac Book of Steps (Liber Graduum) (350-400 A.D.) Joseph and his brothers. Memra 9 ch.21 p.102-103

 

Among heretics

Pelagian heretic Theodore of Mopsuestia (392-423/429 A.D.) refers to Joseph in Genesis 37:7,9; 41:17-24. Commentary on Zechariah ch.1 p.327

 

Pat25. Benjamin (patriarch or tribe)

 

Genesis 35:18,24; 42:4,36; 43:14-16,29; 45:12,14,22; 46:19,21; 49:27; Exodus 1:3,36-39; 2:2; 7:60; 10:24; 13:9; 26:31,41; 34:21; Numbers 1:11; Deuteronomy 27:12; 33:12; Joshua 13:11,20-21,28; 21:4,17; Judges 1:21; 5:14; 10:9; 19:14; 20; 21:1-23; 1 Samuel 4:12; 9:1; Esther 2:5; Acts 13:21; Romans 11:1; Philippians 3:5; Revelation 7:8

 

^^^

 

Pat26. Dan (patriarch or tribe)

 

Genesis 30:6; 35:25; 46:23; 49:16-17; Exodus 1:4; 31:6; 35:34; Ezekiel 48:1-2,32

 

^^^

 

Pat27. Ephraim (patriarch or tribe)

 

Genesis 48:20

 

Athanasius of Alexandria (356-360 A.D.) mentions Ephraim. Four Discourses Against the Arians discourse 2 ch.4 p.350

 

Pat28. Judah (patriarch or tribe)

 

Genesis 29:35; Mathew 1:2

 

From the Council of Nicea I to the Council of Ephesus (325-431 A.D.)

Hegemonius of Sirmium (4th century) in discussing prophecies of Christ says, "This, then, is the veil which was placed upon the face of Moses, and this also is his testament; for he says in the law: ‘A prince shall not be wanting from Judah, nor a leader from his thighs, until He come whose he is; and He will be the expectation of the nations: who shall bind His foal unto the vine, and His ass’s colt unto the choice vine; He shall wash His garments in wine, and His clothes in the blood of grapes; His eyes shall be suffused with wine, and His teeth white with milk; ‘and so on." Archelaus Disputation with Manes ch.43 p.219

Athanasius of Alexandria (329 A.D.) "and what is the message he published, but that which he goes on to say to them, ‘Keep thy feasts, O Judah; pay to the Lord thy vows." Easter Letter 329 A.D. ch.8 p.&&&

 

From the Council of Ephesus to the start of Muslim conquests (431-634 A.D.)

The Didascalia (after 431 A.D.) "your God, and circumcise the foreskin of your heart, ye men of Judah"

 

Among heretics

The Ebionite Gospel of pseudo-Matthew (600-625 A.D.) ch.13 p.374 says that Jesus is of the tribe of Judah.

 

Pat29. Levi (patriarch or tribe)

 

Genesis 29:34; Hebrews 7:10

 

Athanasius of Alexandria (356-360 A.D.) mentions Levi. Four Discourses Against the Arians discourse 1 ch.26 p.322

 

Pat30. Manasseh (patriarch or tribe)

 

Genesis 48:20

 

Athanasius of Alexandria (356-360 A.D.) mentions Manasseh. Four Discourses Against the Arians discourse 2 ch.4 p.350

 

Pat31. Naphtali (patriarch or tribe)

 

Genesis 30:8

 

^^^

 

From the Council of Ephesus to the start of Muslim conquests (431-634 A.D.)

The Didascalia (after 431 A.D.) ch.91 "He speaks otherwise of them by Isaiah the prophet: ‘Land of Zebulun, land of Naphtali, the way of the sea, beyond Jordan, Galilee of the nations, a people that sitteth in darkness: ye have seen a great light; and they that sit in darkness and in the shadow of death, light is risen upon them’" [Isa 9.1-2; Mt 4.15-16]

 

Pat32. Zebulun/Zebulon (patriarch, tribe, or land)

 

Genesis 30:20

 

^^^

 

From the Council of Ephesus to the start of Muslim conquests (431-634 A.D.)

The Didascalia (after 431 A.D.) ch.91 "He speaks otherwise of them by Isaiah the prophet: ‘Land of Zebulun, land of Naphtali, the way of the sea, beyond Jordan, Galilee of the nations, a people that sitteth in darkness: ye have seen a great light; and they that sit in darkness and in the shadow of death, light is risen upon them’" [Isa 9.1-2; Mt 4.15-16]

 

Pat33. The patriarchs

 

Romans 9:5

 

From the Council of Nicea I to the Council of Ephesus (325-431 A.D.)

Hegemonius of Sirmium (4th century) "Abraham the patriarch, who, when he entertained the angels hospitably" Archelaus Disputation with Manes ch.3 p.180

Athanasius of Alexandria (357 A.D.) mentions the "patriarch Jacob". Defense of His Flight ch.18 p.281

Athanasius of Alexandria (357 A.D.) mentions the "patriarch Isaac". Defense of His Flight ch.15 p.262. See also the "Blessed patriarchs in Defense of His Flight ch.20 p.262

 

Pat34. The twelve tribes [of Israel]

 

From the Council of Nicea I to the Council of Ephesus (325-431 A.D.)

Athanasius of Alexandria (346-356 A.D.) mentions "the twelve tribes". Defence of the Nicene Definition ch.10 p.156

 

 

Exodus to Solomon Individuals

 

ES1. Moses led the Israelites out of Egypt

 

Exodus 12-14; Hebrews 3:16

 

From the Council of Nicea I to the Council of Ephesus (325-431 A.D.)

Eusebius of Caesarea (323-339/340 A.D.) (partial) God conversed with Moses. Eusebius’ Ecclesiastical History book 1 ch.4.8 p.87

Aphrahat the Syrian (337-345 A.D.) "This is the spirit which spoke by the mouth of Jacob to Esau, his persecutor; and the spirit of wisdom which spoke before Pharaoh by the mouth of the persecuted Joseph; and the spirit which spoke by the mouth of Moses in all the prodigies which he did in the land of Egypt, and the spirit of knowledge which was given to Joshua, the son of Nun, when Moses laid his hand upon him, so that the nations which persecuted him came to a complete end before him;" Select Demonstrations demonstration 21 ch.21 p.401

Hegemonius of Sirmium (4th century) says that Moses led his people "from the midst of the Egyptians". Archelaus Disputation with Manes ch.44 p.220

Athanasius of Alexandria (356-360 A.D.) says that even though Moses led the people from Egypt, he was just a man. Four Discourses Against the Arians discourse 2 ch.17.26 p.362. See also discourse 2 ch.68 p.485

Ephraim the Syrian (350-378 A.D.) (partial) mentions Moses. Nisibine Hymns hymn 57 no.11 p.210

 

From From the Council of Ephesus to the start of Muslim conquests (431-634 A.D.)

Nestorius (451/452 A.D.) (partial) Mention of Moses. The Bazaar of Heracleides book 2 ch.1 (b) p.204

 

Among heretics

Pelagian heretic Theodore of Mopsuestia (392-423/429 A.D.) (implied) Mentions the Israelites, Moses, Pharaoh, and the Exodus. Commentary on Nahum preface p.246

Pelagian heretic Theodore of Mopsuestia (392-423/429 A.D.) (partial) refers to righteous people like Moses and Joshua son of Nun. Commentary on Hosea ch.12 p.92

 

ES2. Miriam [sister of Moses]

 

From the Council of Nicea I to the Council of Ephesus (325-431 A.D.)

John Chrysostom (martyred 407 A.D.) mentions Miriam opposing Moses. vol.9 On the Statues homily 20 ch.10 p.475

 

ES3. Aaron brother of Moses]

 

Exodus 4:14,27,28-30; 5:1,4,20; 6:13,20,23,26-27; 7:1-2,6-10,19-20; 8:5-6,8,12,16-17,25; 9:8,27, etc.

Luke 1:5; Acts 7:40; Hebrews 5:4; 7:11

 

From the Council of Nicea I to the Council of Ephesus (325-431 A.D.)

Athanasius of Alexandria (356-360 A.D.) mentions Aaron. Four Discourses Against the Arians discourse 1 ch.47 p.333

Ephraim the Syrian (350-378 A.D.) Nisibine Hymns hymn 18 no.3 p.187

 

ES4. Pharaoh during the Exodus

 

From the Council of Nicea I to the Council of Ephesus (325-431 A.D.)

Aphrahat the Syrian (337-345 A.D.) "This is the spirit which spoke by the mouth of Jacob to Esau, his persecutor; and the spirit of wisdom which spoke before Pharaoh by the mouth of the persecuted Joseph; and the spirit which spoke by the mouth of Moses in all the prodigies which he did in the land of Egypt, and the spirit of knowledge which was given to Joshua, the son of Nun, when Moses laid his hand upon him," Select Demonstrations demonstration 21 ch.21 p.401

Hegemonius of Sirmium (268-272 A.D.) "There, before the sight of Moses, all the first-born of the Egyptians perished on account of the treachery of Pharaoh;" Archelaus Disputation with Manes ch.44 p.220

Athanasius of Alexandria (356-360 A.D.) mentions Pharaoh who opposed Moses. In Defense of His Flight discourse 10 p.358

John Chrysostom (died 407 A.D.) mention the Pharaoh during the Exodus. Commentary on Acts ch.4 po.27

 

Among heretics

Pelagian heretic Theodore of Mopsuestia (392-423/429 A.D.) Mentions the Israelites, Moses, Pharaoh, and the Exodus. Commentary on Nahum preface p.246

 

ES5. Korah

 

John Chrysostom (died 407 A.D.) mention Korah. Commentary on Acts ch.4 p.27

 

From the Council of Ephesus to the start of Muslim conquests (431-634 A.D.)

The Didascalia (after 431 A.D.) primacy and dare to make a schism, he shall inherit the place of Korah

The Didascalia (after 431 A.D.) of Korah were Levites, and ministered in the tabernacle of witness;

The Didascalia (after 431 A.D.) there rose up two hundred and fifty men, and they (Korah, &c.)

The Didascalia (after 431 A.D.) swallowed up Korah and Dathan and Abiram, and their tents and their

The Didascalia (after 431 A.D.) making schisms. For the adherents of Korah, Dathan and Abiram were

 

ES6. Balaam or his donkey

 

Numbers 22:5-41; 23:1-30; 24:1-25; 31:8,16; Deuteronomy 23:4-5; Joshua 13:22; 24:9; Micah 6:5; 2 Peter 2:15 (partial), Jude 11 (partial), Revelation 2:14 (partial) Balaam’s teaching

 

Vaticanus (B) (325-350 A.D.) contains all of Deuteronomy. It has most of the Old Testament and all of New Testament up to Hebrews 9:15 (325-350 A.D.)

 

From the Council of Nicea I to the Council of Ephesus (325-431 A.D.)

Aphrahat the Syrian (337-345 A.D.) "For the Moabites hired Balaam the son of Beor to curse Israel." Selection Deomonstrations Demonstration 8 p.&&&

Ephraim the Syrian (350-378 A.D.) mentions Balaam. Nisibine Hymns hymn 4 no.9 p.209

Ephraim the Syrian (350-378 A.D.) "2. Because Balaam was foolish, a foolish beast in the ass spoke with him, because he despised God Who spoke with him. Thee too let the pearl reprove in the ass’s stead." The Pearl Hymn 4 p.&&&

John Chrysostom (died 407 A.D.) "For so Balaam was an alien both from faith and from a truly good life;" Homilies on Matthew homily 24.

 

ES7. Joshua conquered Canaan

 

Joshua 1-14; 23-24

 

From the Council of Nicea I to the Council of Ephesus (325-431 A.D.)

Eusebius’ Ecclesiastical History (323-339/340 A.D.) book 1 ch.2.10,12 p.83 (partial) briefly mentions Joshua at Jericho and Joshua encountering the capatin of the Lord’s army.

Athanasius of Alexandria (356 A.D.) mentions Joshua and that zeal for the Lord’s wars did not excuse his theft. To the Bishops of Egypt ch.11 p.228

Ephraim the Syrian (350-378 A.D.) (implied) mentions Joshua entering Canaan. Nisibine Hymns hymn 39 no.9 p.201

 

Among heretics

Pelagian heretic Theodore of Mopsuestia (392-423/429 A.D.) (partial) refers to righteous people like Moses and Joshua son of Nun. Commentary on Hosea ch.12 p.92

 

ES8. Rahab [of Jericho]

 

Joshua 2:1-21; Hebrews 11:31

 

From the Council of Nicea I to the Council of Ephesus (325-431 A.D.)

John Chrysostom (died 407 A.D.) "For he [Matthew] hath made mention of the wife of Uriah, and of Thamar, and of Rahab, and of Ruth, of whom one was of a strange race, another an harlot, another was defiled by her near kinsman, and with him not in the form of marriage, but by a stolen intercourse, when she had put on herself the mask of an harlot; and touching the wife of Uriah no one is ignorant, by reason of the notoriety of the crime." Homilies on Matthew homily 1 ch.13 p.95

 

ES9. Jephthah [the judge]

 

Judges 11:1-12:7; Hebrews 11:32

 

From the Council of Nicea I to the Council of Ephesus (325-431 A.D.)

Athanasius of Alexandria (356 A.D.) mentions Jephthah’s daughter. Of the Synods ch.51 p.477

Ephraim the Syrian (350-378 A.D.) Nisibine Hymns hymn 39 no.15 p.201

 

ES10. Gideon

 

Judges 6-8:35; Hebrews 11:32

 

From the Council of Nicea I to the Council of Ephesus (325-431 A.D.)

Athanasius of Alexandria (356 A.D.) mentions Gideon, Samson, and Samuel. Letter to the Bishops of Egypt ch.21 p.234

Ephraim the Syrian (350-378 A.D.) mentions Gideon. Nisibine Hymns hymn 59 no.19 p.212

Augustine of Hippo (388-430 A.D.) "as they are exemplified in the writings of men who, by reading the Scriptures, have attained to the knowledge of divine and saving truth, and have ministered to the Church. Then he quotes Cyprian of Carthage On Christian Doctrine book 4 ch.21.46 NPNF first series vol.2 p.591

 

ES11. Samson

 

Judges 13:14-16:30; Hebrews 11:32

 

From the Council of Nicea I to the Council of Ephesus (325-431 A.D.)

Athanasius of Alexandria (356 A.D.) mentions Gideon, Samson, and Samuel. Letter to the Bishops of Egypt ch.21 p.234. See also Four Discourses Against the Arians (356-360 A.D.) discourse 2 ch.23 p.360-361

Ephraim the Syrian (350-378 A.D.) mentions Samson. Nisibine Hymns hymn 39 no.12 p.201

John Chrysostom (died 407 A.D.) "To many he assigned names even from their birth, as to Isaac, and Samson, and to those in Isaiah and Hosea" Homilies on John homily 19

 

ES12. Eli [mentor of Samuel]

 

^^^

 

ES13. Samuel

 

1 Samuel 1:20; 2:18-26; 3-4; 7-16, 19, 25:1; 28:3-20; 1 Chronicles 6:28; 9:22; 11:3; 26:28-29; 2 Chronicles 35:18; Psalm 99:6; Jeremiah 15:1; Acts 3:24; 13:20; Hebrews 11:32

 

From the Council of Nicea I to the Council of Ephesus (325-431 A.D.)

Athanasius of Alexandria (356 A.D.) mentions Gideon, Samson, and Samuel. Letter to the Bishops of Egypt ch.21 p.234

Ephraim the Syrian (350-378 A.D.) mentions Samuel. Nisibine Hymns hymn 39 no.10 p.201

 

ES14. Saul [son of Kish]

 

1 Samuel 9:2-27; 10:11-26; 11:4-15; 13-24; 25:44; 26-29, 31:2-12; 2 Samuel 1-9, 12:7; 16:5,8; 19:17,24; 21:1-14; 22:1; 1 Chronicles 5:10; 8:33; 9:39; 10:2-13; 11:2; 12:1-2,19,25,29; 13:3; 15:29; 26:28; Psalm 18:title; 52:title; 54:title; 57:title; 59:title; Isa 10:29

 

From the Council of Nicea I to the Council of Ephesus (325-431 A.D.)

Eusebius of Caesarea (323-339/340 A.D.) mentions King Saul and David. Eusebius’ Ecclesiastical History book 1 ch.6.4 p.90

Aphrahat the Syrian (337-345 A.D.) "and the spirit that uttered psalms by the mouth of the persecuted David, by which he used to sing psalms and soothe Saul his persecutor from the evil spirit;" Select Demonstrations demonstration 21 ch.21 p.401

Athanasius of Alexandria (357 A.D.) mentions Saul. Defense beforeConstantius ch.20 p.246

Ephraim the Syrian (350-378 A.D.) mentions Saul. Nisibine Hymns hymn 55 no.8 p.209

&&&Rufinus (374-406 A.D.) freely translating Origen (c.225-253/254 A.D.) "Saul; and in the third book, Micaiah the prophet says, "I saw the Lord of Israel" de Principiis book 3 ch.&&&

 

ES15. David

 

2 Samuel 7

 

From the Council of Nicea I to the Council of Ephesus (325-431 A.D.)

Eusebius of Caesarea (323-339/340 A.D.) mentions King Saul and David. Eusebius’ Ecclesiastical History book 1 ch.6.4 p.90

Aphrahat the Syrian (337-345 A.D.) "and the spirit that uttered psalms by the mouth of the persecuted David, by which he used to sing psalms and soothe Saul his persecutor from the evil spirit;" Select Demonstrations demonstration 21 ch.21 p.401

Hegemonius of Sirmium (4th century) mentions David, but does say he was godly or a king. Archelaus Disputation with Manes ch.34 p.207

Hegemonius of Sirmium (4th century) (partial) says that David saved sheep from the lion and the bear. Archelaus Disputation with Manes ch.25 p.198

Athanasius of Alexandria (328-373 A.D.) discusses what David wrote in Psalm 50:3 (LXX); 54:7; 76:11. In Defence of His Flight ch.20 p.262

Gregory Nazianzen (330-391) mentions David, Solomon the wisest of all men, and Paul in his Second Theological Oration ch.21 p.296

Syriac Book of Steps (Liber Graduum) (350-400 A.D.) Mention of David and Solomon Memra 9 ch.7 p.94

 

ES16. [King] Saul persecuted David

 

From the Council of Nicea I to the Council of Ephesus (325-431 A.D.)

&&&Athanasius of Alexandria (implied)

Aphrahat the Syrian (337-345 A.D.) "and the spirit that uttered psalms by the mouth of the persecuted David, by which he used to sing psalms and soothe Saul his persecutor from the evil spirit;" Select Demonstrations demonstration 21 ch.21 p.401

John Chrysostom (-407 A.D.) mentions that David did not slay Saul when he was running from him. Commentary on Matthew homily 62 ch.5 p.385

 

ES17. Nathan [the prophet, not the son of David]

 

From the Council of Nicea I to the Council of Ephesus (325-431 A.D.)

Athanasius of Alexandria (356-360 A.D.) mentions Nathan the prophet. Four Discourses Against the Arians discourse 2 ch.3 p.350

 

ES18. Uriah [the Hittite]

 

From the Council of Nicea I to the Council of Ephesus (325-431 A.D.)

John Chrysostom (died 407 A.D.) "For he [Matthew] hath made mention of the wife of Uriah, and of Thamar, and of Rahab, and of Ruth, of whom one was of a strange race, another an harlot, another was defiled by her near kinsman, and with him not in the form of marriage, but by a stolen intercourse, when she had put on herself the mask of an harlot; and touching the wife of Uriah no one is ignorant, by reason of the notoriety of the crime." Homilies on Matthew homily 1 ch.13 p.95

 

ES19. Tamar / Thamar

 

From the Council of Nicea I to the Council of Ephesus (325-431 A.D.)

Hegemonius of Sirmium (4th century) "such as Judah certainly had, for after he had condemned Thamar,"

 

ES20. King Solomon

 

1 Kings 3

Matthew 6:29 (Solomon in his spendor)

 

Codex Bobiensis (Latin k) Mt 1:1-15-15:36; Mark, Luke, John (4/5th century) Matthew 6:29

Curetonian Old Syriac (Syr C) Matthew 1:1-8:22; 10:32-23:25; Mark 16:17-20; Luke 2:48-3:!6; 7:33-15:21; 17:24-24:44; John 1:1-42; 3:6-7:37; 14:10-29) Matthew 6:29

 

From the Council of Nicea I to the Council of Ephesus (325-431 A.D.)

Eusebius’ Ecclesiastical History (323-339/340 A.D.) book 1 ch.2 p.84 says that wisdom was revaled most clearly through Solomon

Aphrahat (337-345 A.D.) &&& Select Demonstrations ch.&&&

Athanasius of Alexandria (335 A.D.) refers to Ecclesiastes as by the "wise Solomon" Easter Letter 1 ch.1 p.506

Ephraim the Syrian (350-378 A.D.) (partial) says that Solomon was degraded by women. Nisibine Hymns hymn 57 no.20 p.211

Cyril of Jerusalem (c.349-386 A.D.) &&&

Ambrose of Milan (370-390 A.D.) &&&

Gregory Nazianzen (330-391) mentions David, Solomon the wisest of all men, and Paul in his Second Theological Oration ch.21 p.296

Syriac Book of Steps (Liber Graduum) (350-400 A.D.) (partial) Mention of David and Solomon Memra 9 ch.7 p.94

John Chrysostom (died 407 A.D.) &&&

Jerome (373-420 A.D.) &&&

 

ES21. Hannah, mother of Samuel

 

^^^

 

ES22. Jesse [father of David]

 

From the Council of Nicea I to the Council of Ephesus (325-431 A.D.)

Athanasius of Alexandria (326-372/373 A.D.) mentions Jesse. On the Opinion of Dionysius ch.7 p.178

 

 

DIVIDED KINGDOM ON OT Individuals

 

DK1. Jeroboam

 

From the Council of Nicea I to the Council of Ephesus (325-431 A.D.)

Athanasius of Alexandria (357 A.D.) mentions Jeroboam. Defense before Constantius ch.28 p.349

 

DK2. Ahab

 

1 Kings 16-22; 2 Kings 3:1,5’; 2 Chronicles 18,21,22; Jeremiah 29:21-22; Micah 6:16

 

From the Council of Nicea I to the Council of Ephesus (325-431 A.D.)

Athanasius of Alexandria (&&&) mentions Jezebel, Doeg, Nabath, and Ahab. Address to Constantius ch.20 p.246

 

DK3. Elijah was a godly prophet

 

1 Kings 18-20; Luke 9:33

 

From the Council of Nicea I to the Council of Ephesus (325-431 A.D.)

Aphrahat the Syrian (337-345 A.D.) "and the spirit which clothed Elijah, and through him reproved Jezebel and Ahab his persecutor; and the spirit which spoke in Elisha, and prophesied and made known to the king his persecutor about all that was to happen thereafter;" Select Demonstrations demonstration 21 ch.21 p.401

Athanasius of Alexandria (329 A.D.) mentions "the great and holy Elijah" Easter Letter 1 ch.6 p.508

Athanasius of Alexandria (328-373 A.D.) discusses Elijah and the more than 400 prophets of Baal. In Defence of His Flight (357 A.D.) ch.20 p.262. See also Four Discourses Against the Arians (356-360 A.D.) discourse 3 ch.28.47 p.419 and History of the Arians ch.47 p.287

Optatus of Milevus (364-375 A.D.) (implied) &&&

Ephraim the Syrian (350-378 A.D.) mentions Elijah and Elisha. Nisibine Hymns hymn 19 no.8 p.189

Gregory of Nazianzen (330-391 A.D.) discussed how Elias [Elijah] the prophet performed his miracles. Oration on Pentecost ch.4 p.380

Syriac Book of Steps (Liber Graduum) (350-400 A.D.) Elijah Memra 9 ch.9 p.95

Epiphanius of Salamis (360-403 A.D.) says that even though Elijah, John the Apostle, or the later saint Thecla were godly, they were not to be worshipped. (Panarion 3.2:5, as quoted [in part] in Examination of the Council of Trent III, p.468, and [in part] by the Tübingen theologians in Augsburg and Constantinople, p.140)

Augustine of Hippo (380-430 A.D.) (implied) mentions Moses and Elias [Elijah] on the mount with Jesus [at the Transfiguration]. He also says that Elijah never died but was translated. On the Gospel of John Tractate 124 ch.21.5 vol.7 p.450.

 

Among heretics

Ebionite Gospel of pseudo-Matthew (600-625 A.D.) ch.7 p.371 mentions the prophet Elijah.

 

DK4. Hezekiah [godly king]

 

Isaiah 38:5-39:7

 

From the Council of Nicea I to the Council of Ephesus (325-431 A.D.)

Cyril of Jerusalem (349-386 A.D.) mentioned that the sun ran backward in Hezekiah’s time, and the sun was eclipsed for Christ. (First Catechetical Lecture 2 Nicene & Post-Nicene Fathers p.12)

John Chrysostom (died 407 A.D.) "Therefore it was, that Joshua, the son of Nave, said, ‘Let the sun stand still in Gibeon, and the moon over against the valley of Ajalon.’ And again the prophet Isaiah made the sun to retrace his steps, under the reign of Hezekiah; and Moses gave orders to the air, and the sea, the earth, and the rocks. Elisha changed the nature of the waters; the Three Children triumphed over the fire." Homilies on the Statues homily 10 ch.20 p.&&&

 

DK5. Elisha

 

1 Kings 19:17,19; 2 Kings 2-9; 13:14-21

 

From the Council of Nicea I to the Council of Ephesus (325-431 A.D.)

Aphrahat the Syrian (337-345 A.D.) "and the spirit which clothed Elijah, and through him reproved Jezebel and Ahab his persecutor; and the spirit which spoke in Elisha, and prophesied and made known to the king his persecutor about all that was to happen thereafter;" Select Demonstrations demonstration 21 ch.21 p.401

Athanasius of Alexandria (356-360 A.D.) mentions Elisha and Naaman healed of leprosy. Four Discourses Against the Arians discourse 3 ch.2 p.394-395. See also Four Discourses Against the Arians discourse 3 ch.28.47 p.419 and History of the Arians ch.40 p.284.

Ephraim the Syrian (350-378 A.D.) mentions Elijah and Elisha. Nisibine Hymns hymn 19 no.8 p.189

Syriac Book of Steps (Liber Graduum) (350-400 A.D.) Elisha Memra 9 ch.10 p.96

John Chrysostom (died 407 A.D.) "Therefore it was, that Joshua, the son of Nave, said, ‘Let the sun stand still in Gibeon, and the moon over against the valley of Ajalon.’ And again the prophet Isaiah made the sun to retrace his steps, under the reign of Hezekiah; and Moses gave orders to the air, and the sea, the earth, and the rocks. Elisha changed the nature of the waters; the Three Children triumphed over the fire." Homilies on the Statues homily 10 ch.20 p.&&&

 

DK6. Naaman [the Syrian leper]

 

Athanasius of Alexandria (356-360 A.D.) mentions Elisha and Naaman healed of leprosy. Four Discourses Against the Arians discourse 3 ch.2 p.394-395. See also Four Discourses Against the Arians discourse 3 ch.28.47 p.419 and History of the Arians ch.40 p.284.

 

DK7. Jonah in the fish or warned Ninevites

 

Jonah; Matthew 12:39-41; (partial) Luke 11:29-32

 

From the Council of Nicea I to the Council of Ephesus (325-431 A.D.)

Rufinus (374-406 A.D.) freely translating Origen (225-253/254 A.D.) (partial) discusses Jonah and the tempest at sea. It does not mention the fish though. Homilies on Joshua. homily 23 ch.2 p.196-197

John Chrysostom (before 407 A.D.) (implied) discusses the Ninevites becing warned by one man, but does not say Jonah’s name. None Can Harm Him Who Dot Not Injure Himself ch.14 (NPNF vol.9) p.281.

 

DK8. Sennacherib

 

2 Kings 18:13; 19:9-36; 2 Chronicles 32; Isaiah 36:1; 37:9-37

 

From the Council of Nicea I to the Council of Ephesus (325-431 A.D.)

Athanasius of Alexandria (326-372 A.D.) "Thus (as I said before) Moses is at times a prophet and a psalmist, and the Prophets on occasion both lay down laws (like Wash you, make you clean. Wash clean your heart from wickedness, Jerusalem [Is 1:16; Jer 4:14]), and also record history, as when Daniel relates the story of Susanna [Dan 12] or Isaiah tells us about the Rab-shakeh and Sennacherib [Is 36-37]." Athanasius on Psalms

 

DK9. Josiah [the godly king]

 

From the Council of Nicea I to the Council of Ephesus (325-431 A.D.)

Aphrahat the Syrian (337-345 A.D.) "Josiah cleansed the land of Israel from uncleanness; and Jesus cleansed and caused to pass away uncleanness from all the earth." Select Demonstrations Demonstration 21.17 p.&&&

Ephraim the Syrian (350-378 A.D.) Nisibine Hymns hymn 53 no.17 p.208

 

DK10. Jeconiah/Jechoniah

 

^^^

 

DK11. Nebuchadnezzar [King of Babylon]

 

From the Council of Nicea I to the Council of Ephesus (325-431 A.D.)

Aphrahat the Syrian (337-345 A.D.) "Hananiah also and his brethren were persecuted as Jesus was persecuted. Hananiah and his brethren were persecuted by Nebuchadnezzar;" Select Demonstrations demonstration 21.19 p.&&&

John Chrysostom (died 407 A.D.) "One of their kings was Zedekiah. This Zedekiah took an oath to Nebuchadnezzar, king of the barbarians, that he would remain in alliance with him. Afterwards he revolted, and went over to the king of Egypt, disdaining the obligation of his oath, and suffered the things of which ye shall hear presently. But first, it is necessary to mention the parable of the prophet, in which he enigmatically represented all these matters: "The word of the Lord," saith he, "came to me, saying, Son of man, put forth a riddle, and speak a parable, and say, Thus saith the Lord God: A great eagle, with great wings, and long extended, full of claws." [Ezek 17:2,3]" Homilies on the Statues homily 19 ch.9 p.&&&

 

DK12. Zedekiah

 

From the Council of Nicea I to the Council of Ephesus (325-431 A.D.)

Aphrahat the Syrian (337-345 A.D.) "meditate not before the time what ye shall say, and how ye shall make defence; and I will give you a mouth and wisdom, that your enemies may not be able to overcome you, because it is not ye that speak, but the Holy Spirit of your Father; He shall speak in you. This is the spirit which spoke by the mouth of Jacob to Esau, his persecutor; and the spirit of wisdom which spoke before Pharaoh by the mouth of the persecuted Joseph; and the spirit which spoke by the mouth of Moses in all the prodigies which he did in the land of Egypt, and the spirit of knowledge which was given to Joshua, the son of Nun, when Moses laid his hand upon him, so that the nations which persecuted him came to a complete end before him; and the spirit that uttered psalms by the mouth of the persecuted David, by which he used to sing psalms and soothe Saul his persecutor from the evil spirit; and the spirit which clothed Elijah, and through him reproved Jezebel and Ahab his persecutor; and the spirit which spoke in Elisha, and prophesied and made known to the king his persecutor about all that was to happen thereafter; and the spirit which was fervent in the mouth of Micaiah when he reproved Ahab his persecutor saying:—If thou shalt at all return back, the Lord hath not spoken by me; and the spirit which strengthened Jeremiah, so that he stood boldly, and by it reproved Zedekiah; and the spirit that preserved Daniel and his brethren in the land of Babylon; and the spirit that delivered Mordecai and Esther in the place of their captivity." Select Demonstrations demonstration 21 ch.21 p.401

John Chrysostom (died 407 A.D.) "One of their kings was Zedekiah. This Zedekiah took an oath to Nebuchadnezzar, king of the barbarians, that he would remain in alliance with him. Afterwards he revolted, and went over to the king of Egypt, disdaining the obligation of his oath, and suffered the things of which ye shall hear presently. But first, it is necessary to mention the parable of the prophet, in which he enigmatically represented all these matters: "The word of the Lord," saith he, "came to me, saying, Son of man, put forth a riddle, and speak a parable, and say, Thus saith the Lord God: A great eagle, with great wings, and long extended, full of claws." [Ezek 17:2,3]" Homilies on the Statues homily 19 ch.9 p.&&&

 

DK13. Ezekiel

 

From the Council of Nicea I to the Council of Ephesus (325-431 A.D.)

Athanasius of Alexandria (332 A.D.) specifically mentions Ezekiel and says that God desires repentance and not the death of a sinner. Paschal Letter 4 ch.4 p.514

Epiphanius of Salamis (360-403 A.D.) was crazy over the number 22. He gives the 22 (!) books of the Old Testament in the following order: Pentateuch (5), Joshua, Job, Judges, Ruth, Psalms, Chronicles (2) Kings (4), Proverbs, Ecclesiastes, Canticles [Song of Solomon] Twelve prophets, Isaiah, Jeremiah, Ezekiel, Daniel, Ezra (2), Esther. The Book of Lamentations did not fit his contrived system, so he put Lamentations at the end. These are the 39 books we have today.

 

Photius (9th century) "And, when Origen allegorises that which is said by the prophet Ezekiel concerning the resurrection of the dead, and perverts it to the return of the Israelites from their captivity in Babylon," Bibliotheca vol.6 p.380

 

DK14. Daniel

 

Ezekiel 14:14,20; book of Daniel, Matthew 24:15; Mark 13:14

Ezekiel 28:3 (Daniel, probably not the Ugaritic Danel, who was not particularly wise)

 

From the Council of Nicea I to the Council of Ephesus (325-431 A.D.)

Aphrahat the Syrian (337-345 A.D.) "and the spirit that preserved Daniel and his brethren in the land of Babylon; and the spirit that delivered Mordecai and Esther in the place of their captivity." Select Demonstrations demonstration 21 ch.21 p.401

Athanasius of Alexandria (356-360 A.D.) mentions Daniel. Four Discourses Against the Arians discourse 2 ch.16 p.386

 

DK15. The Three Youths in Daniel

 

Daniel 3:16-18

 

See also, W30: Chirst with the three youths in Daniel.

 

From the Council of Nicea I to the Council of Ephesus (325-431 A.D.)

John Chrysostom (before 407 A.D.) eloquently discusses the three youths his treatise None Can Harm Him Who Dot Not Injure Himself ch.15 (NPNF vol.9) p.281-282.

John Chrysostom (died 407 A.D.) "Therefore it was, that Joshua, the son of Nave, said, ‘Let the sun stand still in Gibeon, and the moon over against the valley of Ajalon.’ And again the prophet Isaiah made the sun to retrace his steps, under the reign of Hezekiah; and Moses gave orders to the air, and the sea, the earth, and the rocks. Elisha changed the nature of the waters; the Three Children triumphed over the fire." Homilies on the Statues homily 10 ch.20 p.&&&

 

DK16. Cyrus [King of Persia]

 

^^^

 

DK17. Darius [King of Persia]

 

From the Council of Nicea I to the Council of Ephesus (325-431 A.D.)

Athanasius of Alexandria (356 A.D.) mentions Darius. On the Councils ch.3 p.452

 

DK18. Artaxerxes [King of Persia]

 

From the Council of Nicea I to the Council of Ephesus (325-431 A.D.)

Rufinus (374-406 A.D.) freely translating Origen (225-253/254 A.D.) "We said, indeed, in the foregoing pages, that certain recollections of good or evil actions were suggested to us either by the act of divine providence or by the opposing powers, as is shown in the book of Esther, when Artaxerxes had not remembered the services of that just man Mordecai, but, when wearied out with his nightly vigils, had it put into his mind by God to require that the annals of his great deeds should be read to him;" de Principiis book 3 ch.2.4 p.332

 

DK19. Ezra the scribe/prophet

 

From the Council of Nicea I to the Council of Ephesus (325-431 A.D.)

Athanasius of Alexandria (357 A.D.) mentions Ezra. Address to Constantine ch.18 p.245

 

DK20. Zerubbabel

 

From the Council of Nicea I to the Council of Ephesus (325-431 A.D.)

Athanasius of Alexandria (357 A.D.) mentions Zorobabel (Zerubabbel). Defense before Constantius ch.11 p.242. See also Four Discourses Against the Arians discourse 2 ch.20 p.359

 

DK21. Joshua the high priest (in Zechariah)

 

From the Council of Nicea I to the Council of Ephesus (325-431 A.D.)

Rufinus (374-406 A.D.) freely translating Origen (225-253/254 A.D.) refers to Zechariah 3:1 as by Zechariah. The devil was accusing Joshua. de Principiis book 3 ch.2 p.329

 

DK22. Antiochus [Epiphanes] of Syria

 

^^^

 

DK23. The prophets are holy

 

^^^

 

 

GOSPEL Individuals

 

Go1. Mary mother of Jesus was blessed

 

Luke 1:48b

 

From the Council of Nicea I to the Council of Ephesus (325-431 A.D.)

Hegemonius of Sirmium (4th century) "For just as all the law and the prophets are summed up in two words, so also all our hope is made to depend on the birth by the blessed Mary. Give me therefore an answer to these several questions which I shall address to you. How shall we get rid of these many words of the apostle, so important and so precise, which are expressed in terms like the following: ‘But when the good pleasure of God was with us, He sent His Son, made of a woman;’ and again, ‘Christ our passover is sacrificed for us;’" Archelaus Disputation with Manes ch.49 p.225-226

Hegemonius of Sirmium (4th century) (partial) "Into him the Spirit was poured; and as that Spirit could not abide upon all men, but only on Him who was born of Mary the mother of God, so that Spirit, the Paraclete, could not come into any other, but could only come upon the apostles and the sainted Paul." Archelaus Disputation with Manes ch.34 p.208

John Chrysostom (died 407 A.D.) (implied) "Now the star from heaven which called the wise men to worship Him, the vast throng pouring everywhere of angels attending the Lord, and hymning His praise, and besides them, many other heralds sprang up on a sudden, and all, as they met declared to one another the glad tidings of this ineffable mystery; the angels to the shepherds; the shepherds to those of the city; Gabriel to Mary and Elisabeth; Anna and Simeon to those who came to the Temple. Nor were men and women only lifted up with pleasure, but the very infant who had not yet come forth to light, I mean the citizen of the wilderness, the namesake of this Evangelist, leaped while yet in his mother’s womb, and all were soaring with hopes for the future." Homilies on John homily 12 p.&&&

 

From the Council of Ephesus to the start of Muslim Conquests (431-634 A.D.)

Council of Ephesus (431 A.D.) &&&

Nestorius (451/452 A.D.) ""

 

Go2. Elizabeth [mother of John the Baptist]

 

Luke 1:5,7,13,24,40-45,57

 

From the Council of Nicea I to the Council of Ephesus (325-431 A.D.)

John Chrysostom (died 407 A.D.) "For neither is this a little matter, to be able to find out the difficulties; there being also this other hard point, how Elizabeth, who was of the Levitical tribe, was kinswoman to Mary." Homilies on Matthew Homily 1 p.&&&

 

Go3. Zechariah, husband of Elizabeth

 

Luke 1:5-25

 

From the Council of Nicea I to the Council of Ephesus (325-431 A.D.)

Life of Antony (probably by Athanasius of Alexandria) (355 A.D.) ch.35 p.205 mentions Zechariah.

Athanasius of Alexandria (356-360 A.D.) mentions Zechariah. Four Discourses Against the Arians discourse 3 ch.14 p.401

 

Among heretics

Mandaeans (>350?) says Zechariah and Elizabeth are the father and mother of John the Baptist. Ginza p.550

 

Go4. John the Baptist lept in Elizabeth’s womb

 

Luke 1:44

 

From the Council of Nicea I to the Council of Ephesus (325-431 A.D.)

John Chrysostom (died 407 A.D.) "Now the star from heaven which called the wise men to worship Him, the vast throng pouring everywhere of angels attending the Lord, and hymning His praise, and besides them, many other heralds sprang up on a sudden, and all, as they met declared to one another the glad tidings of this ineffable mystery; the angels to the shepherds; the shepherds to those of the city; Gabriel to Mary and Elisabeth; Anna and Simeon to those who came to the Temple. Nor were men and women only lifted up with pleasure, but the very infant who had not yet come forth to light, I mean the citizen of the wilderness, the namesake of this Evangelist, leaped while yet in his mother’s womb, and all were soaring with hopes for the future." Homilies on John homily 12 p.&&&

 

Go5. Shepherds at Jesus’ birth

 

Luke 2:8-20

 

From the Council of Nicea I to the Council of Ephesus (325-431 A.D.)

John Chrysostom (died 407 A.D.) "Now the star from heaven which called the wise men to worship Him, the vast throng pouring everywhere of angels attending the Lord, and hymning His praise, and besides them, many other heralds sprang up on a sudden, and all, as they met declared to one another the glad tidings of this ineffable mystery; the angels to the shepherds; the shepherds to those of the city; Gabriel to Mary and Elisabeth; Anna and Simeon to those who came to the Temple. Nor were men and women only lifted up with pleasure, but the very infant who had not yet come forth to light, I mean the citizen of the wilderness, the namesake of this Evangelist, leaped while yet in his mother’s womb, and all were soaring with hopes for the future." Homilies on John homily 12 p.&&&

 

Go6. The Magi / wise men came to Christ

 

Matthew 2:1-12

 

From the Council of Nicea I to the Council of Ephesus (325-431 A.D.)

Eusebius of Caesarea (323-339/340 A.D.) mentions the Magi from the east who came to worship Christ. Eusebius’ Ecclesiastical History book 1 ch.8.1 p.94

Ephraim the Syrian (350-378 A.D.) mentions the Magi at Christ’s birth. Nativity Hymns hymn 3 p.233

Gregory Nazianzen (330-391) says the Magi worshipped Jesus. On the Son - Third Theological Oration ch.19 p.308. See also On Pentecost ch.5 p.381

Gregory Nazianzen (330-391 A.D.) mentions Jesus being from the virgin, the angels glorifying Jesus, and calls Jesus the Lamb and the Shepherd. The star led the Magi to worship and offer gifts. Jesus was baptized, and fasted, and was tempted. Devils were cast out and diseases healed. In Defense of His Flight to Pontus ch.24 p.210

John Chrysostom (died 407 A.D.) "Now the star from heaven which called the wise men to worship Him, the vast throng pouring everywhere of angels attending the Lord, and hymning His praise, and besides them, many other heralds sprang up on a sudden, and all, as they met declared to one another the glad tidings of this ineffable mystery; the angels to the shepherds; the shepherds to those of the city; Gabriel to Mary and Elisabeth; Anna and Simeon to those who came to the Temple. Nor were men and women only lifted up with pleasure, but the very infant who had not yet come forth to light, I mean the citizen of the wilderness, the namesake of this Evangelist, leaped while yet in his mother’s womb, and all were soaring with hopes for the future." Homilies on John homily 12 p.&&&

 

Among heretics

Ebionite Gospel of pseudo-Matthew (600-625 A.D.) ch.16 p.375 says the Magi came after Christ’s birth.

 

Go7. Simeon [at Jesus’ dedication]

 

Luke 2:25-35

 

From the Council of Nicea I to the Council of Ephesus (325-431 A.D.)

Ephraim/Ephrem, Syrian hymn-writer (350-378 A.D.) mentions Simeon who carried Jesus in Hymns on the Nativity Hymn 3 p.234

John Chrysostom (died 407 A.D.) "Now the star from heaven which called the wise men to worship Him, the vast throng pouring everywhere of angels attending the Lord, and hymning His praise, and besides them, many other heralds sprang up on a sudden, and all, as they met declared to one another the glad tidings of this ineffable mystery; the angels to the shepherds; the shepherds to those of the city; Gabriel to Mary and Elisabeth; Anna and Simeon to those who came to the Temple. Nor were men and women only lifted up with pleasure, but the very infant who had not yet come forth to light, I mean the citizen of the wilderness, the namesake of this Evangelist, leaped while yet in his mother’s womb, and all were soaring with hopes for the future." Homilies on John homily 12 p.&&&

 

Among heretics

Protoevangelium of James (partial because in one reading but not in the main one.) 1609 p.&&& "the priests consulted as to whom they should put in his place; and the lot fell upon Simeon.; For it was he who had been warned by the Holy Spirit that he should not see death until he should see the Christ in the flesh."

Ebionite Gospel of pseudo-Matthew (600-625 A.D.) ch.15 p.375 mentions Anna and Symeon adored Christ at Jesus’ dedication.

 

Go8. Anna [at Jesus’ decidation]

 

Luke 2:36-38

 

From the Council of Nicea I to the Council of Ephesus (325-431 A.D.)

Ephraim the Syrian (350-378 A.D.) mentions Anna. Nativity Hymns hymn 4 p.236

John Chrysostom (died 407 A.D.) "Now the star from heaven which called the wise men to worship Him, the vast throng pouring everywhere of angels attending the Lord, and hymning His praise, and besides them, many other heralds sprang up on a sudden, and all, as they met declared to one another the glad tidings of this ineffable mystery; the angels to the shepherds; the shepherds to those of the city; Gabriel to Mary and Elisabeth; Anna and Simeon to those who came to the Temple. Nor were men and women only lifted up with pleasure, but the very infant who had not yet come forth to light, I mean the citizen of the wilderness, the namesake of this Evangelist, leaped while yet in his mother’s womb, and all were soaring with hopes for the future." Homilies on John homily 12 p.&&&

 

Among heretics

Ebionite Gospel of pseudo-Matthew (600-625 A.D.) ch.21-23 p.369-370 mentions Anna at Jesus’ dedication.

Ebionite Gospel of pseudo-Matthew (600-625 A.D.) ch.15 p.375 mentions Anna and Symeon adored Christ at Jesus’ dedication.

 

Go9. Herod’s slaughter in Bethlehem

 

Matthew 2:16

 

Sinaitic Syriac (SyrS) (3rd/4th century) Matthew 1:1-6:10, 7:3-12:4; 12:6-25; 12:29-16:15; 18:11-20:24; 21:20-25:15; 25:17-20,25-26; 25:32-28:7; Mark 1:12-44; 2:21-4:17; 5:1-26; 6:5-16:18; Luke 1:36-5:28; 6:12-24:52; John 1:25-47; 2:16-4:37; 5:6-25; 5:46-18:31; 19:40-end. Matthew 2:16

 

From the Council of Nicea I to the Council of Ephesus (325-431 A.D.)

Eusebius’ Ecclesiastical History (323-339/340 A.D.) book 1 ch.8.1-7 p.94 tells of Herod’s slaughter of the boys under 2 in Bethlehem. See also ibid book 1 ch.8.16 p.95.

Hegemonius of Sirmium (4th century) says that at the time of Jesus Herod killed "every [infant] male among the Jews." Archelaus Disputation with Manes ch.44 p.220

Ephraim the Syrian (350-378 A.D.) (partial) mentions Herod. Nativity Hymns hymn 4 p.237

Gregory of Nazianzen (330-391 A.D.) mentions Herod’s murder after Jesus was born. Oration on Pentecost ch.5 p.381

 

From the Council of Ephesus to the start of Muslim conquests (431-634 A.D.)

Leo I of Rome (422-461 A.D.) (partial) alludes to Herod trying to kill the infant. Sermon 34.2 p.148

 

Go10. John the Baptist

 

Matthew 3:1-15; Mark 1:4-8; 14; Luke 3:1-20; John 1:15,19-35

 

Sinaitic Syriac (SyrS) (3rd/4th century) Matthew 1:1-6:10, 7:3-12:4; 12:6-25; 12:29-16:15; 18:11-20:24; 21:20-25:15; 25:17-20,25-26; 25:32-28:7; Mark 1:12-44; 2:21-4:17; 5:1-26; 6:5-16:18; Luke 1:36-5:28; 6:12-24:52; John 1:25-47; 2:16-4:37; 5:6-25; 5:46-18:31; 19:40-end. Matthew 3:1-12; Luke 3:3-20; John 1:25-34

 

From the Council of Nicea I to the Council of Ephesus (325-431 A.D.)

Hegemonius of Sirmium (4th century) "I repeat, on whom then was it that the Spirit descended like a dove? Who is this that was baptized by John? If He was perfect, if He was the Son,…" Archelaus Disputation with Manes ch.49 p.226

Hegemonius of Sirmium (4th century) (partial, Manes is speaking) "For ‘the law and the prophets were until John;’ but since John the law of truth, the law of the promises, the law of heaven, the new law, is made known to the race of man. And, in sooth, as long as there was no one to exhibit to you this most true knowledge of our Lord Jesus, ye had not sin." Archelaus Disputation with Manes ch.13 p.188

Life of Antony (probably by Athanasius of Alexandria) (355 A.D.) ch.36 p.206 mentions John the Baptist.

Ephraim the Syrian (350-378 A.D.) Nisibine Hymns hymn 59 no.6 p.199

John Chrysostom (before 407 A.D.) mentions approvingly the preaching of John the Baptists and his courage before Herod. Commentary on Philippians homily 5 verse 3 p.205

Orosius/Hosius of Braga (414-418 A.D.) mentions John the Baptist. Defense Against the Pelagians ch.21 (2) p.145-146

Rufinus (374-406 A.D.) freely translatin Origen (225-253/254 A.D.) mentions John the Baptist, Jeremiah as filled with the spirit. Origen’s de Principiis book 3 ch.4.3-5 p.337

 

From From the Council of Ephesus to the start of Muslim conquests (431-634 A.D.)

Nestorius (451/452 A.D.) Jesus accepted the baptism of John the Baptist. The Bazaar of Heracleides book 1 ch.1.71 p.64

 

Among heretics

Mandaeans (>350?) (partial) positively mentions John the Baptist, but they do not say he was a forerunner. They believe Christ of ROme was a false prophet.. Ginza p.550

Pelagian heretic Theodore of Mopsuestia (392-423/429 A.D.) discusses Mal 3:1 and "the coming of the blessed John the Baptist." Commentary on Malachi ch.3 p.415

 

Go11. Andrew the disciple/apostle

 

Matthew 4:18; John 1:40

 

From the Council of Nicea I to the Council of Ephesus (325-431 A.D.)

John Chrysostom (-407 A.D.) mentions Andrew, Simon Peter’s brother in Homilies on John homily 18 ch.3 v.40 p.64

 

Go12. Peter the disciple/apostle

 

Matthew 4:18; 10:2; Mark 3:16; Luke 6:14; Acts 1:13; John 1:42; Matthew 16:13-20; k 8:27-30; Luke 9:18-27; Matthew 17:1-8; Mark 9:2-8; Luke 9:28-36; 2 Peter 1:16-18; Matthew 17:24-27; Matthew 26:31-35; Mark 14:27-31; Luke 22:31-34; John 13:31-38; Matthew 26:69-75; Mark 14:66-72; Luke 22:54-62; John 18:15-27; Acts 10; Acts 11; 15; Acts 12; Ga; 2:11-21; Acts 15

 

(Peter being a disciple before the resurrection is not counted here)

 

Acts 8:14; 10:6-16; 12:13-18; John 21:7-19

 

From the Council of Nicea I to the Council of Ephesus (325-431 A.D.)

Eusebius of Caesarea (323-339/340 A.D.) mentions Cornelius, of Caearea in Palestine, Peter, and later the persecution of Stephen and still later Agabus. Eusebius’ Ecclesiastical History book 2 ch.3.3 p.107

Eusebius of Caesarea (323-339/340 A.D.) talks of Peter in Rome. Eusebius’ Ecclesiastical History book 2 ch.14.4 p.115

Hegemonius of Sirmium (4th century) Peter was blessed by Jesus. Archelaus Disputation with Manes ch.48 p.224

Athanasius of Alexandria (356-360 A.D.) mentions what Peter taught (Acts 2:22). Four Discourses Against the Arians discourse 2 ch.15.12 p.354

Gregory of Nyssa (382-383 A.D.) speaks of St. Peter. Against Eunomius book 6 ch.2 p.183

Epiphanius of Salamis (360-403 A.D.) mentions Peter saying that Jesus was crucified (Acts 2:36) and that Jesus was the uncreated Word. (Panarion 69, as quoted in Concordia Triglotta, p.1125)

John Chrysostom (-407 A.D.) mentions Andrew, Simon Peter’s brother in Homilies on John homily 18 ch.3 v.40 p.64

Rufinus (374-406 A.D.) freely translating Origen (225-253/254 A.D.) believed the church was built on Peter and the gates of Hell would not prevail against him. Origen’s de Principiis 3.2.5 p.333.

Rufinus (410 A.D.) freely translated Origen (240 A.D.) mentions Peter. Commentary on the Song of Songs prologue p.53

Orosius/Hosius of Braga (414-418 A.D.) says that Peter was the rock and foundation of the church. Defense Against the Pelagians ch.23 p.148

 

From the Council of Ephesus to the start of Muslim conquests (431-634 A.D.)

Leo I of Rome (422-461 A.D.) speaks of the blessed apostle Peter in Sermon 25.6 p.136

 

Among heretics

Pelagian heretic Theodore of Mopsuestia (392-423/429 A.D.) (partial) appeal to Peter quoting scripture. Commentary on Zechariah ch.9 p.368

 

Go13. Philip the disciple/apostle

 

Matthew 10:3; Mark 3:18; Luke 6:14; John 1:43-48; 14:8; Acts 1:13

 

From the Council of Nicea I to the Council of Ephesus (325-431 A.D.)

Athanasius of Alexandria (356-360 A.D.) mentions Philip the disciple. Four Discourses Against the Arians discourse 1 ch.11 p.313; ch.34 p.334

 

From the Council of Nicea I to the Council of Ephesus (325-431 A.D.)

 

Among heretics

Pelagian heretic Theodore of Mopsuestia (392-423/429 A.D.) mentions Philip the disciple. Commentary on Zechariah ch.1 p.328-329

 

Go14. Thomas the disciple/apostle

 

Matthew 10:3; Mark 3:18; Luke 6:15; John 11:16; 14:5; 20:24-29; 21:2; Acts 1:13

 

Sinaitic Syriac (SyrS) (3rd/4th century) Matthew 1:1-6:10, 7:3-12:4; 12:6-25; 12:29-16:15; 18:11-20:24; 21:20-25:15; 25:17-20,25-26; 25:32-28:7; Mark 1:12-44; 2:21-4:17; 5:1-26; 6:5-16:18; Luke 1:36-5:28; 6:12-24:52; John 1:25-47; 2:16-4:37; 5:6-25; 5:46-18:31; 19:40-end. Matthew 10:3; Mark 3:18; Luke 6:15; John 11:16; 14:5; 20:24-29

Vaticanus (B) Most of Old Testament all of New Testament up to Hebrews 9:15 (325-350 A.D.) Matthew 10:3; Mark 3:18; Luke 6:15; John 11:16; 14:5; 20:24-29; 21:2; Acts 1:13

 

From the Council of Nicea I to the Council of Ephesus (325-431 A.D.)

Athanasius of Alexandria (356-360 A.D.) "And when Thomas said to Him [Jesus], ‘My Lord and my God,’, He allows his words, or rather accepts him instead of hindering him." Four Discourses Against the Arians discourse 2 ch.16 p.361

Ephraim the Syrian (350-378 A.D.) "The bag of Thomas has slain me, for the secret strength tht dwells in it tortures me" Nisibine Hymns hymn 42 no.2 p.205

Augustine of Hippo (380-430 A.D.) teaches on Thomas seeing Jesus after Jesus’ resurrection and saying to Jesus, "My Lord and My God." On the Gospel of John Tractate 121 ch.20.5 vol.7 p.438.

 

From the Council of Ephesus to the start of Muslim conquests (431-634 A.D.)

Moses of Chorene (474 A.D.) "After the ascension of our Saviour, the Apostle Thomas, one of the twelve, sent one of the seventy-six disciples, Thaddæus, to the city of Edessa to heal Abgar and to preach the Gospel, according to the word of the Lord." History of Armenia p.&&&

Council of Constantinople II (May 553 A.D.) mentions Thomas seeing Jesus after the resurrection and saying to Christ My Lord and My God" The Capitula of the Council ch.12 p.315

Pope Vigilius’ Letter to the Council of Constantinople II p.323 (553 A.D.) mentions Thomas the Apostle.

 

Go15. James son of Zebedee the disciple/apostle

 

Matthew 4:21-22

James the Lord’s brother is a different person. James son of Alphaeus is a different person.

 

From the Council of Nicea I to the Council of Ephesus (325-431 A.D.)

Eusebius of Caesarea (323-339/340 A.D.) mentions James the apostle being killed by Herod. Eusebius’ Ecclesiastical History book 2 ch.9.1 p.110. See also ibid book 2 ch.1.4 p.104.

 

Go16. [Samaritan] Woman at the well

 

John 4

 

From the Council of Nicea I to the Council of Ephesus (325-431 A.D.)

Rufinus (374-406 A.D.) translating Origen (225-253/254 A.D.) "these words to the Samaritan woman, saying to her, who thought, agreeably to the" de Principiis book 1 ch.&&&

John Chrysostom (died 407 A.D.)

 

Go17. Mary Magdalene

 

Matthew 27:56,61; 28:1; Mark 15:40,47; 16:1,9; Luke 8:2; 24:10

 

Sinaitic Syriac (SyrS) (3rd/4th century) Matthew 1:1-6:10, 7:3-12:4; 12:6-25; 12:29-16:15; 18:11-20:24; 21:20-25:15; 25:17-20,25-26; 25:32-28:7; Mark 1:12-44; 2:21-4:17; 5:1-26; 6:5-16:18; Luke 1:36-5:28; 6:12-24:52; John 1:25-47; 2:16-4:37; 5:6-25; 5:46-18:31; 19:40-end. Matthew 27:56,61; 18:1; Mark 15:40,47; 16:1,9; Luke 8:2; 24:10

Vaticanus (B) Most of Old Testament all of New Testament up to Hebrews 9:15 (325-350 A.D.) Matthew 27:56,61; 28:1; Mark 15:40,47; 16:1,9; Luke 8:2; 24:10

Alexandrinus (c.450 A.D.) &&&

 

From the Council of Nicea I to the Council of Ephesus (325-431 A.D.)

Juvencus (329 A.D.) &&&

Eusebius of Caesarea (318-339-340 A.D.) Unclear. &&&

Ephraim the Syrian (350-278 A.D.)

Ambrose of Milan (378-381 A.D.) quotes John 20:17 where Mary Magdalene is mentioned as not to touch Jesus for He has not yet ascended to His Father. On the Christian Faith book 4 ch.2.25 p.265

The Donatist Gaudentius of Brescia (406 A.D.)

John Chrysostom (died -407 A.D.)

Augustine of Hippo (388-430 A.D.) &&&

John Cassian (410-430 A.D.) &&&

 

From From the Council of Ephesus to the start of Muslim conquests (431-634 A.D.)

The Didascalia (after 431 A.D.) &&&

 

Go18. Jesus’ 70/72 disciples

 

Luke 10:1-17

 

From the Council of Nicea I to the Council of Ephesus (325-431 A.D.)

Eusebius of Caesarea (323-339/340 A.D.) discusses the 70 disciples. Eusebius’ Ecclesiastical History book 2 ch.1.4 p.104

John Chrysostom (died 407 A.D.) &&& Homilies on Matthew Homily 38 p.&&&

 

From the Council of Ephesus to the start of Muslim conquests (431-634 A.D.)

Moses of Chorene (474 A.D.) (partial, 76, not 72) "After the ascension of our Saviour, the Apostle Thomas, one of the twelve, sent one of the seventy-six disciples, Thaddæus, to the city of Edessa to heal Abgar and to preach the Gospel, according to the word of the Lord." History of Armenia p.&&&

 

Go19. Martha

 

Luke 10:38-42

 

From the Council of Nicea I to the Council of Ephesus (325-431 A.D.)

Aphrahat (337-345 A.D.) &&&

Athanasius of Alexandria (356-360 A.D.) "For in the same way that John here preaches that incomprehensible union, ‘the mortal being swallowed up of life,’ nay, of Him who is Very Life (as the Lord said to Martha, ‘I am the Life’), so when the blessed Peter says that through Jesus Christ the Word was sent, he implies the divine union also." Four Discourses Against the Arians discourse 4 ch.32 p.446

Ephraim the Syrian (350-378 A.D.) &&&

John Chrysostom (died 407 A.D.) "Now, to convince thee of this by the opposite also; Martha having said nothing of this sort, but on the contrary, "Whatsoever thou wilt ask of God, He will give Thee;" [Jn 11:22] so far from being praised, although an acquaintance, and dear to Him, and one of them that had shown great zeal toward Him, she was rather rebuked and corrected by Him, as not having spoken well; in that He said to her, "Said I not unto thee, that if thou wouldest believe, thou shouldest see the glory of God?" [Jn 11:40] blaming her, as though she did not even yet believe." Homilies on Matthew homily 28 p.28

 

Go20. Zacchaeus

 

Luke 19:1-9

 

From the Council of Nicea I to the Council of Ephesus (325-431 A.D.)

John Chrysostom (died 407 A.D.) "And that thou mayest learn that this is, above all, a house’s adorning, enter into the house of Zacchæus, and learn, when Christ was on the point of entering therein, how Zacchæus adorned it. For he did not run to his neighbors begging curtains, and seats, and chairs made of ivory, neither did he bring forth from his closets Laconian hangings; but he adorned it with an adorning suitable to Christ. What was this? "The half of my goods I will give," he saith, "to the poor; and whomsoever I have robbed, I will restore fourfold." [Lk 19:8]." Homilies on Matthew homily 83 p.50

Asterius of Amasea (c.410 A.D.) "If you have gotten your wealth justly, use it, as did the blessed Job, for needful purposes; if unjustly, restore it to those who have been defrauded of it, as you would a thing captured in war, giving back either just what you took, or that with something added, as did Zacchaeus." Sermon 3 (Against Covetousness)

 

From From the Council of Ephesus to the start of Muslim conquests (431-634 A.D.)

The Didascalia (after 431 A.D.)

 

Go21. Judas betrayed Jesus

 

Matthew 26:47-48; 27:3; Mark 14:43-44; Luke 22:47-48; John 18:2-3; Acts 1:16

 

From the Council of Nicea I to the Council of Ephesus (325-431 A.D.)

Hegemonius of Sirmium (4th century) "…so also did Judas make daily advances in evil, the occasions for that being furnished him like seed by the wicked one. And the first seed of evil in him, indeed, was the lust of money; and its increment was theft, for he purloined the moneys which were deposited in the bag." Then he goes on about Judas. Archelaus Disputation with Manes ch.33 p.207

Hegemonius of Sirmium (4th century) mentions Judas trying to kill Jesus Archelaus Disputation with Manes ch.30 p.203.

Athanasius of Alexandria (335 A.D.) says that those who have been counted worthy of the heavenly calling, when they grow negligent, become defiled and become like Judas. He refers to Hebrews 10:29 and Matthew 22:12. Easter Letter 9 ch.10 p.527

Athanasius of Alexandria (356 A.D.) mentions Judas. Letter to the Bishops of Egypt ch.21 p.234

Ephraim the Syrian (350-378 A.D.) (partial, no mention of betrayal) mentions Iscariot’s bag Nisibine Hymns hymn 35 no.17 p.195 and hymn 42 no.2 p.205. See also Nativity Hymns hymn 3 p.230

Basil of Cappadocia (357-379 A.D.) "…Judas, who, after being so long Christ’s disciple, for a mean gain sold his Master, and got a halter for himself. Learn the, brother, that it is not he who beings well who is perfect. It is he who ends well who is approve din God’s sight." Basil to Julian Letter 41.2 p.144

Genuine Acts of Peter of Alexandria (after 384 A.D.) p.267 "they came to the church of the most blessed mother of God, and Ever-Virgin Mary, which, as we began to say, he had constructed in the western quarter, in a suburb, for a cemetery of the martyrs."

Gregory of Nyssa (c.356-397 A.D.) "Judas was a son of perdition [destruction]" Against Eunomius book 3 ch.6 p.148

John Chrysostom (martyred 407 A.D.) says Judas was seized by Satan and betrayed jesus for thrity pieces of silver. Commentary on Philippians homily 6 p.210-211.

Orosius/Hosius of Braga (414-418 A.D.) mentions "the apostate apostle" according to the footnote "almost certainly meaning Judas." Defense Against the Pelagians ch.16 p.135

Augustine of Hippo (388-430 A.D.) discusses Judas’ iniquitous betrayal. City of God book 1 ch.17 p.12. See also book 17 ch.18 p.356

John Cassian (410-430 A.D.) says that Judas as covetousness and betrayed our Lord. Conference of the Bishop Paphnutius ch.5 p.321

 

From the Council of Ephesus to the start of Muslim conquests (431-634 A.D.)

Cyril of Alexandria (444 A.D.) mentions that Judas betrayed Jesus with a kiss. Lecture 6.20 p.39

Leo I of Rome (422-461 A.D.) says that Judas was criminal and unhappy in Sermon 54.3 p.155

A Poem on the Passion of the Lord (315-350 A.D.) (partial) refers to the virgin birth, Christ’s death on a dreadful cross, pretended kisses of a client/disciple, Pilate p.327

 

Go22. High Priest Caiaphas/Herod tried Jesus

 

Matthew 26:57-67; Acts 4:27

 

From the Council of Nicea I to the Council of Ephesus (325-431 A.D.)

Eusebius’ Ecclesiastical History (323-339/340 A.D.) book 1 ch.10.4 p.97 (implied) Caiaphas was the High Priest when Jesus was tried.

Athanasius of Alexandria (c.371 A.D.) speaks of the trials of Pilate and Caiaphas Personal Letter 61 (To Maximus) ch.1 p.578

Athanasius of Alexandria (356-360 A.D.) (partial) mentions Caiaphas, but does not say whether or not he tried Jesus. Four Discourses Against the Arians discourse 2 ch.18.40 p.369

 

Go23. Herod tried Jesus

 

Matthew 26:57-67; Acts 4:27

 

From the Council of Nicea I to the Council of Ephesus (325-431 A.D.)

Athanasius of Alexandria (356-360 A.D.) (implied) mentions that Jesus did not feel terror before Herod and Pilate. Four Discourses Against the Arians discourse 3 ch.29.54 p.423

Ephraim the Syrian (350-378 A.D.) (implied) Nisibine Hymns hymn 58 no.14 p.211

 

Go24. Pontius Pilate sentenced Jesus

 

Luke 23:4-25; John 18:28-19:26

 

From the Council of Nicea I to the Council of Ephesus (325-431 A.D.)

Eusebius of Caesarea (323-339/340 A.D.) (partial) mentions Pilate. Eusebius’ Ecclesiastical History book 1 ch.9.3 p.96 and book 1 ch.10.1 p.96.

Athanasius of Alexandria (331 A.D.) mentions that Pilate, at Christ’s trial washed his hands. History of the Arians ch.68 p.295

Cyril of Jerusalem (349-386 A.D.) mentions Pontius Pilate at Jesus’ trial. First Catechetical Lecture 5 ch.12 Nicene & Post-Nicene Fathers p.32

Rufinus (374-406 A.D.) freely translating Origen (225-253/254 A.D.) (implied) discusses the role of the scribes and Pilate. de Principiis book 3 ch.2.5 p.332

John Chrysostom (died 407 A.D.) "And where can we see that all these things came true? In Pilate's unlawful court of law. Although they testified to so many things against him, as Matthew said, Jesus made no answer to them. Pilate, the presiding official, said to him: 'Do you hear what witness these men bear against you? And he made no answer but stood there silent. This is what the heaven-inspired prophet meant when he said: 'Like a lamb led to the slaughter or a sheep before the shearer, he was silent.'" Against the Jews book 6 ch.2

 

From the Council of Ephesus to the start of Muslim conquests (431-634 A.D.)

Theodoret of Cyrus (423-458 A.D.) mentions Pontius Pilate in quoting from Irenaeus in Dialogues p.175

Leo I of Rome (422-461 A.D.) mentions that Jesus was sentenced by Pontius Pilate in Sermon 55.6 p.166

 

Go25. Barabbas

 

Mt 27:16-20; Mk 15:7-11

Luke 23:18-19

(partial) Acts 3:14

 

From the Council of Nicea I to the Council of Ephesus (325-431 A.D.)

Athanasius of Alexandria (after 347 A.D.) mentions Barabbas and Festus. Defence Against the Arians part 5 ch.82 p.143

John Chrysostom (died 407 A.D.) "He [Pilate] then was unmanly and weak; but the chief priests wicked and criminal. For since he had found out a device, namely, the law of the feast requiring him to release a condemned person, what do they contrive in opposition to that? ‘They persuaded the multitude,’ it is said, ‘that they should ask Barabbas.’" Homilies on Matthew homily 96 p.23

 

Go26. John the Baptist was beheaded

 

Matthew 14:1-12; Mark 6:14-29; Luke 9:7-9

 

Vaticanus (B) Most of the Old Testament and all of New Testament up to Hebrews 9:15 (325-350 A.D.) Matthew 14:1-12; Mark 6:14-29; Luke 9:7-9

Sinaiticus (340-350 A.D.) Matthew 14:1-12; Mark 6:14-29; Luke 9:7-9

Vercelli (Latin a) (4th century) Mt 1:1-25:1; 25:13-end; Mk 1:1-21;1:35-15:14; Lk 1:1-11:11; 11:27-12:36; 13:1-end Luke 9:7-9

Alexandrinus (c.450 A.D.) All of the Old Testament except Genesis 14:14-17; 15:1-5, 16-19; 16:6-9; 1 Samuel 12:17-14:9; Psalm 19:20-79:11. All of the New Testament except Matthew 1:1-25:6, John 6:50-8:52; Romans 16:24; and 2 Corinthians 4:13-12:6. Mark 6:14-29; Luke 9:7-9

 

From the Council of Nicea I to the Council of Ephesus (325-431 A.D.)

John Chrysostom (died 407 A.D.) "But I have no fear of death, says one, nor of the act of dying, but of a miserable death, of being beheaded. Did John then, I ask, die miserably? for he was beheaded. Or did Stephen die miserably? for he was stoned; and all the martyrs have thus died wretchedly, according to this objection: since some have ended their lives by fire; and others by the sword; and some cast into the ocean; others down a precipice; and others into the jaws of wild beasts, have so come by their death. To die basely, O man, is not to come to one’s end by a violent death, but to die in sin!" On the Statues ch.7 p.&&&

 

From the Council of Ephesus to the start of Muslim conquests (431-634 A.D.)

John of Damascus (706-749 A.D.) "From that time John the Baptist became known to men, and Herod, toparcha of the [124] Trachonitis region beheaded him in the city of Sebaste, on the eighth day of the kalends of June, Flaccus and Ruffinus being consuls. King Herod, Philip’s son, in grief at this event, left Judea. A rich woman, Berenice by name, who was also living at Paneada, sought him out wishing as she had been cured by Jesus, to erect a monument to Him. Not daring to do it without the king’s consent, she presented a petition to King Herod, asking to be allowed to erect a golden monument in that city to our Lord. The petition ran thus:" On the Holy Images ch.212

 

New Testament Individuals

 

N1. Matthias

 

Acts 1:20

(partial) Psalm 109:8

 

Vaticanus (325-350 A.D.) Acts 1:20

Siniaticus (340-350 A.D.) Acts 1:20

Alexandrinus (c.450 A.D.) Acts 1:20

 

From the Council of Nicea I to the Council of Ephesus (325-431 A.D.)

Eusebius of Caesarea (323-339/340 A.D.) mentions Matthias. Eusebius’ Ecclesiastical History book 2 ch.1.1 p.103 and book 1 ch.12.3 p.99.

Eusebius of Caessarea (323-339/340 A.D.) &&&

John Chrysostom (died 407 A.D.) &&&

 

N2. James the Lord’s brother

 

Acts 15:13-18; 1 Corinthians 15:7

 

Note that no mention is made of James never drinking alcohol or having his hair cut from birth except in Eusebius quoting what Hegesippus wrote.

 

Vaticanus (325-350 A.D.) Acts 15:13-18; 1 Corinthians 15:7

Siniaticus (340-350 A.D.) Acts 15:13-18; 1 Corinthians 15:7

Alexandrinus (c.450 A.D.) Acts 15:13-18; 1 Corinthians 15:7

 

From the Council of Nicea I to the Council of Ephesus (325-431 A.D.)

Juvencus (329 A.D.) &&&

Eusebius of Caessarea (323-339/340 A.D.) mentions James, the Savior’s brother. Eusebius’ Ecclesiastical History book 1 ch.12 p.96

Hegemonius of Sirmium (4th century) mentions Paul speaking in his letter to the Corinthians and quotes 1 Corinthians 15:3-9 referring to James. Archelaus Disputation with Manes ch.34 p.208

Athanasius of Alexandria (339 A.D.) calls him "the blessed James" Letter 14 ch.6 p.541

Cyril of Jerusalem (349-386 A.D.) mentions James bishop of the church [and brother of Jesus]. First Catechetical Lecture 4 ch.28 Nicene & Post-Nicene Fathers p.25

Rufinus (374-406 A.D.) translating Origen (225-253/254 A.D.) &&&

Gaudentius of Brescia (after 406 A.D.) &&&

John Chrysostom (died 407 A.D.) &&&

 

From the Council of Ephesus to the start of Muslim conquests (431-634 A.D.)

The Didascalia (after 431 A.D.) &&&

Fulgentius of Ruspe (507-532/533 A.D.) (implied) &&&

Among heretics

Pelagian heretic Theodore of Mopsuestia (392-423/429 A.D.) refers to "the blessed James in the Acts of the Holy Apostles" Commentary on Amos ch.9 p.172

 

N3. The Ethiopian eunuch

 

Acts 8:26-40

 

From the Council of Nicea I to the Council of Ephesus (325-431 A.D.)

Eusebius of Caesarea (323-339/340 A.D.) mentions the Ethipian eunuch. Eusebius’ Ecclesiastical History book 2 ch.1.13 p.105

Athanasius of Alexandria (326-372/373 A.D.) mentions that Ethiopian Eunuch. History of the Arians part 5 ch.38 p.283

 

N4. Stephen the martyr

 

Acts 7:59-60

 

Vaticanus (B) (325-350 A.D.) Most of Old Testament all of New Testament up to Hebrews 9:15 (325-350 A.D.) Acts 7:59-60

 

From the Council of Nicea I to the Council of Ephesus (325-431 A.D.)

Eusebius of Caesarea (323-339/340 A.D.) mentions Cornelius, of Caearea in Palestine, Peter, and later the persecution of Stephen and still later Agabus. Eusebius’ Ecclesiastical History book 2 ch.3.3 p.107

Athanasius of Alexandria (326-372/373 A.D.) mentions that the blessed Stephen saw the Lord standing on [God’s] right hand. Letters of Athanasius of Alexandria Letter 60 ch.5 p.576

Jerome (317-420 A.D.) mentions Stephen the deacon as the first to wear the martyr’s crown. Against Jovinianus book 1 ch.35 p.373

 

N5. Cornelius the centurion

 

Acts 10:24-48

 

From the Council of Nicea I to the Council of Ephesus (325-431 A.D.)

Eusebius of Caesarea (323-339/340 A.D.) mentions Cornelius, of Caearea in Palestine, Peter, and later the persecution of Stephen and still later Agabus. Eusebius’ Ecclesiastical History book 2 ch.3.3 p.107

Athanasius of Alexandria (356-360 A.D.) mentiosn Cornelius the centurion. Four Discourses Against the Arians discourse 4 ch.35 p.446

 

Among heretics

The Ebionite Recognitions of Clement (c.211-250 A.D.) book 10 ch.55 p.&&& mentions Cornelius the Centurion

 

N6. Saul of Tarsus persecuted the church

 

Acts 9:1-3

Paul wrote about this with regret in Galatians 1:13; 1 Corinthians 15:9; Philippians 3:6; and 1 Timothy 1:13.

 

From the Council of Nicea I to the Council of Ephesus (325-431 A.D.)

Eusebius of Caesarea (323-339/340 A.D.) (implied) says that Paul persecuted the church. Eusebius’ Ecclesiastical History book 2 ch.1.9 p.104

Hegemonius of Sirmium (4th century)"For this is he who formerly was a persecutor of the Church of God, but who afterwards appeared openly before all men as a faithful minister of the Paraclete; by whose instrumentality His singular clemency was made known to all men, in such wise that even to us who some time were without hope the largess of His gifts has come. For which of us could have hoped that Paul, the persecutor and enemy of the Church, would prove its defender and guardian?" Archelaus Disputation with Manes ch.34 p.207-208

Rufinus (374-406 A.D.) freely translating Origen (225-253/254 A.D.) "When, therefore, Paul is found to have acted contrary to religion, in having persecuted the Church of God, and Peter to have committed so grave a sin as," de Principiis book 1 ch.8.2 p.&&&

John Chrysostom (-407 A.D.) says that Saul of Tarsus ravished the church. On the Statues homily 5.6 p.373

 

N7. Paul was a godly apostle

 

Acts 15:22; Galatians 1:1; 2 Peter 3:15-16

 

From the Council of Nicea I to the Council of Ephesus (325-431 A.D.)

Eusebius of Caesarea (323-339/340 A.D.) shows that Paul was an apostle of God. Eusebius’ Ecclesiastical History book 2 ch.1.4 p.104

Hegemonius of Sirmium (4th century) "Paul, that greatest teacher in scripture" and then he quotes 1 Corinthians 12:18. Archelaus Disputation with Manes ch.18 p.193

Hegemonius of Sirmium (4th century) mentions Paul speaking in Galatians 1. heart cannot escape His cognizance." Archelaus Disputation with Manes ch.36 p.209-210. See also quotes from Paul himself. Archelaus Disputation with Manes ch.40 p.214

Athanasius of Alexandria (318-373 A.D.) speaks of the "blessed Paul" and quotes Philippians 3:14. Athanasius of Alexandria Against the Heathen ch.5 p.6

Gregory of Nyssa (382-383 A.D.) speaks of "the Apostle Paul". Against Eunomius book 6 ch.2 p.183. See also Against Eunomius book 1 ch.23 p.64.

Pacian of Barcelona (342-379/392 A.D.) Paul was carried up to the third heaven. Letter 2 ch.8.2 p.37

Rufinus (374-406 A.D.) freely translating Origen (c.225-254 A.D.) If we listen to the words of Paul, they are the words of God. Origen’s de Principiis book 4 ch.1.22 p.371

John Chrysostom (before 407 A.D.) says that there was no one like Paul, who was blessed. Commentary on Philippians homily 1 verse 7 p.187

Palladius (c.430 A.D.) mentions Paul the apostle. Four Desert Fathers p.92.

 

From the Council of Ephesus to the start of Muslim conquests (431-634 A.D.)

Leo I of Rome (422-461 A.D.) mentions the apostles Peter and Paul in Sermon 82.4 p.195

 

Among corrupt or spurious works

The spurious Acts of Peter (4th century?) ch.1-3 says that Paul traveled to Spain.

 

Among heretics

Pelagian heretic Theodore of Mopsuestia (392-423/429 A.D.) (implied) alludes to Hebrews 7:11 as by the blessed Paul. Commentary on Hosea ch.24 p.56 and Hebrews 9:13 as by Paul in Commentary on Jonah preface p.187

 

N8. Barnabas, companion of Paul

 

Acts 13:2; 14:1-3; 15:22; Galatians 2:1

 

Vaticanus (B) (325-350 A.D.) Most of Old Testament all of New Testament up to Hebrews 9:15 (325-350 A.D.) Acts 13:2; 14:1-3; 15:22; Galatians 2:1

Alexandrinus (c.450 A.D.) &&&

 

From the Council of Nicea I to the Council of Ephesus (325-431 A.D.)

Eusebius of Caesarea (323-339/340 A.D.) mentions Barnabas with Paul. Eusebius’ Ecclesiastical History book 2 ch.1.4 p.104

Cyril of Jerusalem (c.349-386 A.D.) &&&

John Chrysostom (died 407 A.D.) &&&

Jerome (373-420 A.D.)

 

N9. Silas, companion of Paul

 

Acts 15:22,27-34,40; 16:19,25,29; 17:4,10,14,15; 18:5; 2 Corinthians 1:19; 1 Thessalonians 1:1; 2 Thessalonians 1:1; 1 Peter 5:12

Note Silas is called Silvanus in the KJV outside of Acts

 

From the Council of Nicea I to the Council of Ephesus (325-431 A.D.)

Eusebius of Caesarea (323-339/340 A.D.) "Neither can they [false prophets] boast of Agabus, or Judas, or Silas, or the daughters of Philip, or Ammia in Philadelphia, or Quadratus, or any others not belonging to them." Eusebius’ Ecclesiastical History book 5 ch.17.3 p.234

Athanasius of Alexandria (335-342 A.D.) mentions Silas. On Luke 10:22 (Matthew 11:27) ch.1 p.87

John Chrysostom (died 407 A.D.) mentions Silas. &&&

 

From From the Council of Ephesus to the start of Muslim conquests (431-634 A.D.)

The Didascalia (after 431 A.D.) mentions Silas. &&&

 

N10. Apollos

 

Acts 18:24-28; 19:1; 1 Corinthians 1:12; 3:4-6; 4:6; 16:12; Tt 3:13

 

From the Council of Nicea I to the Council of Ephesus (325-431 A.D.)

Ambrose of Milan (370-39- A.D.) mentions Apollos quoting 1 Corinthians 3:5,6 in On the Christian Faith book 5 ch.8 p.285.

Rufinus (374-406) freely translating Origen (225-253/254 A.D.) "of agriculture what is actually written: "I planted, Apollos watered; but God" de Principiis book 3 ch.&&&

 

N11. Paul was in prison/bonds

 

From the Council of Nicea I to the Council of Ephesus (325-431 A.D.)

John Chrysostom (-407 A.D.) write that Paul was in prison. Commentary on Romans The &&& p.336

John Chrysostom (died 407 A.D.) wrote that Paul was in prison. Commentary on Acts ch.36 p.203

John Chrysostom (-407 A.D.) says that Paul was in chains in prison. On the Statues homily 1.30 p.342

 

N12. Paul was persecuted besides prison

 

Acts 13:50; 14:19; 16:22-23; 17:5

 

N13. Timothy the individual (not just the book)

 

Vaticanus (325-350 A.D.) &&&

Sinaiticus (340-350 A.D.) &&&

Alexandrinus (c.450 A.D.) &&&

 

From the Council of Nicea I to the Council of Ephesus (325-431 A.D.)

Athanasius of Alexandria (339 A.D.) mentions Timothy. Easter Letter 11 ch.2 p.533

 

N14. James [the disciple] was beheaded / slain

 

From the Council of Nicea I to the Council of Ephesus (325-431 A.D.)

John Chrysostom (died 407 A.D.) wrote that the apostle James was beheaded. Commentary on Acts ch.26 p.169

 

Experiencing God

 

X1. Our bodies are God’s temple/temples

 

1 Corinthians 6:19 (individual)

(partial) Hebrews 3:6 we are God’s house

 

Vaticanus (B) Most of the Old Testament and all of New Testament up to Hebrews 9:15 (325-350 A.D.) 1 Corinthians 6:19

 

From the Council of Nicea I to the Council of Ephesus (325-431 A.D.)

Hegemonius of Sirmium (4th century) "For, according to right reason, it may be said that the Spirit dwells in a man, and descends upon him, and abides in him; and these, indeed, are things which have happened already in all due competence, and the occurrence of which is always possible still, as even you yourself admit, inasmuch as you did aforetime profess to be the Paraclete of God, you flint, as I may call you, and no man, so often forgetful of the very things which you assert." (Archelaus is speaking) Archelaus Disputation with Manes ch.50 p.227

Ambrose of Milan (370-390 A.D.) quotes 1 Corinthians 3:16 about our bodies being a Temple. Of the Holy Spirit book 3 ch.12.90 p.148

 

X2. God/Christ lives inside of Christians

 

John 14:23; 1 John 4:12,15

Romans 9:10-18 Spirit of Christ lives in us; Christ lives in us.

(implied Holy Spirit dwells in us) 1 Corinthians 6:19

 

(implied, because accept all believers) Romans 8:9-11

Sinaitic Syriac (SyrS) (3rd/4th century) Matthew 1:1-6:10, 7:3-12:4; 12:6-25; 12:29-16:15; 18:11-20:24; 21:20-25:15; 25:17-20,25-26; 25:32-28:7; Mark 1:12-44; 2:21-4:17; 5:1-26; 6:5-16:18; Luke 1:36-5:28; 6:12-24:52; John 1:25-47; 2:16-4:37; 5:6-25; 5:46-18:31; 19:40-end. John 14:23

Vaticanus (B) Most of the Old Testament and all of New Testament up to Hebrews 9:15 (325-350 A.D.) John 14:23

 

From the Council of Nicea I to the Council of Ephesus (325-431 A.D.)

Hegemonius of Sirmium (4th century) Archelaus Disputation with Manes ch.19 p.183 says that our bodies are temples of the Holy Spirit.

Ambrose of Milan (370-390 A.D.) quotes 1 Corinthians 3:16 the Holy Spirit dwelling in us. Of the Holy Spirit book 3 ch.12.90 p.148

 

From From the Council of Ephesus to the start of Muslim conquests (431-634 A.D.)

Nestorius (451/452 A.D.) God dwells in people. The Bazaar of Heracleides book 1 ch.1.59 p.56

 

X3. Christians escape corruption

 

^^^

 

X4. Believers are set free

 

Psalm 118:5; 119:32; 146:7; Luke 4:18; John 8:32,36; Romans 6:18; 8:2; 2 Corinthians 3:17; Galatians 5:1; James 1:25

1 Peter 2:16 (implied)

 

^^^

 

X5. God renews us

 

^^^

 

X6. We are children of light

 

Ephesians 5:8-13; 1 Thessalonians 5:5-7

 

^^^

 

X7. God strengthens us

 

(Not referring to marriage or stre