Pre-Nicene Teaching on Errors – April 2024

ERRORS CHRISTIANS DO NOT BELIEVE TODAY

 

Legend for Cells

er1. Incorrect references to Bible verses

 

W = Wrote explicitly on this teaching

er2. Misquoted or unknown Bible verses

 

I = Implied this is true or opposite is false

er3. Over-allegorical Bible interpretation

 

N = Implied since accepted Nicene Creed

er4. Four elements make up the world

 

M = Mixed: some agree, others would not

er5. Atoms do not really exist

 

P = partial ex: Irenaeus: gnostics wrong to say Savior not killed since impassible

er6. Errors on the hyena, phoenix, or other animals

 

er7. Errors on geography or tribes

 

- = no reference found (so far)

er8. Collective guilt of the Jews

 

X = Disagree

er9. Errors on people

 

blank = not researched yet

er10. Other errors on science

 

Writer totals include W’s & I’s but not P’s

Rows: blue=Bible manuscript, white=Christian writer, khaki=spurious, green=heresy, orange=schism, pink=strange writer, yellow=foreign missions, red=Christians persecuted, brown=Christians persecuting

 

Christian writer, heretic, or Bible manuscript

Pages

Date A.D.

er1

er2

er3

er4

er5

er6

er7

er8

er9

er10

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Nero and Domitian persecute Christians

50 & 95/96

est. 500K Christians. labeled atheists; killed for refusing to worship emperor/idols

 

Clement of Rome (wrote 1 Clement)

16.25

96/98

-

W

-

-

-

W

-

-

-

-

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Estimated 500,000 or 800,000 Christians

by 100 A.D.

per Ante-Nicene Fathers vol.4 p.126 or World Christian Trends AD 30-2200 AD p.18

 

Papias of Hierapolis, disciple of John

2

95-110

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

“Presbyters” (Papias?)

0.5

95-117

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Ignatius disciple of John (shortest version)

13

c.100-117

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Trajan persecutes Christians

107-117

Answered Pliny the Younger’s letter. Christians not hunted, but killed if found.

 

Didache (=Teaching of the Twelve Apostles)

4.75

c.60-120

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Apology of Aristides (Greek version)

4

125or138-161

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Quadratus of Athens fragment (apologist)

.125

126

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Epistle of Barnabas

12.5

c.70-130

W

W

-

-

-

W

-

-

-

-

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

First Christians settle in Moldova from Romania

130

per World Christian Trends AD 30-AD 2200 p.113

 

Hadrian persecutes Christians and Jews

118 & 134

Hadrian loved Greek culture, and he persecuted both Jewish & Christian people.

 

Testaments of the Twelve Patriarchs

29

70-135

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

W

-

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Bar Cochba persecutes Christians

135

Christians persecuted in Israel because they would not join Bar Cochba’s revolt.

 

p52 Jn 18:31-33,37f-38 (5 verses)

-138

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

2 Clement (anonymous writer)

5.75

120-140

-

W

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

p87 Phm 13-15,24-25

100-150

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

p46 Chester Beatty II - 70% Paul, Heb (1,680 verses)

100-150

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Akhmin Apocalypse of Peter (Greek)

2

135,100-150

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

p104 Mt 21:34-37,43-45(?)

150

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

p98 Rev 1:13-2:1 (9 verses)

150?

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

First churches in Morocco, Portugal, and south Germany

c.150

according to World Christian Trends AD 30-AD 2200 p.113

 

Polycarp, disciple of John, to the Philippians

3.5

100-155

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Epistle to Diognetus (=Mathetes to Diognetus)

5.25

c.130-200

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Apostolic fathers totals: all symbols except P

67.7

-155

1

3

0

0

0

2

0

0

0

0

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Epistle to the Apostles. Against Cerinthus, Simon, and Gnostics. Canonical in the Ethiopic Orthodox Tawahedo Church

9.8

2nd century

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Leucius Charinus Acts of John

24.7

2nd century

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Gospel of Mary (ms. p463 is 200-250 A.D.)

1

2nd century

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Shepherd of Hermas

46.5

c.115-155

-

-

W

W

-

-

-

-

 

-

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Justin Martyr, philosopher. Against gnosticism

137

c.138-165

W

W

W

P

W

-

W

-

-

-

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Evarestus’ Martyrdom of Polycarp

5

c.169

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Marcion of Pontus, pupil of Cerdo/Cerdon. Apelles & Prepon from Marcion.

before 170-

Gnostics believed Creator was evil/foolish, rejected O.T., mixed in paganism.

 

Menander then Satorninos/Saturnilus (ascetic gnostics)

c.150-4th cen.

Cerdo & Menander from Simon in Acts. Encratite gnostics came from Saturnilus.

 

Dionysius of Corinth (wrote against Marcion)

0.333

170

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Tatian's Diatessaron

86

c.172

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Tatian. Encratite Gnostic later

18

c.172

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

 

-

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

First Christians in Austria

174

according to World Christian Trends AD 30-AD 2200 p.113

 

Basilides & his pupil Isidorus, changed from Menander 's teaching

2.5

132-135-4th

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

 

-

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Sethians/Borborites (libertine gnostics)

20

?-4th century

-

-

-

P

-

-

-

-

-

-

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Hermetic Gnostics (no mention of Christ)

6

?-4th century

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

 

-

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Valentinians including Heracleon, Colorbasus, Marcus, & Ptolemy

23+12

c.150-4th cen.

-

W

W

W

-

-

-

-

 

-

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Other gnostics: Cainites, Carpocrates, Docetics, Peretae, Cerinthus, Dositheus, Monoimus, Hermogenes, Marcillinians, Melchisedecians, Nicolaus, Ophites, Secundus/Epiphanes

37

c.150-4th century

-

-

W

-

-

W

-

-

 

-

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

p66 Bodmer II Papyri - 92% of John (817 verses)

c.125-175

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

p4, p64, p67 Lk 1:58-59,etc. Mt 26:7-8,etc. (95 verses)

c.150-175

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

p90 Jn 18:36-19:7 (11 verses)

c.175

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Christians of Vienna and Lugdunum (Lyons)

6.5

177

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Athenagoras (apologist)

33.5

177

-

W

-

-

-

W

-

-

 

-

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Persecution of Marcus Aurelius

162/166-180

Aurelius was a Stoic philosopher. Persecution mainly in Gaul ended at his death

 

Melito/Meleto of Sardis (Quartodecimian)

11

170-177

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

W

-

-

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Claudius Apollinaris of Hierapolis

0.5

177, 160-180

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Hegesippus (chronicler, against gnostics)

2.5

170-180

-

W

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Rhodon (against Marcion & other gnostics)

0.5

180

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Theophilus of Caesarea

.125

180

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Gnostic Gospel of Judas

3.7

180-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Theophilus of Antioch (to Autolycus)

32

168-181/188

-

-

W

-

W

-

-

-

 

-

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Ebionite Clementine Homilies (Law, Father, Son)

123.5

-188-

-

-

-

W

-

W

-

-

-

-

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Ebionite Letter of Peter to James

2

-188-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Ebionite Letter of Clement to James

4.5

-188-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Early Christians warning about Ebionites

1

182-325

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Irenaeus Proof of Apostolic Preaching

22.75

c.160-202

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Irenaeus of Lyons, disciple of Polycarp

262

182-188

W

W

-

W

-

P

-

W

-

-

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Pantaenus of Alexandria visited India

189

Visited the Malankara church in India. They used the Gospel of Mt. in Hebrew.

 

Gospel of Peter (Serapion finally against it)

2

180-190

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Maximus of Jerusalem -wrote on origin of evil

5

185-196

-

-

-

P

-

W

-

-

-

-

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Polycrates of Ephesus (Quartodecimian)

0.5

196

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Christians in Bactria, Hindu Kush, and Kurdistan

196

according to World Christian Trends AD 30-AD 2200 p.113

 

p32 (=P. Rylands 5) Titus 1:1-15; 2:3-8 (21 verses)

150-200

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

p103/p77 Mt 13:55-57; 14:3-5; 23:30-39 (10 verses)

200

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Gaius of Rome started the Alogi heresy

0

c.200

Claimed the Gospel of John and Revelation were by Cerinthus, not John

 

p23 James 1:10-12, 15-18 (7 verses)

c.200

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

An estimated 2 million Christians

by 200 A.D.

According to the Ante-Nicene Fathers vol.4 p.126

 

Passion of the Scillitan Martyrs -died 180 A.D.

0.75

180-202

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Caius & the Muratorian Canon. against gnostics

3

190-217

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Sabellian heresy (Praxeas, Noetus)

c.200-257-

Patripassians believed Father, Son, & Spirit were one person.

 

Zephyrinus & Callistus of Rome

199-c.223

God came upon the human man Jesus. Callistus excommunicated Sabellius.

 

Persecution of Septimus Severus

202

est. 2M Christians. A Christian helped him when ill, but didn’t repeal existing laws

 

Passion of Perpetua and Felicitas

7

c.201/205

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Acts of Paul and Thecla (Tertullian said faked by a presbyter)

6

before 207

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Romans kill first known martyrs in Britain

209

Alban, Julius, and Aaron were formerly thought killed in 304/5 A.D.

 

Epitaph of Abercius of Hieropolis in Phrygia Salutaris

0.125

190-210

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Serapion of Antioch (against Marcion)

0.333

191/200-210

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Minucius Felix (The Octavius)

25

210

-

-

-

-

P

-

-

-

 

-

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Apollonius of Ephesus (against Montanists)

1

c.210

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

 

-

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Judah the Prince compiles the Jewish Mishnah

189-217

Oral traditions of the Pharisees were written down & became part of the Talmud

 

Clement of Alexandria Stromata

245.75

193-202

-

W

W

W

W

W

W

-

W

-

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Clement of Alexandria Exhort. to the Heathen

34.75

c.195

W

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Clement of Alexandria (remainder)

109

193-217/220

W

W

W

-

-

W

-

-

W

-

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Tertullian (joined the Montanist Church)

734

198-220

-

-

-

-

W

W

W

W

 

-

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Tertullian’s 5 Books Against Marcion

194

207/8

-

W

-

-

-

-

W

W

 

-

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Tertullian: On Monogamy, On Modesty

41.25

208-220

W

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

p75 Lk 3:18-22; etc. Jn 1:1-11:45,etc. (1,166 verses)

175-225

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

0189 Acts 5:3-21 (earliest N.T. parchment) (19 verses)

175-225

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

p45 Chester Beatty I, Four gospels + Acts (833 verses)

200-225

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Green Collection #425 Rom 9:18-21 some Rom 10

early 3rd

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

p29 Acts 26:7-8,20 (3 verses)

200-225

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

p30 1 Th 4:12-13,16-17, 5:3,8-10,12-18,25-28; 2 Th 1:1-2; 2:1,9-11 (25 verses)

early 3rd cent.

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Ebionite Recognitions of Clement (=Sinai Epitome)

134

211-231

-

-

-

P

W

W

W

-

-

-

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Bardaisan/Bardesan of Syria (heretical). Against Marcion & Valentinus.

11.5

154-224/232

-

-

-

-

-

-

W

-

 

-

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Asterius Urbanus (against Montanists)

2.75

c.232

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Elchasaite Ebionites (said Jesus God’s Son)

2.25

before 235

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

 

 

-

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Theodotus of Byzantium (Jesus born only a man)

0.5

before 235

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Justin's Book of Baruch -Moses,Heracles,Christ

2.5

188-235

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

 

-

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Naaseni Gnostics & their Gospel of Thomas

3+6

188-235

-

-

2W

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Hippolytus, pupil of Irenaeus (against gnostics)

218

222-235/6

-

-

W

P

W

W

P

W

 

-

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Maximim persecutes Christians

235-238

First empire-wide persecution, but only of clergy. It stopped when he was killed.

 

Narrative of Zosimus

4.5

before 240

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Theodotus the probable Montanist

7.75

ca.240

W

W

-

-

-

-

-

-

 

-

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Instructions of Commodianus

16

c.240

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

 

-

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Julius Africanus (undisputed writings)

9

232-245

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

pseudo-Clement Two Epistles on Virginity

5.75 + 5

before 246

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Ebionite Protoevangelium of James

6

145-248

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Heraclas of Alexandria 1st to be called a pope

 

232-249

No Roman bishop called a pope until the Council of Arles I in 314 A.D., Next was 347 A.D.. Siricius c.384-399 was the first Roman bishop to call himself a pope.

 

p137 Mk 1:7-9,16-18

150-250

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

"Revised Valentinian" Tripartite Tractate

11

200-250

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

p13 Heb 2:14-5:5;10:8-22;10:29-11:13;etc. (114 verses)

225-250

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

p5 Jn 1:23-31,33-40; 16:14-30;20:11-17,19-20,22-25

early 3rd cent

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Martyrdom of the Holy Martyrs

1.5

before 250

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

p1 Mt 1:1-9,12,14-20 (17 verses)

250

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

p22 Jn 15:25-16:2; 16:21-32 (17 verses)

c.250

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

p91 Acts 2:30-37; 2:$6-47; 3:!-2

250

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

p118 Rom 15:26-27,32-33; 16:1,4-7,11-12

250

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

p119 Jn 1:21-28,33-38,42-44

250

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

p121 Jn 19:17-19,25-26

250

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

p129 1 Cor 7:36-39;8:10;9:3,14-17;9:27-10:6

250

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

p131 Rom 9:18-21; 9:22-10:3

250

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Nag Hamadi Apocalypse of Peter

2.5

3rd century

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Hermias Satire on Greek Philosophers

4.2

3rd century?

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Acts of Xanthippe, Polyxena, and Rebecca

12.5

mid 3rd cent?

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

 

-

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Alexander of Cappadocia (Clem. A’.s pupil)

0.75

233-251

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

 

-

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Bishop Stephen I or Rome Letter to Antioch

 

251

Asked why Novatian did not know there should be only one bishop in Rome

 

Sentences of Sextus (partial)

2

before 253

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Origen (heterodox teacher)

825.15

225-253/254

-

W

W

W

W

W

-

-

W

-

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Origen’s Prayer, Exhortation to Martyrdom

180

233-235

W

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Severe persecution by Decius and Gallus

250-251 - 253

1st Christian schism. Can fallen Christians return, or doomed forever –Novatian

 

First Christian monks and hermits

250-251

Peter the Hermit and others. Antony of Egypt (270-356 A.D.) was a bit later.

 

Novatian (his schism lasted over 200 years)

38.5

250/254-257

-

-

W

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Treatise Against Novatian (anonymous)

6.5

254-256

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Treatise on Rebaptism (anonymous)

11

c.250-258

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Cyprian of Carthage (against Novatian)

250.5 

c.246-258

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Roman church leaders (letters 2,29,30)

1+4.75

250-251

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Lucian et al. (letters 16, 21)